Gooken - ssl-encryption for your connection to the search-engine of Gooken
Gooken - addurl: add an URL of a website, even if it is not referring to our main themes
Gooken- code-integration of input-fields for words and text into your menus and websites
Gooken - download in the size of around some hundred KB only (some thought it were 100)
Gooken - high placement - if you want to place the index for your websites quit on top





Schritt 1 - Multiple Protection - The Basic Security Level, report from, the Meta- and local Internet Search Engine with the online excurs "IT-Security"

starting situation | groundworking theory - the security-functions | The essential idea | ISO-LSB-OpenSource with Changelogs | beautiful KDE (4.4.5, mdv, el6: "The cows are prettier than the girls!") | Hardware: driver, support, hardware-databasis | SSD optimization | seachengine/Gooken | data bases | anonymous proxy | fundamental theory | security concepts | data backup and restore | Ad- resp. Scriptblocker: blocking everything | (no) updates (at last up from year 2020, "UNIX", german: "you? no.": Miro´s suneater has spoken so far, hugh!): "UNIVERSAL-LINUX" on the DAILY UPDATE-PATCH-CHANNEL (el6, el7, rosa2014.1) | Secure and stable "Universal-Linux": updates and actualizations for Enterprise Linux (el) resp. Fedora Project resp. CentOS 6 (el6) and Mandriva | emulation of MS Windows | No Defragmentation essential | News&Links: Security for MS Windows | News&Links: Security for Smartphones | update firefox | msec-security-levels ( no-remote-root-login, no root-login, ... and | msec -MAC Tomoyo-Linux (mdv2010/el6) - Advanced Acess-Control for the process-interaction | Ordinary access control as part of msec | ACL - Advanced Access Control on files and directories for user and groups to prevent brakes for example | /etc/passwd - allen entkommen: no login-shell accessible | Linux-Sandboxes: docker and firejail: to start programs going online | Root-Partition with enough memory free | Root-Partition read-only | New Kernel - Howto install and Howto patch Kernel-Source | full system encryption (FSE) by LUKS | encrypting methods | LAN: connecting Linux- and Windows-hosts, file release | anti-hacker and anti-trojan iptables/Linfw3 | additional filter-concepts | Konqueror: integrated script- and adblocker, importable filter list from our update-side | system integrity check: IDS (intrusion detection systems): incron, iptables by psd (linfw3), aide, ... | installation following rootkit-scan | Session | Anonymized (and encrypted) name resolution without censorship and surveys by DNS-Proxy pdnsd with dnscrypt-proxy and /etc/hosts | Goal or own goal (Tor oder Eigentor)? TOR, the onion-router: Anonymization-Network | Program troubleshooting | Network Troubleshooting | News&Links: network-security | X-Troubleshooting (x11-server) | Printer Troubleshooting (CUPS), Clever and Smart: All for the "little elephant" | News&Links: All (and more) about the computer, repair, network, printer, tips and tricks, more Troubleshooting | single methods and repair | WLAN | CIAO hardware-problems! Just hot and still functioning today: datasheed "certified lifetime-hardware" (energy saving, mouseclick-fast): Operating System: mdv2010.2 updated with CentOS/EPEL (el6, el7) and Rosa on the update-channel, All-in-one-Mainboard (Mini-ITX-220/ASUS-Express 945GC/ICH7 (2009/2010) with classical 1,2GHz-64-bit-Celeron-CPU up to 8 GB DDR-2 and INTEL GMA 950, 82945G/GZ Integrated Graphics Controller, max. 224MB 4800×1200 px, Atheros-Gigbit-Ethernet-LAN-Chip, VIA VT 1705 High Definition Audio-6-Kanal-HD-Azalia-Audio CODEC Soundsystem, 19W, socked and crashfree EZ-Bios AMI, 6×USB 2.0, MS Windows 7- and Linux-tested, 29,95€), 18,5 inch (48 cm) Ultraslim WLED-TFT-Monitor Brilliant Display (18W, 95€), SSD (1W, 128GB, 30&euro,), Steel-Computer-Tower with tower-cooler and front-LEDs, 4,95€, netadapter SL-A 500 W (19,95euro;), ...| Hardware (quit) for free | Hardware for free | Energy power for free (pyhsical motion incl.) | World culture shame: Defrustration and dereaction for free | Sex for free | money for free, country for free ("A revolution never took place", Niko.L.), system for free (FED, EZB, Draghi & Co.) | Everything for free | Complains and ads for free | mdv2010-final: Printer, Printer-Troubleshooting | MS Windows: Tips and Tricks for more security | More than 1000 Linux-Top-Games (mdv2010 resp. rosa2014): OpenGL, SDL, PyGames and more | mdv-2010-final: Software (65 GB + 50 GB (26 DVD ) | CIAO hardware-problems! mdv-2010-final: powersaving hardware (stable and mouseclick-fast) | News&Links#Computer | Everlasting Browser Konqueror: Download Konqueror-Update ( all rpm-based distributions? )|Computer | Monitor | Printer / Drucker | SSD | Network / Netzwerk | Smartphone | MS Windows Advertisement | spends, thanksgiving and quiz | Society - Computer - The Huge Fun of Sun Eating | Society - Niue-Muenzen - Pay with Mickey Maus! | No Horror in Sodom and Gomorrha: Weak point human ( technical and human failures: weak point human, weak point interest-groups, interest conflicts, EU-lobbyism, weak point western countries, weak point "Germ-any" and other western countries ) - Society Report, Part 1-6 | Society, Part 2 - Crawler´s Century (Book) | Society Part 12 - (Forbes) - She got eyes of the bluest sky - and when there comes the rain ... ( open eye sleeping performances and arts ) - wet, wet, wet! | Beauty on Gooken: 1000× more beautiful than you: Marching to die - Narcissism into death Ads | ... unimprovable? News&Links | BACK

Null Problemo: "If you do not know, how to go on, you have two possibilities: either you explode, or you cry for help. / Wenn man nicht mehr weiter weiß, hat man zwei Möglichkeiten: entweder man explodiert oder schreit nach Hilfe" (Magnum, TV-Serie, Januar 2016).

Gain your trust back, and gain the trust in you back!

Overview - site contents

Uli Herrmann
How long do we have to get supervised by a torture state like rats in a laboratory?
Liegt doch auf der Hand, wer da wieder die Finger im Spiel hat.
Kotzt mich einfach an, was sich "Behörden" da rausnehmen wie selbstverständlich. Haben wir sie jemals dazu legitimiert?
25. Dezember 2014 (18:39)

verdammt gute frage!
was noch viel schlimmer ist: ...


User like rats from labs (laboratories)
,, 17.04.2018
[...] Heikle Fragen zur Verwendung von Nutzerdaten blieben unbeantwortet. Der Datenschutzbeauftragte der EU wirft dem Internetkonzern indes vor, seine User in "Laborratten" zu verwandeln. Die Antwort der europäischen Politik auf den Skandal kommt aber nur langsam ins Rollen.


User like rats from labs
Wie Mark Zuckerberg den US-Kongress in die Irre führte
,, 17.04.2018
Der Facebook-Chef warf bei der Anhörung vorige Woche geschickt Nebelgranaten. Heikle Fragen zur Verwendung von Nutzerdaten blieben unbeantwortet. Der Datenschutzbeauftragte der EU wirft dem Internetkonzern indes vor, seine User in "Laborratten" zu verwandeln. Die Antwort der europäischen Politik auf den Skandal kommt aber nur langsam ins Rollen.

Putin warns against the Deep State Germany in the USA

"They look like friends, but they want to see us dead", FOCUS ONLINE, 28.11.2014
Sultan Erdogan´s hass tirade against the west

Der türkische Präsident Recep Tayyip Erdogan sorgt für den nächsten Eklat. Kurz vor dem Besuch von Papst Franziskus griff er den Westen mit einer Hassrede in Istanbul an. Er spricht darin von "westlichen Medien und Fremden unter uns, die an einem Ego-Komplex leiden". "Jene, die von außen in die islamische Welt kommen, mögen Öl, Gold und Diamanten, sie mögen billige Arbeitskräfte, und sie mögen Zwist und Streit. Sie mögen es, unsere Kinder sterben zu sehen. Sie wollen nicht, dass wir Dinge hinterfragen", fuhr Erdogan fort. "Glaubt mir, sie mögen uns nicht", zitiert ihn die "H&u

BRD-tribunales - Humane alternative for death penalty?,, 13.04.2019
The power of BRD disintegrates daily. If we got the tribunals in the end, what would be the fair punishment for the greatest criminals?

"Last chance to scupper such companies",, 28.04.2018
The german antitrust devision names Facebook´s data collections from third sources abusive, while Google processes against the punishment against abuse of markt power in the height of several millions administered by the EU-comission. Nach Ende der Verfahren, so Knoerig, "kommen wir über die Bundesregierung womöglich zu dem Ergebnis, dass wir Kommissionen bilden, und dann können wir, wenn es denn nötig sein wird, entflechten".
Reinhard Houben (FDP) sprach sich dafür aus, die Verfahren abzuwarten und bezeichnete die Möglichkeit der Zerschlagung als "letzten Schritt". Die digitale Wirtschaft brauche "Freiraum, damit sie sich entfalten kann."

The day Reagan came ( Tovalds too )...
Black monitors, tons of updates (terrabytes), Cyberwar, Suneater, missing driver, driver- and hardware failouts, glibc-patch, openssl-patch, system breakdowns ( a.o. python), defect kernel and glibc, Dirty Cow, Sambacry, Meltdown and Spectre, security access points in browser, hacker, trojans, viruses, unsolved packet-dependencies and so on and on

It must be the kind of (artificial-) bomb in each computer, because in any operating system and a lot of software and updates over updates, but through Gooken´s "Universal Linux" it manges the first time past over 25 years to disarm it.

The whole world gots betrayed and sold!
Tell us, what comes next past all his B-film-minor-roles and all his corrupted computer systems?

"The glassen human became already reality",

Is privacy in this century generally possible?
Der gläserne Mensch. Über totale Transparenz im Zeitalter der NSA-Überwachung
, Prof. Hasan Elahi
Ist eine Privatsphäre im heutigen Zeitalter überhaupt möglich? Der Medienkünstler Prof. Hasan Elahi, erörtert die neue Normalität der Transparenz nach dem 11. September. Er berichtet von seinem Projekt "Tracking Transience", mit dem...

Are we all glassen?
Der Gläserne Mensch
Der gläserne Mensch ist ein oft genannter Begriff im Bereich des Datenschutzes. Sind wir bald alle gläsern?

Von News&Links#Computer

User like rats from labs (laboratories)
,, 17.04.2018
[...] Heikle Fragen zur Verwendung von Nutzerdaten blieben unbeantwortet. Der Datenschutzbeauftragte der EU wirft dem Internetkonzern indes vor, seine User in "Laborratten" zu verwandeln. Die Antwort der europäischen Politik auf den Skandal kommt aber nur langsam ins Rollen.

The internet must go away!
Internet: Brainwashing through algorithms, trolls and tech-companies
Schlecky Silberstein surft in unserer Filterbubble
,, 17.04.2018
Christian Brandes aka Schlecky Silberstein würde gern das Medium abschaffen, das ihn ernährt. In "Das Internet muss weg" beschreibt der Blogger, wie wir von Algorithmen, Trollen und Tech-Firmen gebrainwasht werden. Aber ist er nicht selbst ein Teil davon? Eine Rezension.

"I have never been such belied!"
#34c3: Die Lauschprogramme der Geheimdienste
,, 29.01.2018
"Ich bin noch nie so belogen worden", sagte Hans-Christian Ströbele über seine Arbeit im NSA-BND-Untersuchungsausschuss. In einem Gespräch mit Constanze Kurz resümiert der grüne Politiker die Ergebnisse der parlamentarischen Untersuchung.

Journalist makes Facebook-self-test
I have downloaded my data: What Facebook all knows about me, has shocked me very much
, FOCUS Online, 26.06.2018
Dass Facebook Daten über seine Nutzer speichert, ist bekannt. Doch wie umfangreich die Datensammlung ist, realisiert man erst, wenn man sie sich herunterlädt: Freunde, Orte, Posts - alles wird über Jahre hinweg gesammelt.
Forsetzung Facebook: News&Links#facebook
Aus der Öffentlichkeit entfernt

From our excurs from this website:

Wonderful Unix, wonderful OpenSource ("tick-tick-tick-..."), we are right (addition from 07.09.2013): Tagesschau reports about weak-points in many security software. The industry for software would have been built-in backdoors in their programs. It were possible to get information right before a user encrypts them and to send them over the internet. Super-computer were constructed to crack encrypted codes. NSA-program "Bullrun" belonged to the most kept secrets. The british agency GCHQ were very successfull in cracking code. Such analyses would have belonged to Google, Yahoo, Facebook und Microsoft.

disclaimer 2009/2010: Year of the hardware, year of the software (CentOS el6, Mandriva2010) - ALL talk around the computer got passed! (!!!)
... almost surface-covering and security technically: just completion and updating (see the update-listing from our webside "Universal Linux"! CentOS-updates (el6) are provided in the internet from year 2010 up to year 2020 and (mit el7) longer. Belonging power saving, mouseclick-fast and Linux-compatible lifetime-hardware (*) quit for free is listed in our -> data sheed device by devcie: all-in-one-mainboard, net adapter, all poor radiationed and supersilent, ultraslim-WLED-TFT, SSD, rom-drives (DVD-burner), multifunction-printer (printing- scanning - faxing and copying), mouse/keyboard, computer tower, ...
This all although the computer standed (and stands) for "nothings more "kaputter" (out of order)"... (following the excurs and see News&Links)! Lifetime-hardware (*): We are going to report about errorcs and defects of the mainboard under data sheed in future. There are none up to now.

supportGooken - the at times breaking full, large "china restaurant"... Do you want the everlasting peace with your computer as a system (backported Fedora Core (fc): updates from year 2010-2020 resp. lifetime) with covering software (backported too) on powersaving and cheap lifetime-hardware, providing the incredible high security level? Contribute to Gooken for the manufacturing of the (consistent) IT-security-standard! For correspondent please click here! Contact us: You can buy the complete rights of Gooken (over all websides and products) to become its owner for some septrillions per agreement, more details with "News&Links" from left menu!

From News&Links#MSWindows

Whatever Microsoft Defender
5 tips protecting against virus infections
,, 06.04.2019
Viruses, worms and trojans do still threat the Windows-PC. With these five tricks you can protect against them.

Microsoft Defender for Mac,, 01.04.2019
There will be provided Windows "Defender" for Macs too. The new malware protection on the Mac platform will be called Microsoft Defender Advanced Threat Protection (ATP) instead of Windows Defender ATP. This version is developed for companies.

Windows 10/8.1/7: Creating systemr restoration points,, 18.02.2018
Wer in Windows 10, 8.1 oder 7 einen Systemwiederherstellungspunkt erstellt, kann diesen bei Problemen als Backup einspielen. Hier die Anleitung.

Security for MS Windows: Working like the professionals professional analyze- and malware/error excluding-tools for MS Windows
- FRST.txt log, Farbar Recovery Scan Tool (FRST): documented system description:
- msconfig, ipconfig /aLL und Taskmanager - board instrument and command line tool of MS Windows, in order to see, how many and which programs got started.
- chkdisk, CrystalDiskinfo for the creation of logfiles from hard disks and to extract S.M.A.R.T.-values of them
- Bluescreenview for the documentation of bluescreens and their error messages
- Malwarebytes: free software for internet security and protection ..., Malwarebytes Anti-Rootkit (MBAR),,, Malwarebytes protects against malware, ransomware and more extended online threads, that lead into infected anti virus programs and ...
Malwarebytes - malware scanner - Download - CHIP
Malwarebytes - Malware Scanner german and english edition: The freeware "Malwarebytes Anti-Malware" is a malware-scanner that removes thanks of refined technique
- hwinfo device driver information
- clamav: virus scanner, rkhunter, chkrootkit: rootkit-scanner
- AdwCleaner: The freeTool AdwCleaner promises to remove unwanted adware, junkware, toolbars and hijackers from the PC.
- Revo Uninstaller: deinstallation of software
- TDSS-Killer: finds out malware with Kaspersky TDSS-Killer
- memtest86: memory (RAM) check
- S.M.A.R.T: hard disc check
system-logfiles and error-logs
gparted: partition manager performing checks

Tails (Debian Stretch 9.8) und Subgraph OS
There are some projects, that offer Live-DVD - a guaranteed well-configured system without trojans. As they can not get updated, you should downloand the actual version of ISO-Images.
Quit all Linux-distributions and BSD-derivates offer Live-DVDs, The LiveCD List gives an overview.
TAILS: The Amnesic Incognito Live System is the Live-DVD from The complete data traffic in the internet is sent through Tor.
Subgraph OS: is a very hardened Linux with Grsecurity/PaX kernel patches. All applications are isolated from eachother by a sandbox. The Tor Onion Router is used as an anomyizing service by default. The ISO-Image for Lived-DVD is an alternative for TAILS.

The installation of Tails (special Debian Linux with programs like LibreOffice) is easy:
1. image file
Download the image-iso-file of Tails (size: around 1 GB) for the USB-memory-stick or DVD from Notice, that this are not the same ones.
2.a) DVD
Burn the image-ISO-file onto DVD by using a program for burning DVD.
2.b) USB-memory stick / SSD (solid state disc) / HDD (hard disc) / bootable partition
The device-file is the file for the at least 8 GB sized USB-memory-stick, for example /dev/sdd .
There should not be any partition on the memory-stick, so delete all created ones!
Copy the image-ISO-file onto the USB-memory stick:
dd if=path_to-image--ISO-file/image-iso-tails.img of=device-file bs=16M && sync
3. Restart the system, boot from DVD resp. press the function-key (ASUS mainboard: key F8 or ESC) to boot Tails from USB. For this, the BIOS-Setup has to be set in ASUS: Security onto Full BIOS Access. After the boot of Tails create the persistent memory for example the printer, if you like, by using the belonging utility.
Done. Alternatively you can clone Tails from a started Tails onto any storage media.
4. Install more packages for Tails resp. Debian Stretch from or other sources: activate persistent memory, set the administrator password and use the package manager: synactic, aptitude, apt or command dpkg.
Source:, handbook

Debian turns packet format from DEB to RPM
, PRO-LINUX, 02.04.2019

From News&Links#IdentityTheft

Staffmakers make advertisement
Twittern like a football clubs "Amazon FC"
,, 25.01.2019
In order to improve the image, Amazon acts with unusual PR: Staffmakers link into critical discussions - and praise their employer in highest tones.

From News&Links#Facebook

Influencerin right before law
Advertisement or not?
,, 25.01.2019
Pamela Reif cares for fashion- or fitness-tipps for millions of Instagram followers. Now she got accused of surreptitios advertisement right before law. Frank Bräutigam about an unconventional dialog in the court room.

From News&Links#NSA&Co.

Germany is just an information source for USA, report from Rolf Büllmann, BR-Hörfunkstudio Washington,, 07.07.2014

Wie antisemitisch ist Deutschland?,, 21.12.2017
Nicht nur im Internet verbreiten sich Hetze und Hassbotschaften gegen Juden - das zeigen israelfeindliche Proteste mit brennenden Flaggen oder wüste Beschimpfungen gegen den Gastwirt eines israelischen Lokals in Berlin. Wie antisemitisch ist Deutschland heute?,

Are we all glassy in future?
The glassen human being

"The glassen human being becomes already the fact",

From News&Links#Computer_and_Smartphones

36 millionen Euro: ZITiS builds supercomputer for encryption
,, 16.10.2018
The hacker-authority ZITiS in Germany intends to buid a supercomputer for the deciphering of encrypted um data. This follows the 36 Millionen Euro lasting draft budget of the authority we ar publishing. ZITiS still searches for state-hacker, while actually only half of the places for this work are staffed.
German Federal Ministry of Internal State
State: 17. August 2018

NSA´s MORECOWBELL: Even the most basic internet architecture is compromised,, 24.01.2015
DNS has always been an open book and MORECOWBELL is the program the NSA has developed exclusively to read it. As the leaked slides show, the system allows the agency to monitor the availability of sites and web services, changes in content and a wide array of metadata, that can help it build complete profiles for targeted users. If necessary, it can even be used to find weak points for launching direct attacks. Given the widespread use of DNS in the public internet, the implications of this program are huge, as it affects users on a global level.

OKTransport encryption part 3, HTTPS with TLS 1.3 in practice, 06.11.18 | author / editorial staff: Filipe Pereira Martins und Anna Kobylinska / Peter Schmitz
TLS 1.3 promises more security for encrypted HTTPS-connections. Unfortunately the implementation is full of perfidies and suprises.
However wants to have a secure HTTPS-encryption, does the best to think once again about the TLS-configuration, as good intentions for data protection without modern transport encryption do not make any sense.
As the vulnerabilities for TLS-protocols up to version 1.2 got explored and known well (see the report "TLS 1.3 - much hot air or a big breakthrough?") it seems to be obvious, that snooping (eavesdropping on https-encrypted connections does happen much more often than one likes to accept. TLS 1.3 really helps.
All begins with the problem, that total resignment from TLS 1.2-fallback for clients with missing support for TLS 1.3 is no theme for the next time.
[...] A robust transport encryption has got its own shady sides: malware can get through without noticing.
During the use of TLS up to version 1.2 (especially by RSA-Ciphers) IT-experts are abled to examine malefic payloads of the data transfer right before passing through the company data center. The communication was read out by so-called middleboxes, it got deciphered, analyzed and forwarded. With TLS 1.3 this kind of monitoring belongs to the past, as each connection is build-up is by Diffie-Hellman-keys - no chance for the so called "deep-packet inspection", as the communication can not be deciphered in real-time as before.

Mouseclick-fast: Secure surfing with TLS 3.0
Firefox-ESR >= 52.9 : >= Includes of lib64nss3 (mga7, pclos or nss (fc, ...) and (openssl-1.1.1a, fc27) to /usr/lib64/firefox/ (installation directory)
Tor-Browser (Firefox-ESR >= 52.9: >= Includes of lib64nss3 (mga7, pclos or nss (fc, ...) and nss-3.41.0 (fc30) with to /home/toruser/tor*/Browser*/
Pale Moon >= 27.3.0: >=: Includes of lib64nss3 (mga7, pclos or nss (fc, ...) and (von openssl-1.1.1a, fc27) to /usr/lib64/palemoon/
/usr/lib64/ is linked to /usr/lib64/ and /usr/lib64/ to /usr/lib64/

Virusses, trojans, worms, bots: 40 percent of all computers in Germany are "zombies", FOCUS Online, 03.02.2014
The amount is alarming: 40 Prozent of all PCs in Germany are infected and can be remoted by Cyber-gangster. Once installed, malware opens backdoors for the new one.

All Intel-CPU-generations since Celeron
"We can skim out (eavesdrop) everything",, 04.01.2017
Following a newspaper report the detection of actual lacks in security within plenty of computer chips was also made by researchers from the Technical University Graz in Austria. "We were shocked by ourselves about the functioningt", said Michael Schwarz from the TU Graz to quot;Tagesspiegel".
By this leaks all data could be read out of the computer is getting about. "In principle we can read out everything typed into the computer." Attackers could gain online banking data or stored passwords
"Though for this purpose they have to get logged into or connected with the computer", restricted Mr. Schwarz.

From News&Links#MS-Windows

Windows 10 - Just a data-protection-accidentl
Politics about data catapult Windows 10: Surveillance authorities must act
,, 11.29.2018

From News&Links#Computer_Smartphones

Two cameras, several microphones, a GPS-modulel and oodles private user data: smartphones are the perfect supervisory devices
Security export leaks out: Your smartphone can spy out - although you powered off everytjhing
,, 08.02.2018
Über GPS und Co. können uns Smartphones permanent überwachen. Zum Glück kann man die Funktionen aber abschalten. Ein Forscher erklärt nun, wie man diese Sicherheitsmaßnahmen trotzdem aushebelt - und warum das kaum zu verhindern ist.
Zwei Kameras, mehrere Mikrofone, ein GPS-Modul und Unmengen private Daten der Nutzer: Smartphones sind die perfekten Überwachungsgeräte.

How to make mobile end-devices secure:

From News&Links#Introduction

12.000 Satellites
SpaceX (Elon Musk, "Tesla") started first satellites for Internet overall
,, 23.02.2018

US-military defense budget year 2018: 716 milliards Dollar
Trump signs law
Highest budget for the US-Army
,, 14.08.2018
The US-military defense budgets 716 milliards Dollar. President Trump signed the law of the highest budget of the past - and defends his plans for a space army.

From News&Links#NSA_GHCQ_&_Co.

"I never got belied like this!"
#34c3: The eavesdropping programs of the secret services
,, 01.29.2018
"I never got belied lke this", said Hans-Christian Ströbele about his work in the NSA-BND-investigation committee. In our talk with Constanze Kurz the politican from The Green party sums up the results of the parlametary investigation.

PRISM, "Tempora" und many bugging devices - How NSA spies out friends and enimies and its consequences, Reportagen von 2013 bis dato

NSA & Co. - Disclosures by Edward Snowden, Cyberwar and unlimited spying - the surveillance scandal (reports from 2013 und 2014)
PRISM, "Tempora" und many bugging devices - How NSA spies ot friends and enimies and their consequences for net, mobile systems, telephone, E-mail- and post, Tagesschau-chronique - please click here

"Five Eyes" - USA, Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zeeland
Dossier about the NSA-investigation committee
,, 03.01.2019

1000%Computer without needing any care: (paraonid-) secure and standarded stable computer-system, self-repairing, free from wide restrictions, total free from maintenance, surface covering opensourced software, with emulators and virtual machines of many operating systems, always mouseclick-fast (free from hacker and trojan etc.), most comfortable, endless durable (lifetimed soft- and hardware), power-saving, free from royalities and all in all (quit) for free; presented by Gooken

From News&Links#Children

What experts make themselves great care about: Google has farmed robotter-babies, CHIP, 18.12.2017
It sounds like a screenplay from science-fiction-films. Google builds robotter, that are able to farm smaller scions. These baby-robotter are much more sly, work more effective and can change human life radically.

Amazon gratulates user for their non-existant babies,, 09.21.2017
Numerous Amazon-user receipt messages for their non-existent baby-whish-list.,3448175

Eyewitness right before drugs market store Rossmann MG: "Big cars overrun small children!"
Unknown passanger in the city of MG-Rheydt right before Rossmann, 05.30.2015 13.00 o´ clock, about 35 years old, has seen the unbelievable: "Big cars overrun small children!". They drive in high speed, they want fun and do not care much about the traffic.

New accident statistics
Scaring amount: In NRW each 81 minute a child is met with an accident
, FOCUS Online, 01.20.2017

Unimaginable the imagination of parents about their small children at school burbling already about their attitudes and opinions...

Children-Tracking,, 09.09.2018
The BigBrotherAward 2012 in the category "communication" was given to the Cloud as a trend to deprive user the control about their data. Laudatio from Rena Tangens.
PM: "Satchel": New version presents not a solution, but a problem
The club for data protection and human righs Digitalcourage warns against the new versions of "satchel"-apps. Media told about city Ludwigsburg planning surface covering children-tracking in spite of critics from many sides. Digitalcourage postulates past Wolfsburg for Ludwigsburg to resign from children-tracking in elementary schools.

From News&Links#Alternatives

OK (eventually in future) Net-communiciaiton: Free from eavesdropping with the help by quantum physics?,, 16.12.2018
Whoever communicats in the internet with eachother, he leaves tracks within the internet without fail. Research scientists from Wien invented a new method making communication free from eavesdropping even in larger networks.
In future the quantum cryptography enables a eavesdrop-free communication in the internet. Researchers from Austria have - following their own descriptions - made the important step. It managed them to keep four members of a network communicate free from eavesdropping. Scientists around Rupert Ursin from the Institution for quantum optics and quantum information of the academia of sciences in Austria introduced their research in the british expert report "Nature".


intro Year 2010: All for the computer is done (only updating)!
Becaming already true: Computern without any risks:
Power-saving, mouseclick-fast all-in-one lifetime-hardware (quit)

paranoid security without too many restrictions for the user!

With this system, be welcomed live on the daily update-channel from year 2010 up to year 2020 and longer!

Described "Universal-Linux" also includes emulators for other operating systems (beneath boot manager grub for the multi-boot):

Gooken internet search engine shows you on this website step by step (hook by hook), what has to be done for reaching this total IT-security for the computer!
You can enjoy hardened Linux booting from DVD, alternatively from USB-Stick:
"Tails Linux: The Anti-NSA-PC, 04.23.2014
Can NSA crack everything, even hardest encryption? Only a UNIX/Linux based System can achieve security, means one of the authors below. Edward Snowden knows more about this than other ones. In order to make communication really secure, he decided to install the Linux-Distribution Tails. CHIP shows the Anti-NSA-PC for free [...]. Fast and simple: Tails runs as hardened Debian Linux",
Release anonymizing Linux-Distribution Tails 2.6 with Tor-Browser 6.0.5 from 09.23.2016)

Edward Snowden also recommends a in his eyes secure Linux/UNIX-derivate on News&Links#Computer and News&Links#Alternatives and secure apps. But if the well-known referencial Computer-system resp. "Universal-Linux" we are going to introduce should ever not be such secure as it ought to be, the setting of the ro-option standing for read-only for the root-partition in /etc/fstab resp. /boot/grub/menu.lst (grub1, analogous grub2) past all the installing and updating can create a shoot-steadfast Linux even on harddrives doing its best.

Year 2016: Incredible high rubbish-hills of packages for not actual Linux-distributions are still provided by contributors like and Most distribution versions can not be kept up-to-date, while the update-list from is increasing day by day. Linux, comment from newsgroup alt.linux.suse, year 2003:

"I am so happy, that my linux run stable for the last 12 hours!".


Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.1 receives extended security certifications, Pro-Linux, 14.12.2017
Without modification, Red Hat Enterprise Linux got certified for the "General-Purpose Operating System Protection Profile" (OSPP) 3.9. Now Red Hat Enterprise Linux can be used and applied in security-critical environments.

Date: 30.03.2011, thanks, we got it: [espeak -v en "] Secure, OKmouseclick-fast upon MS Windows 7 and Linux and all belonging Linux-games: (bohemian) 19 W power consumpting computer ASUS (mini) ITX-220 from year 2009/2010 with a socked, crasfree bios, onboard Intel-soundchip, onboard Atheros-LAN-Chip and -ROM and onboard INTEL graphics, AOC WLED-TFT less 18 Watt with more than one million working hours, all for about 200 €. Looking upon technical revisions and software-rpm-packet-changelogs one notices, the world gave its best: 2010 - (quit) everything has been made for computers - magic year of fast, ergonomic, powersaving hardware, year of Mandriva 2010, year of CentOS 6 ( DVD CentOS 6 (actual nth-revision) for 4,95 € or for free out of the internet ) and the for the more than 50.000 next ten years (until year 2020) fixed and patched packet-versions of Fedora Project resp. the in a careful way resulting and ( Fedora Core (fc) - ) backported Enterprise Linux (el) resp. CentOS 6, where its IT-security raised up quit to maxium by concept with methods, configurations and updates we want to present here on this webside, so that computer-technique got solved (after a long, long time ...): error-free (total: since python-stablity-patch from year 2016), free from trojans, hacker, viruses, spyware, adware, everything. Day after day the amount of still missing software declined and you still have to keep the computer up to date sometimes by installing some updates. Up to that year, the paid prices for different Linux distributions can exceed even those of other operating systems. But now you won´t have any difficulties. Text to the illustration from the top, Build your final


consisting of up to 100 DVD a 4,4 GB full of rpm- and deb-packages (Debian) and many Tarballs from anywhere ON THE DAILY UPDATE-PATCH-CHANNEL (fc, el6/sl6) and belonging more Packages from, and All kind of Linux-games run fine too.

Similar to Scientific Linux, "CentOS" stands for "Community Enterprise Operating System". It is based to 100% upon the source code of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The only difference is, that commercial support is missing. Typical CentOS-user are organizations and private people aiming for a stable Enterprise-operating-system without the need of commercial support. The stable versions of CentOS are supported with (RPM-) acutualizations for ten years.

What we are going to describe in the following:

No hacker, no virusses, no trojans, no malware, no ad- and no spyware, no ransomware, no dangerous scripts, rare resp. no left traces in the net, ..., nothing of it, and no kernel up from 2.6.39 (if stable) and not much root owned processes, that can affect the computer system anymore: use
  • command dd for secure working with the partitionwise restores and backups started from an encrypted rescue partition, usb-memory-stick or DVD like Knoppix together with cryptsetup (LUKS) installed,
  • ipables-based firewall linfw3,
  • port scan detection (psad, psd),
  • intrusion detection sysems (IDS)
  • the local dns-cache dnsmasq
  • and adblocker like our listing importing konqueror-adblocker and free useragent-settings and other extensions for your browser together with
  • sandbox firejail (pclos),
  • configure /etc/fstab for the declaration of the partitions and file systems, in our case ext4 and reiserfs under security aspects,
  • configure /etc/passwd for the blocking shells,
  • set owner- and access-rights,
  • ACL (setfacl/getfacl),
  • use MAC (apparmor, tomoyo) and
  • chattr upon UNIX/Linux-filesystems and follow the
  • configurations and methods introduced here on this webside to make security really possible! Profit from
  • end-to-end-encrypting TLS/SSL used by browser like Konqueror, Firefox, Firefox ESR resp. Tor-Browser (Firefox ESR) and
  • pgp/gpg- and TLS-based e-mail-clients like Thunderbird and/or Kmail,
  • all this upon a Luks/dm-crypt and dracut full encrypted computer-system (FSE), going sure also with a read-only set (and by dracut LUKS-encrypted) root-partition.

HOWTO: Either you install the version of an actual (new) Linux-distribution after the expiration of the updates for your installed one, we recommend Debian Linux resp. Ubuntu, SuSE Linux, Fedora, the in a careful way from Fedora resulting and backported CentOS (resp. RedHat), Rosa and Openmandriva, PCWelt: Ubuntu and Mint, or you install the covering and approved (and many, many TOP-games on the base of OpenGL and SDL including) mdv2010.0 resp. mdv2011, mga1 up to mga3 or any rpm-distribution of the last decades from and care for its updates. For mdv2010.0 you think of updating with the secure running autumn- and spring- updatening version mdv2010.1 and mdv2010.2 to mdv2010.2 (65 GB, around 15 DVD).

OKHow does this work? It´s easy (or it sound so): All you need for the next time in principle is "any" Linux-distribution from DVD/CD, USB-memory-stick or per download out of the internet etc., one that is named by PRO-Linux ( withiin the hugh update-listing of the last ten, twenty years. Install this distribution following the self activating installation instructions onto an installation media (we recommend an at least 120 GB Solid State Disk (SSD with an at least 65 GB sized main- resp. root-partition and at least 2 GB SWAP-partition)) and eventually more single programms resp. packages with the help of an as much expressive packagemanger as possible. We recommend Debian Linux or a ( Fedora Core - ) backported and long-update-support guaranteeing Linux-Distribution (like RedHat resp. CentOS and Scientific Linux el6 and el7). Regardless from the amount of software resp. packages, this Linux-Distribution can be considered as a gear to the big UNIX/Linux- and its emulation-world of even more, we recommend actual UNIX-/Linux-distributions, actual updates and all kind of software and games. Emulation means, that with the help of emulators (like Wine for MS Windows) and virtual machines like Xen and Qemu software running upon other operating systems can be used too. Notice, that it is possible to install all software on the installation media at once without risking too much. The important thing is, that it is possisble to upgrade the Standard-GNU-C-library (glibc) of this distribution, so that the kernel of the LONGTERM-series out of kernel-3 and -4 can be upgraded too..

A securing 1:1 partioned media should not miss! Perform all security methods introduced in future point by point as soon as possible, as the installation is endangered extremely (by hacker and so on) with the very first built-up connection to the net!

quot;There is not much diffrence between the Linux-Distributions / Der Unterschied zwischen den Linux-Distributionen ist nicht sehr groß mit Ausnahme der Basisinstallation und der Paketverwaltung. Die meisten Distributionen beinhalten zum Großteil die gleichen Anwendungen. Der Hauptunterschied besteht in den Versionen dieser Programme, die mit der stabilen Veröffentlichung der Distribution ausgeliefert werden. Zum Beispiel sind der Kernel, Bind, Apache, OpenSSH, Xorg, gcc, zlib, etc. in allen Linux-Distributionen vorhanden."

OKRight up from the very beginning - installing an OS like UNIX/Linux

... most already through installation media:

format -" partitioning -> format -> encryption (full system encryption, FSE) -> format -> installation (from extern media) -> configuration -> defragmentation (not essential for many UNIX/Linux file systems) -> encryption (full system encryption, FSE) -> (backup with dd and) actualization -> configuration -> (backup with dd and) actualization ( ... notice total time needed: ? )

Alternatively: Some nice "guy" or so does many things for you by mirroring almost completed system from his onto your own media (SSD (sdx), harddisc (S-ATA: sdx, IDE: hdx, CD-/DVD, USB-memory stick, ...). This can save plenty of time (look out for the right processor architecture (x86_64, i686, ...) and set /etc/X11/xorg.conf for the next time to vesa or fb)! Do this mirroring with a command like: "dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb"

Used editor in the following: nano

First this webside introduces some configurations, followed by actualization, partitioning, encryption during the introduction of basic shell-commands.

OKMounting partitions the right way
When mounting an Ext file system (ext2, ext3 or ext4), there are several additional options you can apply to the mount call or to /etc/fstab. For instance, this is my fstab entry for the /tmp partition:

/dev/hda7 /tmp ext2 defaults,nosuid,noexec,nodev 0 2

You see the difference in the options sections. The option nosuid ignores the setuid and setgid bits completely, while noexec forbids execution of any program on that mount point, and nodev ignores device files. This sounds great, but it:

only applies to ext2 or ext3 file systems

can be circumvented easily

The noexec option prevents binaries from being executed directly, but was easily circumvented in earlier versions of the kernel:

alex@joker:/tmp# mount | grep tmp
/dev/hda7 on /tmp type ext2 (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
alex@joker:/tmp# ./date
bash: ./date: Permission denied
alex@joker:/tmp# /lib/ ./date
Sun Dec 3 17:49:23 CET 2000

Newer versions of the kernel do however handle the noexec flag properly:

angrist:/tmp# mount | grep /tmp
/dev/hda3 on /tmp type ext3 (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
angrist:/tmp# ./date
bash: ./tmp: Permission denied
angrist:/tmp# /lib/ ./date
./date: error while loading shared libraries: ./date: failed to map segment
from shared object: Operation not permitted

However, many script kiddies have exploits which try to create and execute files in /tmp. If they do not have a clue, they will fall into this pit. In other words, a user cannot be tricked into executing a trojanized binary in /tmp e.g. when /tmp is accidentally added into the local PATH.

Also be forewarned, some script might depend on /tmp being executable. Most notably, Debconf has (had?) some issues regarding this, for more information see Bug 116448.

The following is a more thorough example. A note, though: /var could be set noexec, but some software [21] keeps its programs under in /var. The same applies to the nosuid option.

/dev/sda6 /usr ext3 defaults,ro,nodev 0 2
/dev/sda12 /usr/share ext3 defaults,ro,nodev,nosuid 0 2
/dev/sda7 /var ext3 defaults,nodev,usrquota,grpquota 0 2
/dev/sda8 /tmp ext3 defaults,nodev,nosuid,noexec,usrquota,grpquota 0 2
/dev/sda9 /var/tmp ext3 defaults,nodev,nosuid,noexec,usrquota,grpquota 0 2
/dev/sda10 /var/log ext3 defaults,nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 2
/dev/sda11 /var/account ext3 defaults,nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 2
/dev/sda13 /home ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev,exec,auto,nouser,async,usrquota,grpquota 0 2
/dev/fd0 /mnt/fd0 ext3 defaults,users,nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
/dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy vfat defaults,users,nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
/dev/hda /mnt/cdrom iso9660 ro,users,nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0

OKPostfix - shorten information


smtpd_banner = DOLLARSIGNmyhostname ESMTP DOLLARSIGNmail_name (FreeBSD/GNU)

... that means without version number and eventually with a new operating system name.

OKJust update by the kernel-binary (kernel-...rpm) or configure, patch and compile the kernel-source (kernel-...rpm.src)
We assume, that any rpm-based Linux-Distribution is already installed on a storage media like harddisc. Our section for updates refers to RedHat, CentOS oder Scientific Linux, Fedora Core, PCLinuxOS, ROSA, Mageia oder Mandriva.
How to configure, patch and compile kernel-sources: Download and install all binary rpm required for the kernel. Then download, install or enpack the kernel-source-rpm into /usr/src either by "tar -xvjf kernel-source-package", rpm on the kernel-source-rpm or file-roller. A new directory named "linux-kernelversion-xxx" or "kernel-source-xxx" is created within /usr/src.
Link this new directory to a linking file named linux: "ln -sf linux-xxx linux" resp. "ln -sf kernel-source-xxx linux".
Change into this directory linux resp. linux-xxx resp. kernel-source-xxxx and call "menu oldconfig".. A file .config is created to configure the kernel.
Type "menu xconfig" or "menu gconfig" or "make menuconfig" and configure the kernel-drivers and so on needed (CC), needed as modules (CC MM) and such to resign from.
For FSE (full system encryption) by dracut, two options have to be enabled, what is already done in kernel-desktop (mdv2011) but not kernel (el6):

Generally, the security level of software is not only presented by stability, but also by the freeness of errors and warnings during the compilation of their source codes listed by the compiler. Kernel-2.6.32 (el6) consists of many of them and some of them are caused by kmem.h, while the quit restless error-free (only a few small patches 2012-2016 inclusive dirty-cow are known!) kernel- (mdv2011) runs error-free on our system without any warnings during the compilation time of around four hours! This is the best sign for good and secure running code. The only thing remaining is to patch with the dirty-cow-patch in mm.h and memory.c.

Kernel: We recommend kernel 4 (we chose 4.20.13 (pclos) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos)), but do describe now (also running on some playstations and so on) patched up to date by sources (containing the dirty-cow-patch in main), consisting of less compilation warning and no errors than 2.6.32 (el6). This mdv-kernel is described from patch-sources like, kernel itself from kernel-desktop (mdv2011): glibc (pclos, mga6), module-init-tools (we recommend mdv2011, but you can also use el6, up to 3.16; append ".conf" to all files in /etc/modules.d; module-init-tools (mdv2011) never makes trouble with it), coreutils (el6), initscripts (mdv2011, pclos and el6 as depecited below), util-linux (mdv2011 or el6 except /bin/mount, /bin/mount and /lib64/libmount* you have to delete after enpacking the rpm (not installing!) and copying its include), kernel-firmware (pclos, slack14.2 with more than 250 MB unpacked, mga6, el6), if you want plus kernel-firmware (OpenSuSE 42.1, 32 MB) plus kernel-firmware (OpenSuSE 13.2) plus linux-firmware (fc27, 35 MB) plus kernel-firmware-extra (pclos, rosa2014.1), kernel-headers (el6), kernel-doc (el6), ksymoops (OpenSuSE 12.2, mdv2011), coreutils (el6), coreutils-libs (el6), binutils (fc25, el6), nss (el7, el6, fc30), nss-softokn (el7, el6, fc30), nss-sysinit (el7, el6, fc30) und nss-softokn-freebl (el7, el6, fc30), nss-util (el7, el6, fc30), nss-tools (el7, el6, fc30) .

All patches for until now are available in the internet from
compiler-gcc5, add-timesys-bootlogo, dirty-cow, lantronix-ts1, no-setlocalversion, no-unused-but-set-variable, revert-nfsroot,, ltrx-image-rom and yaffs2.

Patch: patch (el6, fc27, mdv2010.1) has to be installed. Then type "patch -p1 < ../patchname.patch "

But at first do the following:

Actual Kernel: how to install a patched kernel-source: A lot of freed partition (memory) is required, maybe plenty of Gigabyte. Download and install all binary rpm required for the kernel. Then download and enpack the kernel-source-rpm into /usr/src either by "tar -xvjf kernel-source-package" or file-roller.

Two possibilites:
1) building a kernel-rpm out of the sources after applying the patches: Configure the spec-file of the installed source-rpm by adding or commenting in and out the patches to build a new binary kernel-rpm to install or update: For CentOS and mdv depending on the package manager use command "rpm -ba" instead of "rpmbuild -ba" kernel-xxx.spec to create the binary..
2) Configure the sources and compile them:
A new directory named "linux-kernelversion" or "kernel-source-kernelversion" is created within /usr/src.
Link this new directory to a linking file named linux: "ln -sf linux-kernelversion linux" resp. "ln -sf kernel-source-kernelversion linux".
Change into this directory linux resp. linux-kernelversion resp. kernel-source-xxxx and call "menu oldconfig". A file .config is created to configure the kernel. Copy .config to include/config/auto.conf

If you do not know, what to enable or not, choose MM
(M) or (CC) to load as a module wherever possible,
(A) or (CC MM) auto-load the module or
(-): resign from the module.

Example (module extraction of kernel-2.6.39-40.src.rpm)

General Preparation of Linux, kernel-2.6.39-40.src.rpm

In order to take a firewall in use, kernel support for iptables and modules should be enabled.
Open a konsole and enter one of the statements
make menuconfig for the Dialog-GUI,
male xconfig for tk-GUI or
make gconfig with GTK or
make config

Choose kernel options within

Networking options --->
[*] Network packet filtering (replaces ipchains)
IP: Netfilter Configuration --->
(M) Userspace queueing via NETLINK (EXPERIMENTAL)
(M) IP tables support (required for filtering/masq/NAT)
(M) limit match support
(M) MAC address match support
(M) netfilter MARK match support
(M) Multiple port match support

(M) TOS match support
(M) Connection state match support
(M) Unclean match support (EXPERIMENTAL)
(M) Owner match support (EXPERIMENTAL)
(M) Packet filtering
(M) REJECT target support
(M) MIRROR target support (EXPERIMENTAL)
(M) Packet mangling
(M) TOS target support
(M) MARK target support
(M) LOG target support
(M) ipchains (2.2-style) support
(M) ipfwadm (2.0-style) support

think of other options (modules), store this configuration.

Before iptables can be used, the kernel module netfilter for the support of iptables has to be loaded e.g. by the statement modprobe:
# modprobe ip_tables

kernel-firmware (binary blobs within /lib/firmware, rpm kernel-firmware (around 250 MB) and/or kernel-firmware-extra ):

For kernels before 4.18:
KERNEL Enable support for Linux firmware

Device Drivers --->
Generic Driver Options --->
-*- Userspace firmware loading support
[*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
(/lib/firmware) Firmware blobs root directory

For kernels beginning with 4.18:
KERNEL Enable support for Linux firmware

Device Drivers --->
Generic Driver Options --->
Firmware loader --->
-*- Firmware loading facility
() Build named firmware blobs into the kernel binary
(/lib/firmware) Firmware blobs root directory

Type "make dep && make clean && make mrproper" .

Type "menu xconfig" or "menu gconfig" or "make menuconfig" and configure the kernel-drivers and so on needed (CC), needed as modules (CC MM) and such to resign from, or for a pregiven configuration type "make oldconfig".

For FSE (full system encryption) by dracut, two options have to be enabled, what is already done in kernel-desktop (mdv2011) but not kernel (el6):
within the first item "General Setup"enable "Initial-RAM-filesystem and RAM-disk-support"and in "general drivers" enable the option "Maintain a devtmpfs at /dev/ with subitem "automount devtmpfs at /dev, after the kernel mounted the rootfs".
If you do not know, what to enable or not, choose MM to load as a module wherever possible.
Save the new .config.
Set the Kernel-Version at the top of the makefile.
Three possibilites, after the patching of the source-code like the dirty-cow-patch:
patch -p1 < ../any_patch.patch
apply all other patches in this way
make -i rpm (to create the binary kernel-rpm package, what endures on our system for around four hours)
make all # or
make dep (dependency properties to establish the relationship)
make clean (to remove the old data)
make bzImage (to create its core vmlinuz for /boot only after renaming the created file bzImage: time needed: around 30 minutes) or
make bzImage &,& make modules && make modules_install for the installation of the kernel-modules too.
Copy the bzImage to /boot, rename it to vmlinuz-kernelversion.
Use mkinitrd resp. in the case of FSE (Full Disk Encryption resp. encrypted root-partition) dracut to create the initrd resp. initramfs within directory /boot. If dracut does not work anymore ex. as a cause of updates, rename the new-kernel-version to the old-kernel-version in Makefile and make bzImage once again.
If you use grub as the bootloader and not grub2 and the configufile is still not configured for the new kernel, do this by editing /boot/grub/menu.lst and exchanging the vmlinuz-kernel-versions. If a new initramfs or initrd is created, enter them in the line for initrd.

OKInstallation guide and for tuning Linux secure: and ( in our example related to mdv2010.2 or CentOS 6 ). Be careful, for example with the exchange of the password-encryption from md5 to sha256 or sha512 and the /etc/system-auth. Make backup or copies!

Through "about:config" many URL can be removed out of the listing after typing in "http".

OKUsing Compile-time-Hardening-Options
Several compile-time options (detailed below) can be used to help harden a resulting binary against memory corruption attacks or provide additional warning messages during compiles. Using "dpkg-buildflags" is the recommended way to incorporate the build flags in Debian.
See ReleaseGoals/SecurityHardeningBuildFlags for additional information,
For a step-by-step guide, see the HardeningWalkthrough,
Fedora/CentOS etc:

OKListing: Linux-Security-Updates up from year 2000,
... of the most important distributions with naming the closed error, bug resp. exploit

OKRecent security pages
Here are the most recent security pages, with a comprehensive roundup of a week´s worth security-related information.

Date Contents
Apr 12, 2017 Network security in the microservice environment; Two Project Zero reports; ..
. Apr 05, 2017 ARM pointer authentication; Quotes; Exploiting Broadcom WiFi; ...
Mar 29, 2017 refcount_t meets the network stack; Quotes; ...
Mar 22, 2017 Inline encryption support for block devices; Shim review; ..
. Mar 15, 2017 A kernel TEE party; Quotes; Struts 2 vulnerability; ...
Mar 08, 2017 A new process for CVE assignment; Smart TV bugging quotes; Threat modeling ...
Mar 01, 2017 The case of the prematurely freed SKB; SHA-1 collision and fallout; ...
Feb 22, 2017 The case against password hashers; New vulnerabilities in dropbear, kernel, nagios-core, qemu, ...
Feb 15, 2017 A look at password managers; New vulnerabilities in kernel, libevent, mysql, php, ...
Feb 08, 2017 Reliably generating good passwords; New vulnerabilities in epiphany, graphicsmagick, gstreamer (and plugins), spice, ...
Feb 01, 2017 The Internet of scary things; New vulnerabilities in ansible, chromium, kernel, mozilla, ...
Jan 25, 2017 Security training for everyone; New vulnerabilities in fedmsg, firejail, java, systemd, ...
Jan 18, 2017 Ansible and CVE-2016-9587; New vulnerabilities in bind, docker, qemu, webkit2gtk, ...
Jan 11, 2017 SipHash in the kernel; New vulnerabilities in kernel, kopete, syncthing, webkit2gtk, ...
Jan 04, 2017 Fuzzing open source; New vulnerabilities in bash, httpd, kernel, openssh, ...
Dec 22, 2016 OWASP ModSecurity Core Rule Set 3.0; New vulnerabilities in apport, kernel, libupnp, samba, ...
Dec 14, 2016 ModSecurity for web-application firewalls; New vulnerabilities in jasper, kernel, mozilla, roundcube, ...
Dec 07, 2016 Locking down module parameters; New vulnerabilities in chromium, firefox, kernel, xen, ...
Nov 30, 2016 Django debates user tracking; New vulnerabilities in drupal, firefox, kernel, ntp, ...
Nov 16, 2016 Reference-count protection in the kernel; New vulnerabilities in chromium, firefox, kernel, sudo, ...

OKSetting /usr read-only for the separate usr-partition
If you set /usr read-only (in /etc/fstab), you will not be able to install new packages on your Debian GNU/Linux system. You will have to first remount it read-write, install the packages and then remount it read-only. apt can be configured to run commands before and after installing packages, so you might want to configure it properly.
To do this modify /etc/apt/apt.conf and add:

Pre-Invoke { "mount /usr -o remount,rw" };
Post-Invoke { "mount /usr -o remount,ro" };

Note that the Post-Invoke may fail with a "/usr busy" error message. This happens mainly when you are using files during the update that got updated. You can find these programs by running

# lsof +L1

Stop or restart these programs and run the Post-Invoke manually. Beware! This means you´ll likely need to restart your X session (if you´re running one) every time you do a major upgrade of your system. You might want to reconsider whether a read-only /usr is suitable for your system ( and please notice, that this might not be recommended, if there is an encrypted root-partition), see also this discussion on debian-devel about read-only /usr.
We are going to encrypt even more the complete system (FSE) by reliable LUKS, including the complete root- and home-partition (and USB-media) to set partitions unwriteable to read-only. Notice, that this does not exclude the same for a separate usr-partition.

OKOur /etc/pam.d/system-auth ( tested just on our platform and system ):

auth required
auth sufficient try_first_pass likeauth
auth required
auth requisite uid >= 500 quiet
auth required deny=3 onerr=fail unlock_time=60
account sufficient shadow
account required
account sufficient uid < 500 quiet
account required per_user
password required try_first_pass retry=3 minlen=6 dcredit=1 ucredit=0
password sufficient try_first_pass use_authtok sha512 shadow remember=2
password required
session optional revoke
session required
session [success=1 default=ignore] service in crond quiet use_uid
session required

More about pam-modules:

OKOne more things with PAM:
Use encryption other than DES for your passwords (making them harder to brute-force decode).
Set resource limits on all your users so they can´t perform denial-of-service attacks (number of processes, amount of memory, etc).
Enable shadow passwords (see below) on the fly.
Allow specific users to login only at specific times from specific places.
Within a few hours of installing and configuring your system, you can prevent many attacks before they even occur. For example, use PAM to disable the system-wide usage of .rhosts files in user´s home directories by adding these lines to /etc/pam.d/rlogin:

# Disable rsh / rlogin / rexec for users
login auth required no_rhosts


OKAccount locking
While having strong passwords in place for user accounts can help thwart brute force attacks as mentioned previously in point 18 - Enforce strong passwords, this is only one way of slowing down this type of attack. A good indication of brute force attack is a user account that has failed to log in successfully multiple times within a short period of time, these sorts of actions should be blocked and reported. We can block these attacks by automatically locking out the account, either at the directory if in use or locally.

The PAM module can be used to lock out local accounts after a set number of failures. To get this working I have added the below line to the /etc/pam.d/password-auth file.

auth required file=/var/log/tallylog deny=3 even_deny_root unlock_time=1200

This will log all failures to the /var/log/tallylog file and lock out an account after 3 consecutive failures. By default it will not deny the root account however we can also lock out root by specifying even_deny_root (though this may not be required if you have disabled root access as per point 3 - Disable remote root access and point 4 - Disable root console access). The unlock time is the amount of seconds after a failed login attempt that an account will automatically unlock and become available again.

Failed logins can be viewed as below, to view all failures simply remove the --user flag.

[[email protected] ~]# pam_tally2 --user=bob Login Failures Latest failure From bob 4 08/21/15 19:38:23 localhost

The failure count can be manually reset by appending -reset onto this command.

pam_tally2 --user=bob --reset

If a login is successful before the limit has been reached the failure count will reset to 0. For more details see the pam_tally2 manual page by typing ´man pam_tally2´.

It´s worth noting that the manual page advises to configure this with the /etc/pam.d/login file, however I found that under CentOS 7 this did not work and needed to use the /etc/pam.d/password-auth file instead. I also tried using /etc/pam.d/system-auth which I found documented elsewhere but this also failed, so this may differ based on your operating system.

You can also manually lock and unlock local user accounts rather than waiting for the failure limit to be reached.
Lock the user account ‘bob’.
Quelle: Migrating from shadow passwords to tcb in Linux
For a more secure Linux password system, a migration from shadow passwords to tcb is worth a little extra work. Vincent Danen tells you what you need to recompile and patch.Wechsel von shadow-Passwörtern nach tcb in Linux.
"Shadow passwords have been a de facto standard with Linux distributions for years, and as well as the use of md5 passwords. However, there are drawbacks to using the traditional shadow password method, and even md5 is not as secure as it used to be. One drawback to the shadow password file is that any application that requires looking up a single shadow password (i.e., your password) also can look at everyone else's shadow passwords, which means that any compromised tool that can read the shadow file will be able to obtain everyone´s shadow password."

Install pam_tcb (like pam_tcb(pclos) and other pam-module-rpm). If the encryption should be blowfish, install the package bcrypt.

Source and howto:
alternatively: Migrating to tcb,

After performing the howto (but still resigning from blowfish and the deletion of the shadow-files), our modified /etc/pam.d/system-auth has got the include:

auth optional try_first_pass
auth required
auth sufficient
auth required
auth requisite uid >= 500 quiet
auth required deny=3 onerr=fail unlock_time=1200
account sufficient
account required
account sufficient uid < 500 quiet
account required per_user
password required try_first_pass retry=3 minlen=6 dcredit=1 ucredit=1
password sufficient use_authtok tcb write_to=tcb
password required
session optional
session optional revoke
session required
session [success=1 default=ignore] service in crond quiet use_uid
session required

and /etc/pam.d/password-auth:

# This file is auto-generated.
# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.

auth required
auth required file=/var/log/tallylog deny=3 even_deny_root unlock_time=1200
auth sufficient shadow fork prefix=DOLLARSIGN2aDOLLARSIGN count=8
auth required
account required
password requisite try_first_pass retry=3 type=
password sufficient try_first_pass use_authtok sha512 shadow
password required
session optional revoke
session required
session [success=1 default=ignore] service in crond quiet use_uid
session required

with /etc/nsswitch.conf
shadow: compat +user +root +surfuser +toruser -anonymous -bin -daemon -uuidd -rtkit -sync -mail -news -avahi -haldaemon -ALL tcb
You should try the originally meant "shadow: tcb nisplus nis" instead and set hosts to "hosts: files ... dns ..." into this recommended order.
and with for all in /etc/pam.d/*
This all makes the computer once more mouseclick-fast and secure.

OKDisable Root Console Access
The previous step disables remote access for the root account, however it will still be possible for root to log in through any console device. Depending on the security of your console access you may wish to leave root access in place, otherwise it can be removed by clearing the /etc/securetty file as shown below.

echo > /etc/securetty

This file lists all devices that root is allowed to login to, the file must exist otherwise root will be allowed access through any communication device available whether that be console or other.

With no devices listed in this file root access has been disabled. It is important to note that this does not prevent root from logging in remotely with SSH for instance, that must be disabled as outlined in point 3 - Disable remote root access above.

Access to the console itself should also be secured, a physical console can be protected by the information covered in point 13 - Physical security.

OKLimited amount of processes, source. Arch Linux
On systems with many or untrusted users, it is important to limit the number of processes each can run at once, therefore preventing fork bombs and other denial of service attacks. /etc/security/limits.conf determines how many processes each user, or group can have open, and is empty (except for useful comments) by default. adding the following lines to this file will limit all users to 100 active processes, unless they use the prlimit command to explicitly raise their maximum to 200 for that session. These values can be changed according to the appropriate number of processes a user should have running, or the hardware of the box you are administrating. Do not set the limit too low. System can malfunction.

* soft nproc 300
* hard nporc 320
# user soft nproc 200
# user hard nproc 250
# surfuser soft nproc 60
# surfuser hard nporc 80
toruser soft nproc 80
toruser hard nporc 100

OKBastille, msec, rkhunter, chkrootkit, clamav (clamscan, klamav), maldetect, checksec, seccheck, xsysinfo, smartd, nessus, tkcvs and cervisia, ...
At this place think of programs like bastille and msec (rosa2016.1, rosa2014.1) to check out lacks in system security, before going on with the manual configuration hook by hook. Such programs with own graphical frontends resp. wizards protocol lacks in security and are able to automatically reconfigure the system even more secure.

Two factor authentication can be implemented for SSH access or other application login, it will improve login security by adding a second factor of authentication, that is the password is typically known as something you know, while the second factor may be a physical security token or mobile device which acts as something you have. The combination of something you know and something you have ensures that you are more likely who you say you are.

There are custom applications available for this such as Duo Securityand Google Authenticator as well as many others. These typically involve installing an application on a smart phone and then entering the generated code alongside your username and password when you authenticate.
Google Authenticator can be used for many other applications than just SSH, such as for WordPress login with third party plugin support.

... can´t believe it, remark by Gooken:

All INTEL-CPU-generations since Celeron
"We can read out everything!",, 04.01.2017
As a consequence of a newspaper-report scientific researches from the Technical University Graz exposed the newest security-exploit in many computer processors. "We were shocked ourself, that this functions", said Michael Schwarz from TU Graz to "Tagesspiegel".
By this exploit all data could be read out, that are in actual process by the computer. "In Principle we could read out all actually entered by the keyboard." Attackers could also get data from Onlinebanking or stored passwords. "Therefore they must intrude into the computer", Schwarz restricted.

Serious hard lack in security in all Intel-CPUs, PC-WELT, 03.01.2018
A serious hard lack was found in Intel-processors of the last 10 years (excpet the one introduced by us in our data-sheed, rem., Gooken). Its closure costs performance.,3449263
OKWhat to do:
Data sheed: Plattform: ITX-220: is not listed in the table for exploited mainboards by Intel (1) and an exploit remaind undetected as the helping-tool for belonging system-analyzes from Intel indicated ( for Linux) (2). Result: Modul MEI (2) can not be found (this module can be integrated by the command "modprobe mei" manually or within /etc/modules each boot or dracut right up from the system-start).

Is there a workaround/fix?

- There are patches against Meltdown for Linux ( KPTI (formerly KAISER)), Windows, and OS X. There is also work to harden software against future exploitation of Spectre, respectively to patch software after exploitation through Spectre,
- iucode-tool (pclos2018)
- CPU: mouseclick-fast and secure: microcode_ctl (rosa2016.1) or ucode-intel (OpenSuSE, >=20190312-lp151.1.1) (in order to get activated by console) upon microcode_ctl (el6, rpm -i --force). In order to use microcode_ctl, flash the CPU by executing the command "microcode_ctl -qu" each boot after entering it in /etc/rc.local or out of /usr/share/autostart. If it is not booted, the CPU will work upon its initial (default) microcode again.
Changelog microcode_ctl
* Fr Dez 15 2017 Petr Oros - 1:1.17-25.2
- Update Intel CPU microde for 06-3f-02, 06-4f-01 and 06-55-04
- Add amd microcode_amd_fam17h.bin data file
- Resolves: #1527357
- Intel: Tools for ME-security-exploits, 24.11.2017,
- kernel-4.20.13 with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and the reintegrated KPTI-/KAISER-patch
- "modprobe mei" or start or stop the load of module mei in /etc/modules by entering resp. removing the line "mei" MEI in this matter was mentionded in Intel-security-checks as one part of the main risk.
- Update Firefox to 57.0.4 resp. 52.5.3-ESR (OpenSuSE) - Security fixes to address the Meltdown and Spectre timing attacks - - Require new nss 3.34 (fixed rhbz#1531031) - Disabled ARM on all Fedoras due to rhbz#1523912
- Nvidia vs. Spectre: New Nvidia-drivers protect against Spectre-CPU-attacks,,3449339 NVIDIA graphics drivers (USN-3521-1,
- Webkitgtk+ (USN-3530-1)
- QEMU (USN-3560-1)
- libvirt (USN-3561-1)
- Cloud Images: Cloud images which address CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715 (aka Spectre) and CVE-2017-5754 (aka Meltdown) are available for from for the following releases: ...

OKIntegrate sensors and chips from mainboard:
Paket lm_sensors (pclos)
modprobe for found modules: enter them into /etc/modules ( for ITX-220: it87, coretemp, i2c-dev, mei)
Notice: It might be mouseclick-fast and more seucre not to enter them into /etc/modules.
LAN-Chip: eventually activate it through CMOS-BIOS-Setup (default: inactive)

OKLogging off idle users
Idle users are usually a security problem, a user might be idle maybe because he's out to lunch or because a remote connection hung and was not re-established. For whatever the reason, idle users might lead to a compromise:

because the user's console might be unlocked and can be accessed by an intruder.

because an attacker might be able to re-attach to a closed network connection and send commands to the remote shell (this is fairly easy if the remote shell is not encrypted as in the case of telnet).

Some remote systems have even been compromised through an idle (and detached) screen.

Automatic disconnection of idle users is usually a part of the local security policy that must be enforced. There are several ways to do this:

If bash is the user shell, a system administrator can set a default TMOUT value (see bash(1)) which will make the shell automatically log off remote idle users. Note that it must be set with the -o option or users will be able to change (or unset) it.

Install timeoutd and configure /etc/timeouts according to your local security policy. The daemon will watch for idle users and time out their shells accordingly.

Install autolog and configure it to remove idle users.

The timeoutd or autolog daemons are the preferred method since, after all, users can change their default shell or can, after running their default shell, switch to another (uncontrolled) shell.

Linux: TMOUT To Automatically Log Users Out
last updated May 18, 2011 in Categories BASH Shell, Linux

How do I auto Logout my shell user in Linux after certain minutes of inactivity?
Linux bash shell allows you to define the TMOUT environment variable. Set TMOUT to automatically log users out after a period of inactivity. The value is defined in seconds. For example,

export TMOUT=120

The above command will implement a 2 minute idle time-out for the default /bin/bash shell. You can edit your ~/.bash_profile or /etc/profile file as follows to define a 5 minute idle time out:

# set a 5 min timeout policy for bash shell
readonly TMOUT
export TMOUT

Save and close the file. The readonly command is used to make variables and functions readonly i.e. you user cannot change the value of variable called TMOUT.
How Do I Disable TMOUT?

To disable auto-logout, just set the TMOUT to zero or unset it as follows:



Please note that readonly variable can only be disabled by root in /etc/profile or ~/.bash_profile

Or assign a value for SHELL_TIMEOUT (TMOUT) in /etc/security/msec/

OKRestricting access to kernel pointers in the proc filesystem, source: Arch Linux
Note: linux-hardened sets kptr_restrict=2 by default rather than 0.
Enabling kernel.kptr_restrict will hide kernel symbol addresses in /proc/kallsyms from regular users without CAP_SYSLOG, making it more difficult for kernel exploits to resolve addresses/symbols dynamically. This will not help that much on a pre-compiled Arch Linux kernel, since a determined attacker could just download the kernel package and get the symbols manually from there, but if you´re compiling your own kernel, this can help mitigating local root exploits. This will break some perf commands when used by non-root users (but many perf features require root access anyway). See FS#34323 for more information.
kernel.kptr_restrict = 1

OKNext point fstab-Option hidepid for proc from source Arch Linux should be applied once more at your own risk:
"Warning: This may cause issues for certain applications like an application running in a sandbox and Xorg.
. The kernel has the ability to hide other user-processes, normally accessible via /proc, from unprivileged users by mounting the proc filesystem with the hidepid= and gid= options documented here.
This greatly complicates an intruder´s task of gathering information about running processes, whether some daemon runs with elevated privileges, whether other user runs some sensitive program, whether other users run any program at all, makes it impossible to learn whether any user runs a specific program (given the program doesn´t reveal itself by its behaviour), and, as an additional bonus, poorly written programs passing sensitive information via program arguments are now protected against local eavesdroppers.
The proc group, provided by the filesystem package, acts as a whitelist of users authorized to learn other users´ process information. If users or services need access to /proc/ directories beyond their own, add them to the group.
For example, to hide process information from other users except those in the proc group:
proc /proc proc nosuid,nodev,noexec,hidepid=2,gid=proc 0 0 "

In the following and therefore just for our paranoid view, only some more security-points, now from, up to, might interest like:

OKChoose a BIOS password
Before you install any operating system on your computer, set up a BIOS password. After installation (once you have enabled bootup from the hard disk) you should go back to the BIOS and change the boot sequence to disable booting from floppy, CD-ROM and other devices that shouldn´t boot. Otherwise a cracker only needs physical access and a boot disk to access your entire system.
Disabling booting unless a password is supplied is even better. This can be very effective if you run a server, because it is not rebooted very often. The downside to this tactic is that rebooting requires human intervention which can cause problems if the machine is not easily accessible.
Note: many BIOSes have well known default master passwords, and applications also exist to retrieve the passwords from the BIOS. Corollary: don´t depend on this measure to secure console access to system.

- Supervisor Password
- User Access Level from Full Access, View Only or Limited to No Access - this prevents user acsess onto the BIOS-Setup-Utility, so that no changes of the settings are possible anymore. Now the BIOS is protected.
- User Password
- Password Check from (only for BIOS-)Setup to Always

OKTurn Off IPv6
If you´re not using a IPv6 protocol, then you should disable it because most of the applications or policies not required IPv6 protocol and currently it doesn´t required on the server. Go to network configuration file and add followings lines to disable it.

nano /etc/sysconfig/network

Boot-process: If the message "Can not stat ( a named ) initscript" occurs during system boot, delete this initscript through all six runlevel and in directory init.d by
rm -df /etc/rc0.d/initscript-name
rm -df /etc/rc1.d/initscript-name
rm -df /etc/rc6.d/initscript-name
rm -df /etc/init.d/initscript-name

OKActivate resp. deactivate kernel-moduls
Get a listing of the kernel-modules by the terminal command lsmod.
In order to make the computer mouseclick-fast, all kernel modules without essential use have to be removed from /etc/rc.modules, while this file enpossibles to integrate modules by the command &quto;modprobe Modulname" added to the last line.
. Following our example-hardware from datasheed, the control-modules it87 und i2c-dev can be disabled and the service envoking them named lm_sensors deactivated.

OKDo not plug to the Internet until ready
The system should not be immediately connected to the Internet during installation. This could sound stupid but network installation is a common method. Since the system will install and activate services immediately, if the system is connected to the Internet and the services are not properly configured you are opening it to attack.

OKRun the minimum number of services required
Services are programs such as ftp servers and web servers. Since they have to be listening for incoming connections that request the service, external computers can connect to yours. Services are sometimes vulnerable (i.e. can be compromised under a given attack) and hence present a security risk.

OKSet a LILO or GRUB password
What matters for updates, should almost be not the version of the rpm but the new release of one and the same version (backport-concept).

OKumask (see man umask): recommended values:
/etc/fstab: option umask 077 at least for the root- and home-Partition
~/.bashrc: umask 077 # for all user
~/.bashrc-profile: umask 077 # for all user
/etc/profile: umask 022 # to keep most of all accessible for a user

OKDisable root prompt on the initramfs
Note: This applies to the default kernels provided for releases after Debian 3.1
Linux 2.6 kernels provide a way to access a root shell while booting which will be presented during loading the initramfs on error. This is helpful to permit the administrator to enter a rescue shell with root permissions. This shell can be used to manually load modules when autodetection fails. This behavior is the default for initramfs-tools generated initramfs. The following message will appear:

"ALERT! /dev/sda1 does not exist. Dropping to a shell!

In order to remove this behavior you need to set the following boot argument:panic=0. Add this to the variable GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX in /etc/default/grub and issue update-grub or to the append section of /etc/lilo.conf.

OKRemove root prompt on the kernel
Note: This does not apply to the kernels provided for Debian 3.1 as the timeout for the kernel delay has been changed to 0.
Linux 2.4 kernels provide a way to access a root shell while booting which will be presented just after loading the cramfs file system. A message will appear to permit the administrator to enter an executable shell with root permissions, this shell can be used to manually load modules when autodetection fails. This behavior is the default for initrd´s linuxrc. The following message will appear:

Press ENTER to obtain a shell (waits 5 seconds)

In order to remove this behavior you need to change /etc/mkinitrd/mkinitrd.conf and set:

# DELAY The number of seconds the linuxrc script should wait to # allow the user to interrupt it before the system is brought up DELAY=0

Then regenerate your ramdisk image. You can do this for example with:

# cd /boot # mkinitrd -o initrd.img-2.4.18-k7 /lib/modules/2.4.18-k7

or (preferred):

# dpkg-reconfigure -plow kernel-image-2.4.x-yz

OKRestricting console login access
Some security policies might force administrators to log in to the system through the console with their user/password and then become superuser (with su or sudo). This policy is implemented in Debian by editing the /etc/pam.d/login and the /etc/securetty when using PAM (make a backup, before doing this!):

/etc/pam.d/login enables the module. This module, when properly configured will not ask for a password when the root user tries to login on an insecure console, rejecting access as this user.
securetty by adding/removing the terminals to which root access will be allowed. If you wish to allow only local console access then you need console, ttyX and vc/X (if using devfs devices), you might want to add also ttySX, if you are using a serial console for local access (where X is an integer, you might want to have multiple instances. The default configuration for Wheezy includes many tty devices, serial ports, vc consoles as well as the X server and the console device. You can safely adjust this if you are not using that many consoles. You can confirm the virtual consoles and the tty devices you have by reviewing /etc/inittab . For more information on terminal devices read the Text-Terminal-HOWTO.

When using PAM, other changes to the login process, which might include restrictions to users and groups at given times, can be configured in /etc/pam.d/login. An interesting feature, that can be disabled, is the possibility to login with null (blank) passwords. This feature can be limited by removing nullok from the line:

auth required nullok

Our /etc/pam.d/login:

auth required
auth required deny=3 even_deny_root unlock_time=2400
auth include system-auth
account required
account include system-auth
password include system-auth
# close should be the first session rule
session required close
session required
session optional
# open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user context
session required open
session required
session optional force revoke
session include system-auth
-session optional

is the file, where to add or delete terminals for the login of root. If a local access by console should be allowed only, then add console, ttyX and vc/X ( if devfs-interface is used, where X is an integer ).

The primary entry types and their affects are as follows:
If /etc/securetty doesn´t exist, root is allowed to login from any tty
If /etc/securetty exist and is empty, root access will be restricted to single user mode or programs that are not restricted by pam_securetty (i.e. su, sudo, ssh, scp, sftp)
if you are using devfs (a deprecated filesystem for handling /dev), adding entries of the form vc/[0-9]* will permit root login from the given virtual console number
if you are using udev (for dynamic device management and replacement for devfs), adding entries of the form tty[0-9]* will permit root login from the given virtual console number
listing console in securetty, normally has no effect since /dev/console points to the current console and is normally only used as the tty filename in single user mode, which is unaffected by /etc/securetty
adding entries like pts/[0-9]* will allow programs that use pseudo-terminals (pty) and pam_securetty to login into root assuming the allocated pty is one of the ones listed; it´s normally a good idea not to include these entries because it's a security risk; it would allow, for instance, someone to login into root via telenet, which sends passwords in plaintext (note that pts/[0-9]* is the format for udev which is used in RHEL 5.5; it will be different if using devfs or some other form of device management)
For single user mode, /etc/securetty is not consulted because the sulogin is used instead of login. See the sulogin man page for more info. Also you can change the login program used in /etc/inittab for each runlevel.

OKRestricting system reboots through the console
If your system has a keyboard attached to it anyone (yes anyone) with physical access to the system can reboot the system through it without login in just pressing the Ctrl+Alt+Delete keyboard combination, also known as the three finger salute. This might, or might not, adhere to your security policy.
This is aggravated in environments in which the operating system is running virtualised. In these environments, the possibility extends to users that have access to the virtual console (which might be accessed over the network). Also note that, in these environments, this keyboard combination is used constantly (to open a login shell in some GUI operating systems) and an administrator might virtually send it and force a system reboot.

There are two ways to restrict this:
configure it so that only allowed users can reboot the system, disable this feature completely.

If you want to restrict this, you must check the /etc/inittab so that the line that includes ctrlaltdel calls shutdown with the -a switch.
The default in Debian includes this switch:

ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now

The -a switch, as the shutdown(8) manpage describes,makes it possible to allow some users to shutdown the system. For this the file /etc/shutdown.allow must be created and the administrator has to include there the name of users which can boot the system. When the three finger salute combination is pressed in a console the program will check if any of the users listed in the file are logged in. If none of them is, shutdown will not reboot the system.
If you want to disable the Ctrl+Alt+Del combination you just need to comment the line with the ctrlaltdel definition in the /etc/inittab.
Remember to run init q after making any changes to the /etc/inittab file for the changes to take effect.

OKRestricting the use of the Magic SysRq key
The Magic SysRq key is a key combination that allows users connected to the system console of a Linux kernel to perform some low-level commands. These low-level commands are sent by pressing simultaneously Alt+SysRq and a command key. The SysRq key in many keyboards is labeled as the Print Screen key.
Since the Etch release, the Magic SysRq key feature is enabled in the Linux kernel to allow console users certain privileges. You can confirm this by checking if the /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq exists and reviewing its value:

DOLLARSIGN cat /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq

The default value shown above allows all of the SysRq functions except for the possibility of sending signals to processes. For example, it allow users connected to the console to remount all systems read-only, reboot the system or cause a kernel panic. In all the features are enabled, or in older kernels (earlier than 2.6.12) the value will be just 1.
You should disable this functionality ifaccess to the console is not restricted to authorised users: the console is connected to a modem line, there is easy physical access to the system or it is running in a virtualised environment and other users access the console. To do this edit the /etc/sysctl.conf and add the following lines:

# Disables the magic SysRq key
kernel.sysrq = 0

OKUser authentication: PAM
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) allows system administrators to choose how applications authenticate users. Note that PAM can do nothing unless an application is compiled with support for PAM. Most of the applications that are shipped with Debian have this support built in (Debian did not have PAM support before 2.2). The current default configuration for any PAM-enabled service is to emulate UNIX authentication (read /usr/share/doc/libpam0g/Debian-PAM-MiniPolicy.gz for more information on how PAM services should work in Debian).
Each application with PAM support provides a configuration file in /etc/pam.d/ which can be used to modify its behavior:

what backend is used for authentication.

what backend is used for sessions.

how do password checks behave.

The following description is far from complete, for more information you might want to read the Linux-PAM Guides as a reference. This documentation is available in the system if you install the libpam-doc at /usr/share/doc/libpam-doc/html/.
PAM offers you the possibility to go through several authentication steps at once, without the user´s knowledge. You could authenticate against a Berkeley database and against the normal passwd file, and the user only logs in if the authentication succeeds in both. You can restrict a lot with PAM, just as you can open your system doors very wide. So be careful. A typical configuration line has a control field as its second element. Generally it should be set to requisite, which returns a login failure if one module fails.
More about PAM:, chapter 4.11

OKUser login actions: edit /etc/login.defs (make a backup, before doing this!)
The next step is to edit the basic configuration and action upon user login. Note that this file is not part of the PAM configuration, it´s a configuration file honored by login and su programs, so it doesn´t make sense tuning it for cases where neither of the two programs are at least indirectly called (the getty program which sits on the consoles and offers the initial login prompt does invoke login).


If you enable this variable, failed logins will be logged. It is important to keep track of them to catch someone who tries a brute force attack.


If you set this variable to ´yes´ it will record unknown usernames if the login failed. It is best if you use ´no´ (the default) since, otherwise, user passwords might be inadvertenly logged here (if a user mistypes and they enter their password as the username). If you set it to ´yes´, make sure the logs have the proper permissions (640 for example, with an appropriate group setting such as adm).


This one enables logging of su attempts to syslog. Quite important on serious machines but note that this can create privacy issues as well.


The same as SYSLOG_SU_ENAB but applies to the sg program.


As stated above, encrypted passwords greatly reduce the problem of dictionary attacks, since you can use longer passwords. This definition has to be consistent with the value defined in /etc/pam.d/common-password.

OKUser login actions: edit /etc/pam.d/login (make a backup, before doing this!)
You can adjust the login configuration file to implement an stricter policy. For example, you can change the default configuration and increase the delay time between login prompts. The default configuration sets a 3 seconds delay:

auth optional delay=3000000

Increasing the delay value to a higher value to make it harder to use the terminal to log in using brute force. If a wrong password is typed in, the possible attacker (or normal user!) has to wait longer seconds to get a new login prompt, which is quite time consuming when you test passwords. For example, if you set delay=10000000, users will have to wait 10 seconds if they type a wrong password.

In this file you can also set the system to present a message to users before a user logs in. The default is disabled, as shown below:

# auth required issue=/etc/issue

If required by your security policy, this file can be used to show a standard message indicating that access to the system is restricted and user acess is logged. This kind of disclaimer might be required in some environments and jurisdictions. To enable it, just include the relevant information in the /etc/issue [24] file and uncomment the line enabling the module in /etc/pam.d/login. In this file you can also enable additional features which might be relevant to apply local security policies such as:

setting rules for which users can access at which times, by enabling the module and configuring /etc/security/time.conf accordingly (disabled by default),

setup login sessions to use user limits as defined in /etc/security/limits.conf (enabled by default),

present the user with the information of previous login information (enabled by default),

print a message (/etc/motd and /run/motd.dynamic) to users after login in (enabled by default),

OKRestricting ftp: editing /etc/ftpusers (make a backup, before doing this!)
The /etc/ftpusers file contains a list of users who are not allowed to log into the host using ftp. Only use this file if you really want to allow ftp (which is not recommended in general, because it uses clear-text passwords). If your daemon supports PAM, you can also use that to allow and deny users for certain services.
A convenient way to add all system accounts to the /etc/ftpusers is to run

DOLLARSIGN awk -F : ´{if (DOLLARSIGN3<1000) print DOLLARSIGN1}´ /etc/passwd > /etc/ftpusers

OKDisallow remote administrative access
You should also modify /etc/security/access.conf to disallow remote logins to administrative accounts. This way users need to invoke su (or sudo) to use any administrative powers and the appropriate audit trace will always be generated.
You need to add the following line to /etc/security/access.conf, the default Debian configuration file has a sample line commented out (making your system mouseclick-fast; do not forget to make a backup of this file, before doing this!).
As already described commented in in /etc/security/access.conf, for root and system user and user:

# User "root" should be denied to get access from all other sources.
- : root : ALL
- : user : ALL
- : surfuser :
- : toranonym :
- : uuidd : ALL
- . messagebus: ALL
- : ftp : ALL
- : mail : ALL
- : pop3ad : ALL
- : bin : ALL
- : daemon : ALL
- : adm : ALL
- : sync : ALL
- : halt : ALL
- : news : ALL
# All other users should be denied to get access from all sources.

Look out for other important options in this file too. Remember to enable the pam_access module for every service (or default configuration) in /etc/pam.d/ if you want your changes to /etc/security/access.conf honored.

OKConfiguring syncookies
This option is a double-edged sword. On the one hand it protects your system against syn packet flooding; on the other hand it violates defined standards (RFCs).

net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies = 1

If you want to change this option each time the kernel is working you need to change it in /etc/network/options by setting syncookies=yes. This will take effect when ever /etc/init.d/networking is run (which is typically done at boot time) while the following will have a one-time effect until the reboot:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies # e.g. within /etc/rc.local

This option will only be available if the kernel is compiled with the CONFIG_SYNCOOKIES. All Debian kernels are compiled with this option builtin but you can verify it running:

DOLLARSIGN sysctl -A |grep syncookies
net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies = 1

For more information on TCP syncookies read

Disabling weak-end hosts issues
Systems with more than one interface on different networks can have services configured so that they will bind only to a given IP address. This usually prevents access to services when requested through any other address. However, this does not mean (although it is a common misconception) that the service is bound to a given hardware address (interface card).
This is not an ARP issue and it's not an RFC violation (it's called weak end host in RFC1122, section Remember, IP addresses have nothing to do with physical interfaces.
On 2.2 (and previous) kernels this can be fixed with:

# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/hidden
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth0/hidden
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth1/hidden

..... On later kernels this can be fixed either with:

iptables rules.

properly configured routing.

kernel patching.

Along this text there will be many occasions in which it is shown how to configure some services (sshd server, apache, printer service...) in order to have them listening on any given address, the reader should take into account that, without the fixes given here, the fix would not prevent accesses from within the same (local) network.

OKUsing tcpwrappers
TCP wrappers were developed when there were no real packet filters available and access control was needed. Nevertheless, they're still very interesting and useful. The TCP wrappers allow you to allow or deny a service for a host or a domain and define a default allow or deny rule (all performed on the application level). If you want more information take a look at hosts_access(5).
Many services installed in Debian are either:

launched through the tcpwrapper service (tcpd)

compiled with libwrapper support built-in.

On the one hand, for services configured in /etc/inetd.conf (this includes telnet, ftp, netbios, swat and finger) you will see that the configuration file executes /usr/sbin/tcpd first. On the other hand, even if a service is not launched by the inetd superdaemon, support for the tcp wrappers rules can be compiled into it. Services compiled with tcp wrappers in Debian include ssh, portmap,, rpc.statd, rpc.mountd, gdm, oaf (the GNOME activator daemon), nessus and many others.

To see which packages use tcpwrappers [31] try:

DOLLARSIGN apt-cache rdepends libwrap0

Take this into account when running tcpdchk (a very useful TCP wrappers config file rule and syntax checker). When you add stand-alone services (that are directly linked with the wrapper library) into the hosts.deny and hosts.allow files, tcpdchk will warn you that it is not able to find the mentioned services since it only looks for them in /etc/inetd.conf (the manpage is not totally accurate here).

Now, here comes a small trick, and probably the smallest intrusion detection system available. In general, you should have a decent firewall policy as a first line, and tcp wrappers as the second line of defense. One little trick is to set up a SPAWN command in /etc/hosts.deny that sends mail to root whenever a denied service triggers wrappers:

echo -e " \
TCP Wrappers\: Connection refused \
By\: DOLLARSIGN(uname -n) \
Process\: %d (pid %p) \
User\: %u \
Host\: %c \
Date\: DOLLARSIGN(date) \
" | /usr/bin/mail -s "Connection to %d blocked" root) &

Beware: The above printed example is open to a DoS attack by making many connections in a short period of time. Many emails mean a lot of file I/O by sending only a few packets.

OKProtecting against ARP attacks
When you don´t trust the other boxes on your LAN (which should always be the case, because it´s the safest attitude) you should protect yourself from the various existing ARP attacks.
As you know the ARP protocol is used to link IP addresses to MAC addresses (see RFC826 for all the details). Every time you send a packet to an IP address an ARP resolution is done (first by looking into the local ARP cache then if the IP isn´t present in the cache by broadcasting an ARP query) to find the target´s hardware address. All the ARP attacks aim to fool your box into thinking that box B´s IP address is associated to the intruder´s box´s MAC address; Then every packet that you want to send to the IP associated to box B will be send to the intruder´s box...
Those attacks (ARP cache poisoning, ARP spoofing...) allow the attacker to sniff the traffic even on switched networks, to easily hijack connections, to disconnect any host from the network... ARP attacks are powerful and simple to implement, and several tools exists, such as arpspoof from the dsniff package or arpoison.
However, there is always a solution:
Use a static ARP cache. You can set up "static" entries in your ARP cache with:

arp -s host_name hdwr_addr

By setting static entries for each important host in your network you ensure that nobody will create/modify a (fake) entry for these hosts (static entries don´t expire and can´t be modified) and spoofed ARP replies will be ignored. Detect suspicious ARP traffic. You can use arpwatch, karpski or more general IDS that can also detect suspicious ARP traffic (snort, prelude...).
Implement IP traffic filtering validating the MAC address.

OKSecuring FTP
If you really have to use FTP (without wrapping it with sslwrap or inside a SSL or SSH tunnel), you should chroot ftp into the ftp users' home directory, so that the user is unable to see anything else than their own directory. Otherwise they could traverse your root file system just like if they had a shell in it. You can add the following line in your proftpd.conf in your global section to enable this chroot feature:

DefaultRoot ~

Restart ProFTPd by /etc/init.d/proftpd restart and check whether you can escape from your homedir now.
To prevent ProFTPd DoS attacks using ../../.., add the following line in /etc/proftpd.conf: DenyFilter \*.*/
Always remember that FTP sends login and authentication passwords in clear text (this is not an issue if you are providing an anonymous public service) and there are better alternatives in Debian for this. For example, sftp (provided by ssh). There are also free implementations of SSH for other operating systems: putty and cygwin for example.
However, if you still maintain the FTP server while making users access through SSH you might encounter a typical problem. Users accessing anonymous FTP servers inside SSH-secured systems might try to log in the FTP server. While the access will be refused, the password will nevertheless be sent through the net in clear form. To avoid that, ProFTPd developer TJ Saunders has created a patch that prevents users feeding the anonymous FTP server with valid SSH accounts. More information and patch available at: ProFTPD Patches. This patch has been reported to Debian too, see Bug #145669.

OKSecure up RPC-services
Deactivate RPC abschalten (or deinstall it), if not needed.

OKSecuring Squid
Squid is one of the most popular proxy/cache server, and there are some security issues that should be taken into account. Squid´s default configuration file denies all users requests. However the Debian package allows access from ´localhost´, you just need to configure your browser properly. You should configure Squid to allow access to trusted users, hosts or networks defining an Access Control List on /etc/squid/squid.conf, see the Squid User´s Guide for more information about defining ACLs rules. Notice that Debian provides a minimum configuration for Squid that will prevent anything, except from localhost to connect to your proxy server (which will run in the default port 3128). You will need to customize your /etc/squid/squid.conf as needed. The recommended minimum configuration (provided with the package) is shown below:

acl all src
acl manager proto cache_object
acl localhost src
acl SSL_ports port 443 563
acl Safe_ports port 80 # http
acl Safe_ports port 21 # ftp
acl Safe_ports port 443 563 # https, snews
acl Safe_ports port 70 # gopher
acl Safe_ports port 210 # wais
acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports
acl Safe_ports port 280 # http-mgmt
acl Safe_ports port 488 # gss-http
acl Safe_ports port 591 # filemaker
acl Safe_ports port 777 # multiling http
acl Safe_ports port 901 # SWAT
acl purge method PURGE
# Only allow cachemgr access from localhost
http_access allow manager localhost
http_access deny manager
# Only allow purge requests from localhost
http_access allow purge localhost
http_access deny purge
# Deny requests to unknown ports
http_access deny !Safe_ports
# Deny CONNECT to other than SSL ports
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
http_access allow localhost
# And finally deny all other access to this proxy
http_access deny all
# icp_access deny all
#Allow ICP queries from everyone
icp_access allow all

You should also configure Squid based on your system resources, including cache memory (option cache_mem), location of the cached files and the amount of space they will take up on disk (option cache_dir).
Notice that, if not properly configured, someone may relay a mail message through Squid, since the HTTP and SMTP protocols are designed similarly. Squid´s default configuration file denies access to port 25. If you wish to allow connections to port 25 just add it to Safe_ports lists. However, this is NOT recommended.
Setting and configuring the proxy/cache server properly is only part of keeping your site secure. Another necessary task is to analyze Squid´s logs to assure that all things are working as they should be working. There are some packages in Debian GNU/Linux that can help an administrator to do this. The following packages are available in Debian 3.0 and Debian 3.1 (sarge):

calamaris - Log analyzer for Squid or Oops proxy log files.
modlogan - A modular logfile analyzer.
sarg - Squid Analysis Report Generator.
squidtaild - Squid log monitoring program.

When using Squid in Accelerator Mode it acts as a web server too. Turning on this option increases code complexity, making it less reliable. By default Squid is not configured to act as a web server, so you don´t need to worry about this. Note that if you want to use this feature be sure that it is really necessary. To find more information about Accelerator Mode on Squid see the Squid User´s Guide - Accelerator Mode

OKSecuring printing access (the lpd and lprng issue)
Imagine, you arrive at work, and the printer is spitting out endless amounts of paper because someone is DoSing your line printer daemon. Nasty, isn´t it?
In any UNIX printing architecture, there has to be a way to get the client´s data to the host´s print server. In traditional lpr and lp, the client command copies or symlinks the data into the spool directory (which is why these programs are usually SUID or SGID).
In order to avoid any issues you should keep your printer servers especially secure. This means you need to configure your printer service so it will only allow connections from a set of trusted servers. In order to do this, add the servers you want to allow printing to your /etc/hosts.lpd.
However, even if you do this, the lpr daemon accepts incoming connections on port 515 of any interface. You should consider firewalling connections from networks/hosts which are not allowed printing (the lpr daemon cannot be limited to listen only on a given IP address).
Lprng should be preferred over lpr since it can be configured to do IP access control. And you can specify which interface to bind to (although somewhat weirdly).
If you are using a printer in your system, but only locally, you will not want to share this service over a network. You can consider using other printing systems, like the one provided by cups or PDQ which is based on user permissions of the /dev/lp0 device.
In cups, the print data is transferred to the server via the HTTP protocol. This means the client program doesn´t need any special privileges, but does require that the server is listening on a port somewhere.
However, if you want to use cups, but only locally, you can configure it to bind to the loopback interface by changing /etc/cups/cupsd.conf:

Listen # This might not work! To go sure: Port 631 and Listen /var/run/cups/cups.sock

There are many other security options like allowing or denying networks and hosts in this config file. However, if you do not need them you might be better off just limiting the listening port. Cups also serves documentation through the HTTP port, if you do not want to disclose potential useful information to outside attackers (and the port is open) add also:

>Location /<
Order Deny,Allow
Deny From All
Allow From # or try "Allow @LOCAL"

This configuration file can be modified to add some more features including SSL/TLS certificates and crypto. The manuals are available at http://localhost:631/ or at
FIXME: Add more content (the article on Amateur Fortress Building provides some very interesting views).
FIXME: Check if PDG is available in Debian, and if so, suggest this as the preferred printing system.
FIXME: Check if Farmer/Wietse has a replacement for printer daemon and if it´s available in Debian.

OKSecuring SSH, mail-service, BIND, Apache, Finger and deactivate NIS

OKImportant access-rights set each system boot
chmod 700 -R /etc/init.d
chmod 700 -R /etc/rc5.d
chmod 400 /etc/shadow*
chmod 400 path_to_encrypted_key_file_for_LUKS_encrypted_partitions

In order to gain a first, short overview for more access-rights within /etc/rc.local set each boot ( for a second we are going to list them more in detail soon ). They do not make the system working only secure, they also do let work it mouseclick-fast :
chmod 700 -R /etc/init.d
chmod 400 /etc/shadow*
chmod 111 /
chmod 400 /etc/fstab* # f-spot won´t work anymore
chmod 700 /etc/crypttab*
chmod 644 /etc/mtab* # 700: kdf won´t work
chmod 755 /usr # 755 needed for caffeine only, else 751
chmod 751 /bin
chmod 751 /sbin
chmod 751 /lib64
chmod 751 /usr/lib64
# chmod 751 -R /usr/lib64/python2.6 # chmod 751 -R /usr/lib/python2.6 # shall have got the same include as /usr/lib64/python2.6 chmod 751 /usr/lib64/kde4
chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig
chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig/network
chmod 751 /etc
chmod 751 /etc/X11
chmod 751 /var
chmod 751 /opt
chmod 751 /lib
chmod 700 /root
chmod 700 -R /etc/init.d
chmod 751 /initrd
chmod 751 /misc
chmod 700 -R /boot-save
chmod 700 /usr/bin/xterm # terminals (except your favorite one)
chmod 700 /usr/bin/aterm
chmod 700 /usr/bin/byobu*
chmod 700 /usr/bin/terminator*
chmod 700 /usr/bin/quadkonsole*
chmod 700 /usr/bin/lxterminal*
chmod 700 /usr/bin/yakuake*
chmod 700 /usr/bin/aterm
chmod 700 /usr/bin/multi-aterm
chmod 700 /usr/bin/tcsh*
chmod 700 /usr/bin/rxvt*
chmod 644 /etc/passwd
chmod 644 /etc/security/msec/*.secure
chmod 711 /home
chmod 700 /home/user
chmod 700 /home/surfuser
chmod 700 /home/uuidd
chmod 700 /home/toranonym
chmod 700 -R /home/user/Dokumente
# from permissions (OpenSuSE, chkstat), level: secure with some changes
/ root:root 111
/root/ root:root 700
/tmp/ root:root 1777
/tmp/.X11-unix/ root:root 1777
/tmp/.ICE-unix/ root:root 1777
/dev/ root:root 755
/bin/ root:root 751
/sbin/ root:root 751
/lib/ root:root 751
/etc/ root:root 751
/home/ root:root 711
/boot/ root:root 755
/opt/ root:root 751
/usr/ root:root 755
/usr/local root:root 755
# /var:

/var/tmp/ root:root 1777
/var/log/ root:root 755
/var/spool/ root:root 755
/var/spool/mqueue/ root:root 700
/var/spool/news/ news:news 775
/var/spool/voice/ root:root 755
/var/spool/mail/ root:root 1777
/var/adm/ root:root 755
/var/adm/backup/ root:root 700
/var/cache/ root:root 755
/var/cache/man/ man:root 755
/var/run/nscd/socket root:root 666
/run/nscd/socket root:root 666
/var/run/sudo/ root:root 700
/run/sudo/ root:root 700

# login tracking
/var/log/lastlog root:root 644
/var/log/faillog root:root 600
/var/log/wtmp root:utmp 664
/var/log/btmp root:utmp 600
/var/run/utmp root:utmp 664
/run/utmp root:utmp 664

# some device files

/dev/zero root:root 666
/dev/null root:root 666
/dev/full root:root 666
/dev/ip root:root 660
/dev/initrd root:disk 660
/dev/kmem root:kmem 640

# /etc
/etc/lilo.conf root:root 600
/etc/passwd root:root 644
/etc/shadow root:shadow 400
/etc/init.d/ root:root 755
/etc/hosts root:root 644
# Changing the hosts_access(5) files causes trouble with services
# that do not run as root!
/etc/hosts.allow root:root 644
/etc/hosts.deny root:root 644
/etc/hosts.equiv root:root 644
/etc/hosts.lpd root:root 644
/etc/ root:root 644
/etc/ root:root 644

/etc/opiekeys root:root 600

/etc/ppp/ root:root 750
/etc/ppp/chap-secrets root:root 600
/etc/ppp/pap-secrets root:root 600

# sysconfig files:
/etc/sysconfig/network/providers/ root:root 700

# utempter
/usr/lib/utempter/utempter root:utmp 2755

# ensure correct permissions on ssh files to avoid sshd refusing
# logins (bnc#398250)
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key root:root 600
/etc/ssh/ root:root 644
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key root:root 600
/etc/ssh/ root:root 644 /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key root:root 600
/etc/ssh/ root:root 644
/etc/ssh/ssh_config root:root 644
/etc/ssh/sshd_config root:root 640

# legacy
# new traceroute program by Olaf Kirch does not need setuid root any more.
/usr/sbin/traceroute root:root 755

# games:games 775 safe as long as we don't change files below it (#103186)
# still people do it (#429882) so root:root 755 is the consequence.
/var/games/ root:root 0755

# No longer common. Set setuid bit yourself if you need it
# (#66191)
#/usr/bin/ziptool root:trusted 4750

# udev static devices (#438039)
/lib/udev/devices/net/tun root:root 0666
/lib/udev/devices/null root:root 0666
/lib/udev/devices/ptmx root:tty 0666
/lib/udev/devices/tty root:tty 0666
/lib/udev/devices/zero root:root 0666

# named chroot (#438045)
/var/lib/named/dev/null root:root 0666
/var/lib/named/dev/random root:root 0666

# opiesu is not allowed setuid root as code quality is bad (bnc#882035)
/usr/bin/opiesu root:root 0755

# we no longer make rpm build dirs 1777
/usr/src/packages/SOURCES/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/BUILD/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/BUILDROOT/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/alphaev56/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/alphaev67/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/alphaev6/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/alpha/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/amd64/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/arm4l/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv4l/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv5tejl/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv5tejvl/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv5tel/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv5tevl/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv6l/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv6vl/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/armv7l/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/athlon/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/geode/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/hppa2.0/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/hppa/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/i386/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/i486/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/i586/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/i686/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/ia32e/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/ia64/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/mips/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/noarch/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/pentium3/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/pentium4/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/powerpc64/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/powerpc/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/ppc64/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/ppc/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/s390/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/s390x/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/sparc64/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/sparc/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/sparcv9/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/RPMS/x86_64/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/SPECS/ root:root 0755
/usr/src/packages/SRPMS/ root:root 0755
# /etc
/etc/crontab root:root 600
/etc/exports root:root 644
/etc/fstab root:root 400
/etc/ftpusers root:root 644
/var/lib/nfs/rmtab root:root 644
/etc/syslog.conf root:root 600
/etc/ssh/sshd_config root:root 600
# we might want to tighten that up in the future in this profile (remove the
# ability for others to read/enter)
/etc/cron.d root:root 755
/etc/cron.daily root:root 755
/etc/cron.hourly root:root 755
/etc/cron.monthly root:root 755
/etc/cron.weekly root:root 755

# suid system programs that need the suid bit to work:
/bin/su root:root 4755
# disable at and cron for users that do not belnong to the group "trusted"
/usr/bin/at root:trusted 4750
/usr/bin/crontab root:trusted 4750
/usr/bin/gpasswd root:shadow 4755
/usr/bin/newgrp root:root 4755
/usr/bin/passwd root:shadow 4755
/usr/bin/chfn root:shadow 4755
/usr/bin/chage root:shadow 2755
/usr/bin/chsh root:shadow 4755
/usr/bin/expiry root:shadow 4755
/usr/bin/sudo root:root 4755
/usr/sbin/su-wrapper root:root 0755
# opie password system
# /usr/bin/opiepasswd root:root 4755
/sbin/mount.nfs root:root 0755
/usr/bin/fusermount root:trusted 4750
# needs setuid root when using shadow via NIS:
/sbin/unix_chkpwd root:shadow 4755
/sbin/unix2_chkpwd root:shadow 4755

# squid changes
/var/cache/squid/ squid:root 0750
/var/log/squid/ squid:root 0750
/usr/sbin/pinger squid:root 0750
+capabilities cap_net_raw=ep
/usr/sbin/basic_pam_auth root:shadow 2750

# still to be converted to utempter /usr/lib/gnome-pty-helper root:utmp 2755

# mixed section: most of it is disabled in this
# video
/usr/bin/v4l-conf root:video 4750

# turned off write and wall by disabling sgid tty:
/usr/bin/wall root:tty 0755
/usr/bin/write root:tty 0755
# thttpd: sgid + executeable only for group www. Useless...
/usr/bin/makeweb root:www 2750
# pcmcia:
# Needs setuid to eject cards (#100120)
/sbin/pccardctl root:trusted 4750
# gnokii nokia cellphone software
# #66209
/usr/sbin/mgnokiidev root:uucp 755
# mailman mailing list software
# #66315
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/admin root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/admindb root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/edithtml root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/listinfo root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/options root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/private root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/roster root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/subscribe root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/confirm root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/create root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/editarch root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/cgi-bin/rmlist root:mailman 2755
/usr/lib/mailman/mail/mailman root:mailman 2755

# libgnomesu (#75823, #175616)
/usr/lib/libgnomesu/gnomesu-pam-backend root:root 4755

# networking (need root for the privileged socket)
/usr/bin/ping root:root 0755
+capabilities cap_net_raw=ep
/usr/bin/ping6 root:root 0755
+capabilities cap_net_raw=ep
# mtr is linked against ncurses. no suid bit, for root only:
/usr/sbin/mtr root:dialout 0750
/usr/bin/rcp root:root 4755
/usr/bin/rlogin root:root 4755
/usr/bin/rsh root:root 4755

# exim
/usr/sbin/exim root:root 4755

# dialup networking programs
/usr/sbin/pppoe-wrapper root:dialout 4750
# i4l package (#100750):
/sbin/isdnctrl root:dialout 4750
# #66111
/usr/bin/vboxbeep root:trusted 0755

# linux text console utilities
# setuid needed on the text console to set the terminal content on ctrl-o
# #66112
/usr/lib/mc/cons.saver root:root 0755

# terminal emulators
# This and future SUSE products have support for the utempter, a small helper
# program that does the utmp/wtmp update work with the necessary rights.
# The use of utempter obsoletes the need for sgid bits on terminal emulator
# binaries. We mention screen here, but all other terminal emulators have
# moved to /etc/permissions, with modes set to 0755.

# needs setuid to access /dev/console
# framebuffer terminal emulator (japanese)
/usr/bin/jfbterm root:tty 0755

# kde
# (all of them are disabled in except for
# the helper programs)
# needs setuid root when using shadow via NIS:
# #66218
/usr/lib/kde4/libexec/kcheckpass root:shadow 4755
/usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/kcheckpass root:shadow 4755
/usr/lib/kde4/libexec/kdesud root:nogroup 2755
/usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/kdesud root:nogroup 2755
/usr/lib/libexec/kf5/kdesud root:nogroup 2755
/usr/lib64/libexec/kf5/kdesud root:nogroup 2755

# bnc#523833
/usr/lib/kde4/libexec/start_kdeinit root:root 4755
/usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/start_kdeinit root:root 4755

# amanda
/usr/sbin/amcheck root:amanda 0750
/usr/lib/amanda/calcsize root:amanda 0750
/usr/lib/amanda/rundump root:amanda 0750
/usr/lib/amanda/planner root:amanda 0750
/usr/lib/amanda/runtar root:amanda 0750
/usr/lib/amanda/dumper root:amanda 0750
/usr/lib/amanda/killpgrp root:amanda 0750

# gnats
/usr/lib/gnats/gen-index gnats:root 4555
/usr/lib/gnats/pr-edit gnats:root 4555
/usr/lib/gnats/queue-pr gnats:root 4555

# news (inn)
# the inn start script changes it's uid to news:news. Later innbind
# is called by this user. Those programs do not need to be called by
# anyone else, therefore the strange permissions 4554 are required
# for operation. (#67032, #594393)
/usr/lib/news/bin/rnews news:uucp 4550
/usr/lib/news/bin/inews news:news 2555
/usr/lib/news/bin/innbind root:news 4550

# sendfax
# restrictive, only for "trusted" group users:
/usr/lib/mgetty+sendfax/faxq-helper fax:root 4755
/var/spool/fax/outgoing/ fax:root 0755
/var/spool/fax/outgoing/locks fax:root 0755

# uucp
/var/spool/uucppublic/ root:uucp 1770
/usr/bin/uucp uucp:uucp 6555
/usr/bin/uuname uucp:uucp 6555
/usr/bin/uustat uucp:uucp 6555
/usr/bin/uux uucp:uucp 6555
/usr/lib/uucp/uucico uucp:uucp 6555
/usr/lib/uucp/uuxqt uucp:uucp 6555

# pcp (bnc#782967)
/var/lib/pcp/tmp/ root:root 0755
/var/lib/pcp/tmp/pmdabash/ root:root 0755
/var/lib/pcp/tmp/mmv/ root:root 0755
/var/lib/pcp/tmp/pmlogger/ root:root 0755
/var/lib/pcp/tmp/pmie/ root:root 0755

# PolicyKit (#295341)
/usr/lib/PolicyKit/polkit-set-default-helper polkituser:root 4755
/usr/lib/PolicyKit/polkit-read-auth-helper root:polkituser 2755
/usr/lib/PolicyKit/polkit-revoke-helper root:polkituser 2755
/usr/lib/PolicyKit/polkit-explicit-grant-helper root:polkituser 2755
/usr/lib/PolicyKit/polkit-grant-helper root:polkituser 2755
/usr/lib/PolicyKit/polkit-grant-helper-pam root:polkituser 4750

# polkit new (bnc#523377)
/usr/lib/polkit-1/polkit-agent-helper-1 root:root 4755
/usr/bin/pkexec root:root 4755

# dbus-1 (#333361)
/lib/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper root:messagebus 4750
/lib64/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper root:messagebus 4750
# dbus-1 in /usr #1056764)
/usr/lib/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper root:messagebus 4750
/usr/lib64/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper root:messagebus 4750

# policycoreutils (#440596)
/usr/bin/newrole root:root 0755

# VirtualBox (#429725)
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VirtualBox root:vboxusers 0755
# bsc#1120650
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VirtualBoxVM root:vboxusers 0750
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VBoxHeadless root:vboxusers 0755
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VBoxSDL root:vboxusers 0755
# (bnc#533550)
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VBoxNetAdpCtl root:vboxusers 0755
# bnc#669055
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VBoxNetDHCP root:vboxusers 0755
# bsc#1033425
/usr/lib/virtualbox/VBoxNetNAT root:vboxusers 0755

# open-vm-tools (bnc#474285)
/usr/bin/vmware-user-suid-wrapper root:root 0755

# lockdev (bnc#588325)
/usr/sbin/lockdev root:lock 2755

# hawk (bnc#665045)
/usr/sbin/hawk_chkpwd root:haclient 4750
/usr/sbin/hawk_invoke root:haclient 4750

# chromium (bnc#718016)
/usr/lib/chrome_sandbox root:root 4755

# ecryptfs-utils (bnc#740110)
/sbin/mount.ecryptfs_private root:root 0755

# wireshark (bsc#957624)
/usr/bin/dumpcap root:wireshark 0750
+capabilities cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin=ep

# singularity (bsc#1028304)
# these have been dropped in version 2.4 (see bsc#1111411, comment 4)
#/usr/lib/singularity/bin/expand-suid root:singularity 4750
#/usr/lib/singularity/bin/create-suid root:singularity 4750
#/usr/lib/singularity/bin/export-suid root:singularity 4750
#/usr/lib/singularity/bin/import-suid root:singularity 4750
/usr/lib/singularity/bin/action-suid root:singularity 4750
/usr/lib/singularity/bin/mount-suid root:singularity 4750
/usr/lib/singularity/bin/start-suid root:singularity 4750

/usr/bin/su root:root 4755
/usr/bin/mount root:root 4755
/usr/bin/umount root:root 4755

# cdrecord of cdrtools from Joerg Schilling (bnc#550021)
# in secure mode, no provisions are made for reliable cd burning, as admins
# will have very likely prohibited that anyway.
/usr/bin/cdrecord root:root 755
/usr/bin/readcd root:root 755
/usr/bin/cdda2wav root:root 755

# qemu-bridge-helper (bnc#765948, bsc#988279)
/usr/lib/qemu-bridge-helper root:kvm 04750

# systemd-journal (bnc#888151)
/var/log/journal/ root:systemd-journal 2755

#iouyap (bnc#904060)
/usr/lib/iouyap root:iouyap 0750

# radosgw (bsc#943471)
/usr/bin/radosgw root:www 0750
+capabilities cap_net_bind_service=ep

# gstreamer ptp (bsc#960173)
/usr/lib/gstreamer-1.0/gst-ptp-helper root:root 0755
+capabilities cap_net_bind_service=ep

# suexec is only secure if the document root doesn´t contain files
# writeable by wwwrun. Make sure you have a safe server setup
# before setting the setuid bit! See also
# You need to override this in permissions.local.
# suexec2 is a symlink for now, leave as-is
/usr/sbin/suexec root:root 0755

# newgidmap / newuidmap (bsc#979282, bsc#1048645)
/usr/bin/newgidmap root:shadow 4755
/usr/bin/newuidmap root:shadow 4755

# kwayland (bsc#1062182)
/usr/bin/kwin_wayland root:root 0755
+capabilities cap_sys_nice=ep

# gvfs (bsc#1065864)
/usr/lib/gvfs/gvfsd-nfs root:root 0755

# icinga2 (bsc#1069410)
/run/icinga2/cmd icinga:icingagmd 2750

# fping (bsc#1047921)
/usr/sbin/fping root:root 0755
+capabilities cap_net_raw=ep

# usbauth (bsc#1066877)
/usr/bin/usbauth-npriv root:usbauth 04750
/usr/lib/usbauth-notifier root:usbauth-notifier 0750
/usr/lib/usbauth-notifier/usbauth-notifier root:usbauth 02755

# spice-gtk (bsc#1101420)
/usr/bin/spice-client-glib-usb-acl-helper root:kvm 04750

# smc-tools (bsc#1102956)
/usr/lib/ root:root 04755
/usr/lib64/ root:root 04755

# lxc (bsc#988348)
/usr/lib/lxc/lxc-user-nic root:kvm 04750

# firejail (bsc#1059013) /usr/bin/firejail root:firejail 04750

# authbind (bsc#1111251)
/usr/lib/authbind/helper root:root 04755

# fuse3 (bsc#1111230)
/usr/bin/fusermount3 root:trusted 04750

# 389-ds (bsc#1111564)
/usr/sbin/ns-slapd root:dirsrv 0750
+capabilities cap_net_bind_service=ep
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /home/user
setfacl -m u:rtkit:- /home/user
setfacl -m u:uuidd:- /home/user
setfacl -m:u:anonymous:- /home/user
setfacl -m u:user:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:uuidd:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:rtkit:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:-1:- /home/user
setfacl -m u:-1:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:anonymous:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:adm:- /home/user
setfacl -m u:adm:- /home/surfuser
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /mnt
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /media
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /mnt
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /media
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/su
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/su
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /bin/su
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /usr/bin/su
setfacl -m u:rtkit:- /bin/su
setfacl -m u:rtkit:- /usr/bin/su
setfacl -m u:rtkit:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec
setfacl -m u:uuidd:- /bin/su
setfacl -m u:uuidd:- /usr/bin/su
setfacl -m u:uuidd:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec
setfacl -m u:anonymous:- /bin/su
setfacl -m u:anonymous:- /usr/bin/su
setfacl -m u:anonymous:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/fstab*
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/mtab*
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/crypttab*
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/fstab*
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/mtab*
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/crypttab*
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/init.d
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/init.d/*
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/init.d
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/init.d/*
setfacl -m u:user:- /home/toranonym
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/toranonym
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/local/LINFW3
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /usr/local/LINFW3
setfacl -m u:uuidd:- /usr/local/LINFW3
setfacl -m u:-1:- /usr/local/LINFW3
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/security/msec
setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/security
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/security
setfacl -m u:toranonym:- /etc/security/msec

OKDisable Unwanted SUID- and SGID-Binaries
All SUID/SGID bits enabled file can be misused when the SUID/SGID executable has a security problem or bug. All local or remote user can use such file. It is a good idea to find all such files. Use the find command as follows:
#See all set user id files:
find / -perm +4000
# See all group id files
find / -perm +2000
# Or combine both in a single command
find / \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -print
find / -path -prune -o -type f -perm +6000 -ls

You need to investigate each reported file. See reported file man page for further details.

OKUser auditing
If you are really paranoid you might want to add a system-wide configuration to audit what the users are doing in your system. This sections presents some tips using diverse utilities you can use.

- Input and output audit with script,
- Using the shell history file,
- Complete user audit with accounting utilities,
- Other user auditing methods,
- Reviewing user profiles, 4.11.11
- Limiting what users can see/access, 4.11.13
- Limiting access to other user´s information,
- Generating user passwords, 4.11.14
- Checking user passwords

OKSystem Accounting with auditd
The auditd is provided for system auditing. It is responsible for writing audit records to the disk. During startup, the rules in /etc/audit.rules are read by this daemon. You can open /etc/audit.rules file and make changes such as setup audit file log location and other option. With auditd you can answers the following questions:

System startup and shutdown events (reboot / halt).
Date and time of the event.
User respoisble for the event (suh as trying to access /path/to/topsecret.dat file).
Type of event (edit, access, delete, write, update file & commands).
Success or failure of the event.
Records events that modify date and time.
Find out who made changes to modify the system’s network settings.
Record events that modify user/group information.
See who made changes to a file etc.

See our quick tutorial which explains enabling and using the auditd service.

OKPrevent too informative system information in logfiles
The system-log-level reach from debug over info, warning up to emerg. A detailed protocolling is something to think about, they can be read out by users as much as processes. For outputs of dmesg log-level "warning" might restrict delivered protocol-information:


OKUsing and customizing logcheck
The logcheck package in Debian is divided into the three packages logcheck (the main program), logcheck-database (a database of regular expressions for the program) and logtail (prints loglines that have not yet been read). The Debian default (in /etc/cron.d/logcheck) is that logcheck is run every hour and after reboots.
This tool can be quite useful if properly customized to alert the administrator of unusual system events. Logcheck can be fully customized so that it sends mails based on events found in the logs and worthy of attention. The default installation includes profiles for ignored events and policy violations for three different setups (workstation, server and paranoid). The Debian package includes a configuration file /etc/logcheck/logcheck.conf, sourced by the program, that defines which user the checks are sent to. It also provides a way for packages that provide services to implement new policies in the directories: /etc/logcheck/cracking.d/_packagename_, /etc/logcheck/violations.d/_packagename_, /etc/logcheck/violations.ignore.d/_packagename_, /etc/logcheck/ignore.d.paranoid/_packagename_, /etc/logcheck/ignore.d.server/_packagename_, and /etc/logcheck/ignore.d.workstation/_packagename_. However, not many packages currently do so. If you have a policy that can be useful for other users, please send it as a bug report for the appropriate package (as a wishlist bug). For more information read /usr/share/doc/logcheck/README.Debian.
The best way to configure logcheck is to edit its main configuration file /etc/logcheck/logcheck.conf after installation. Change the default user (root) to whom reports should be mailed. You should set the reportlevel in there, too. logcheck-database has three report levels of increasing verbosity: workstation, server, paranoid. "server" being the default level, paranoid is only recommended for high-security machines running as few services as possible and workstation for relatively sheltered, non-critical machines. If you wish to add new log files just add them to /etc/logcheck/logcheck.logfiles. It is tuned for default syslog install.
Once this is done you might want to check the mails that are sent, for the first few days/weeks/months. If you find you are sent messages you do not wish to receive, just add the regular expressions (see regex(7) and egrep(1)) that correspond to these messages to the /etc/logcheck/ignore.d.reportlevel/local. Try to match the whole logline. Details on howto write rules are explained in /usr/share/doc/logcheck-database/README.logcheck-database.gz. It´s an ongoing tuning process; once the messages that are sent are always relevant you can consider the tuning finished. Note that if logcheck does not find anything relevant in your system it will not mail you even if it does run (so you might get a mail only once a week, if you are lucky).

OKConfigure, where alerts are sent
Debian comes with a standard syslog configuration (in /etc/syslog.conf) that logs messages to the appropriate files depending on the system facility. You should be familiar with this; have a look at the syslog.conf file and the documentation if not. If you intend to maintain a secure system you should be aware of where log messages are sent so they do not go unnoticed.
For example, sending messages to the console also is an interesting setup useful for many production-level systems. But for many such systems it is also important to add a new machine that will serve as loghost (i.e. it receives logs from all other systems).
Root´s mail should be considered also, many security controls (like snort) send alerts to root´s mailbox. This mailbox usually points to the first user created in the system (check /etc/aliases). Take care to send root´s mail to some place where it will be read (either locally or remotely).
There are other role accounts and aliases on your system. On a small system, it´s probably simplest to make sure that all such aliases point to the root account, and that mail to root is forwarded to the system administrator´s personal mailbox.

OKFirefox: Copy the secure libssl*, libnss* and libnspr4* of tor-Browser (ESR) or out of an actual Firefox like 63 to Firefox (ESR, same version as tor-browser) into /usr/lib64/firefox/ followed by chown root:root and chmod 755 upon them.

OKProtecting against ARP-attacks
When you don´t trust the other boxes on your LAN (which should always be the case, because it´s the safest attitude) you should protect yourself from the various existing ARP attacks.
As you know the ARP protocol is used to link IP addresses to MAC addresses (see RFC826 for all the details). Every time you send a packet to an IP address an ARP resolution is done (first by looking into the local ARP cache then if the IP isn´t present in the cache by broadcasting an ARP query) to find the target´s hardware address. All the ARP attacks aim to fool your box into thinking that box B´s IP address is associated to the intruder´s box´s MAC address; Then every packet that you want to send to the IP associated to box B will be send to the intruder´s box...
Those attacks (ARP cache poisoning, ARP spoofing...) allow the attacker to sniff the traffic even on switched networks, to easily hijack connections, to disconnect any host from the network... ARP attacks are powerful and simple to implement, and several tools exists, such as arpspoof from the dsniff package or arpoison.
However, there is always a solution:

Use a static ARP cache. You can set up "static" entries in your ARP cache with:

arp -s host_name hdwr_addr

By setting static entries for each important host in your network you ensure that nobody will create/modify a (fake) entry for these hosts (static entries don´t expire and can´t be modified) and spoofed ARP replies will be ignored. Detect suspicious ARP traffic. You can use arpwatch, karpski or more general IDS that can also detect suspicious ARP traffic (snort, prelude...).
Implement IP traffic filtering validating the MAC address.

OKSecure up services running on your system
SSH, Squid, FTP, X-Window-System, Display-Manager, Druckerzugriff, Mail-Dienst, BIND, Apache, Finger, chroot- and suid-paranoia, Cleartext-passwort-paranoia, deactivating NIS, deactivating RPC-services:

OKPackage signing

OKRemote vulnerability assessment tools
The tools provided by Debian to perform remote vulnerability assessment are:

nessus, raccess, nikto (whisker´s replacement)

By far, the most complete and up-to-date tools is nessus which is composed of a client (nessus) used as a GUI and a server (nessusd) which launches the programmed attacks. Nessus includes remote vulnerabilities for quite a number of systems including network appliances, ftp servers, www servers, etc. The latest security plugins are able even to parse a web site and try to discover which interactive pages are available which could be attacked. There are also Java and Win32 clients (not included in Debian) which can be used to contact the management server.

OKNetwork scanner tools
Debian does provide some tools used for remote scanning of hosts (but not vulnerability assessment). These tools are, in some cases, used by vulnerability assessment scanners as the first type of "attack" run against remote hosts in an attempt to determine remote services available. Currently Debian provides:

nmap, xprobe, p0f, knocker, isic, hping2, icmpush, nbtscan (for SMB /NetBIOS audits), fragrouter, strobe (in the netdiag package), irpas

While xprobe provide only remote operating system detection (using TCP/IP fingerprinting, nmap and knocker do both operating system detection and port scanning of the remote hosts. On the other hand, hping2 and icmpush can be used for remote ICMP attack techniques.
Designed specifically for SMB networks, nbtscan can be used to scan IP networks and retrieve name information from SMB-enabled servers, including: usernames, network names, MAC addresses...
On the other hand, fragrouter can be used to test network intrusion detection systems and see if the NIDS can be eluded by fragmentation attacks.

OKVirtual Private Networks
A virtual private network (VPN) is a group of two or more computer systems, typically connected to a private network with limited public network access, that communicate securely over a public network. VPNs may connect a single computer to a private network (client-server), or a remote LAN to a private network (server-server). VPNs often include the use of encryption, strong authentication of remote users or hosts, and methods for hiding the private network´s topology.
Debian provides quite a few packages to set up encrypted virtual private networks:

vtun, tunnelv (non-US section), cipe-source, cipe-common, tinc, secvpn, pptpd, openvpn, openswan (

The OpenSWAN package is probably the best choice overall, since it promises to interoperate with almost anything that uses the IP security protocol, IPsec (RFC 2411). However, the other packages listed above can also help you get a secure tunnel up in a hurry. The point to point tunneling protocol (PPTP) is a proprietary Microsoft protocol for VPN. It is supported under Linux, but is known to have serious security issues.
For more information see the VPN-Masquerade HOWTO (covers IPsec and PPTP), VPN HOWTO (covers PPP over SSH), Cipe mini-HOWTO, and PPP and SSH mini-HOWTO.
Also worth checking out is Yavipin, but no Debian packages seem to be available yet.

OKReaction in the case of user-idle-state,
Now that we´ve restricted the login options for the server, lets kick off all the idle folks. To do this, we´re going to use a bash variable in /etc/profile. There are some reasonably trivial ways around this of course, but it´s all about layering the security.

echo "Idle users will be removed after 15 minutes"
echo "readonly TMOUT=900" >> /etc/profile.d/
echo "readonly HISTFILE" >> /etc/profile.d/
chmod +x /etc/profile.d/

OKRestrictions for cron and at,
In some cases, administrators may want the root user or other trusted users to be able to run cronjobs or timed scripts with at. In order to lock these down, you will need to create a cron.deny and at.deny file inside /etc with the names of all blocked users. An easy way to do this is to parse /etc/passwd. The script below will do this for you.

echo "Locking down Cron"
touch /etc/cron.allow
chmod 600 /etc/cron.allow
awk -F: ´{print DOLLARSIGN1}´ /etc/passwd | grep -v root > /etc/cron.deny
echo "Locking down AT"
touch /etc/at.allow
chmod 600 /etc/at.allow
awk -F: ´{print DOLLARSIGN1}´ /etc/passwd | grep -v root > /etc/at.deny

OKLockdown Cronjobs
Cron has it´s own built in feature, where it allows to specify who may, and who may not want to run jobs. This is controlled by the use of files called /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny. To lock a user using cron, simply add user names in cron.deny and to allow a user to run cron add in cron.allow file. If you would like to disable all users from using cron, add the ´ALL´ line to cron.deny file.

# echo ALL >>/etc/cron.deny
Cron Scheduling Examples in Linux:

OKSysctl Security,
Next we need to have a look inside /etc/sysctl.conf and make some basic changes. If these lines exist, modify them to match below. If they don´t exist, simply add them in. If you have multiple network interfaces on the server, some of these may cause issues. Test these before you put them into production. If you want to know more about any of these options, install the kernel-doc package, and look in Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 1280
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0 # additionally from resp. # Turn on execshild
kernel.exec-shield = 1
kernel.randomize_va_space = 1
# Tune IPv6
net.ipv6.conf.default.router_solicitations = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_pinfo = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_defrtr = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.autoconf = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.dad_transmits = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.max_addresses = 0
# Optimization for port usefor LBs
# Increase system file descriptor limit
fs.file-max = 65535
# Allow for more PIDs (to reduce rollover problems); may break some programs 32768
kernel.pid_max = 65536
# Increase system IP port limits
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 2000 65000
# Increase TCP max buffer size setable using setsockopt()
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 8388608
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 87380 8388608
# Increase Linux auto tuning TCP buffer limits
# min, default, and max number of bytes to use
# set max to at least 4MB, or higher if you use very high BDP paths
net.core.rmem_max = 8388608
net.core.wmem_max = 8388608
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 5000
net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
After making these changes you should reboot.

OKDeactivate IPv6,
IPv6 is part of a Linux-kernel since 2.6.28. Such addresses do never change. If IPv6 is configured wrong, it can cause troubles within a network and for DNS-queries.
IPv6 is enabled on Ubuntu by default. Most firewalls (like LINFW3) only apply to IPv4, and completely ignore IPv6. If you don´t use IPv6 at all, you can prevent it loading at boot time by changing alias net-pf-10 ipv6 to alias net-pf-10 off in /etc/modprobe.d/aliases resp. /etc/modprobe.conf and scheduling a reboot.

RedHat Enterprise Linux / CentOS / Fedora Core:
/etc/modprobe.conf, change line:

alias net-pf-10 ipv6
alias net-pf-10 off
alias ipv6 off

and restart the computer.

RedHat Enterprise Linux / CentOS / Fedora Core / Mandriva:
Add the following entry to /etc/sysconfig/network:


and restart the system.

OKDeactivate IPv6
Dieser Artikel beschreibt wie Sie unter Linux und Windows der IPv6 Support deaktivieren bzw. ausschalten können. Dies kann aus Sicherheitsgründen sinnvoll sein, solange man IPv6 noch nicht produktiv einsetzt. Damit kann verhindert werden, dass man eine IPv6 Adresse erhält, sobald ein IPv6 Router Advertisement Daemon in einem Netz verfügbar ist. Außerdem sind bestehende Firewall Rules oft nicht für IPv6 gültig. In diesem Fall hätte man dann unter Umständen Dienste per IPv6 zugänglich die man eigentlich mit einer IPv4 Regel unterbunden hat. Unter Linux gibt es das eigene Kommando "ip6tables" zur Verwaltung der IPv6 Firewall Rules.
1 Ubuntu
2 RHEL / CentOS
In Ubuntu 10.04, 12.04, 14.04 und 16.04 ist IPv6 direkt in den Kernel kompiliert und wird nicht als Modul geladen. Die einfachste Methode um IPv6 zu deaktivieren ist den passenden sysctl Parameter zu setzen. Temporär kann dies mit folgendem Kommando erfolgen:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6

Um diese Einstellung dauerhaft vorzunehmen bietet es sich an auf die sysctl Funktionalitäten zurückzugreifen. Dafür einfach eine Datei namens /etc/sysctl.d/01-disable-ipv6.conf anlegen mit folgendem Inhalt:

net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1

Nach dem nächsten Reboot ist IPv6 dann deaktiviert.

Am besten kann dies mit dem Kommando "ip addr show" überprüft werden. Es darf dann keine Einträge mit dem Text "inet6" mehr geben.

ip addr show | grep inet6


Unter RHEL 6 / CentOS 6 kann die Deaktivierung von IPv6 ident wie unter Ubuntu via sysctl erfolgen (siehe oben).

In RHEL 4 / CentOS 4 ist IPv6 als Modul integriert. Um dieses zu deaktiveren einfach folgende Zeile in der Datei /etc/modprobe.conf hinzufügen:

install ipv6 /bin/true

Die Überprüfung, ob es geklappt hat, kann mit dem Kommando "ip addr show | grep inet6" oder alternativ mit dem Kommando

lsmod | grep -i ipv6

OKTCP Wrapper,
Next we need to have a look inside /etc/sysctl.conf and make some basic changes. The TCP wrappers can provide a quick and easy method for controlling access to applications linked to them. Examples of TCP Wrapper aware applications are sshd, and portmap. A restrictive example is below. This example blocks everything but ssh:

. echo "ALL:ALL" >> /etc/hosts.deny
echo "sshd:ALL" >> /etc/hosts.allow

OKTurn on SELinux
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a compulsory access control security mechanism provided in the kernel. Disabling SELinux means removing security mechanism from the system. Think twice carefully before removing, if your system is attached to internet and accessed by the public, then think some more on it.
SELinux provides three basic modes of operation and they are.
Enforcing: This is default mode which enable and enforce the SELinux security policy on the machine.
Permissive: In this mode, SELinux will not enforce the security policy on the system, only warn and log actions. This mode is very useful in term of troubleshooting SELinux related issues.
Disabled: SELinux is turned off.
You can view current status of SELinux mode from the command line using ´system-config-selinux´, ´getenforce´ or ´sestatus´ commands.
# sestatus
If it is disabled, enable SELinux using the following command.

setenforce enforcing

It also can be managed from ´/etc/selinux/config´ file, where you can enable or disable it. Bootparameter in /boot/grub/menu:lst: "selinux=1"

AppArmor or SELinux?,
Why does Ubuntu not use SELinux, ... I see it so too.... I have no trust anymore. . Tom-L. Beiträge form year 2007 ( five years before Snowden´s publications...): 1181.
Many thanks, I am going to reed it having time next morning..
Soso, NSA aso. Hmm, I would for myself wouldn´t bother about ... I mean, ok, of it would be our government Bundesregierung... Bundes-trojan :lol:
No, but to be serious: Security against third parties may be higher, if institutes like NSA are involved, but I feel the shabby smell with it too.

Maybe someone can convince us from the opposite.
For me America means (... the governmental organizations): I like everything to know and to snoop upon.
Avatar von Murdoc
I also see this....I simple do not have any trust anymore:(

Tom L.: I mean having read, that SELinux is an official part of the kernel. Therefore I believe, that Kernel developer ( and more than only the same one) has studied the source code carefully.

glasen: Sorry, but I can not stand your paranoia.
Obviously NSA become a member to develope SELinux, but as Linux is open-source free software, it is impossible for NSA to keep any backdoors secretly open.
If there were one line code, that could not stand Peer-Review, SELinux would never be a part of the kernel-sources!

Murdoc: I believe this too, but they have studied everything, but there are also kernel-exploits :-/

If secret services would do this, intergrating backdoors within the kernel ..., then certainly not by a project like SELinux, but through other parts of the kernel.
comm_a_nder: Hey, boys, think about it.

Mosurft: Generally I do not feel well connecting SELinux made by NSA, even for - I do believe - noone can study and analyze each part of the source-code. Anyoune does always not notice anything, otherwise there would be no lacks in security and even a secret service has got the most interest in getting and checking a PC with the click on the buttom, in order to check out PCs...
I´d like to know, who runs SELinux on a computer with Ubuntu and how it functions! And if someone does not like SELinux, what about Grsecurity? Did anyone check it out?
Greetings, Mo.

comm_a_nder: If i said it in the wrong way and you feel attacked in person, it makes me sorry.
Back to the theme: Especially the parts of software added by NSA, have been checked out well. But as I told you, there were surely much more effective ways for the boys from "Crypto City" to migrate code into kernel-source.

Murdoc. As we are going on paranoidal, I ask for the BIOS.
Now, as ASUS offers a Minimal Linux to browse, the question is posed, what the BIOS is all enabled to do?

Mosurft: If I do not trust the BIOS, then I better do not use any computer...! ;) ...

Introduced mainboard ITX-220 comes with in- and deactivable BIOS-LAN-Chip and Coretemp for the regulation of the temperature... Next point: SELinux. As our excurs shows, it is suspicously not needed. So we´d prefer to deactivate it right within the boot-paramters.

OKReview Logs Regularly
Move logs in dedicated log server, this may prevents intruders to easily modify local logs. Below are the Common Linux default log files name and their usage:

/var/log/message - Where whole system logs or current activity logs are available.
/var/log/auth.log - Authentication logs.
/var/log/kern.log - Kernel logs.
/var/log/cron.log - Crond logs (cron job).
/var/log/maillog - Mail server logs.
/var/log/boot.log - System boot log.
/var/log/mysqld.log - MySQL database server log file.
/var/log/secure - Authentication log.
/var/log/utmp or /var/log/wtmp : Login records file.
/var/log/yum.log: Yum log files.

OKShared Memory (shm und tmpfs, siehe unsere /etc/fstab im noch Folgenden),
By default, /run/shm is mounted read/write, with permission to execute programs. In recent years, many security mailing lists have noted many exploits where /run/shm is used in an attack against a running service, such as httpd. Most of these exploits, however, rely on an insecure web application rather than a vulnerability in Apache or Ubuntu. There are a few reasons for it to be mounted read/write in specific configurations, such as real-time configuration of a Synaptics touchpad for laptops, but for servers and desktop installations there is no benefit to mounting /run/shm read/write. To change this setting, edit the /etc/fstab file to include the following line:

none /run/shm tmpfs defaults,ro 0 0

resp. :

A common exploit vector is going through shared memory (which can let you change the UID of running programs and other malicious actions). It can also be used as a place to drop files once an initial breakin has been made. An example of one such exploit is available here.
Open /etc/fstab/:

tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults,ro 0 0

This will mount /run/shm in read-only mode. Note: MANY programs will not work if you make /run/shm read-only (e.g. Google Chrome).If you have a good reason to keep it writable, put this line in /etc/fstab instead:

none /run/shm tmpfs rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev 0 0

This will mount /run/shm writable, but without permission to execute programs, without permission to change the UID of running programs, or to create block or character devices in the namespace.

The changes will take effect the next time you reboot, unless you remount /run/shm with the command sudo mount -o remount /run/shm.

OKSSH Settings,
While the SSH daemon is secure enough for most people, some may wish to further enhance their security by changing certain sshd settings. Some settings which could be changed to enhance security are given here. All changes, unless otherwise stated, are made in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. Lines with a pound sign (#) are commented and not read. To edit this file from a terminal:

sudoedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

For a Gnome editor, press Alt+F2 and use:

gksudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

For a KDE editor, press Alt+F2 and use:

kdesu kate /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Please remember, after making any changes, sshd must be restarted, which can be done from the terminal with this command:

service ssh restart (CentOS: sh /etc/init.d/sshd restart)
..., .

OKConfiguring bastille,
The Bastille Hardening program "locks down" an operating system, proactively configuring the system for increased security and decreasing its susceptibility to compromise. Bastille can also assess a system´s current state of hardening, granularly reporting on each of the security settings with which it works.
File permissions module: Yes (suid)
Disable SUID for mount/umount: Yes
Disable SUID on ping: Yes
Disable clear-text r-protocols that use IP-based authentication? Yes Enforce password aging? No (situation dependent, I have no users accessing my machines except me, and I only allow ssh keys)
Default umask: Yes
Umask: 077
Disable root login on tty 1-6: Yes
Password protect GRUB prompt: No (situation dependent, I’m on a VPS and would like to get support in case I need it)
Password protect su mode: Yes
default-deny on tcp-wrappers and xinetd? No
Ensure telnet doesn’t run? Yes
Ensure FTP does not run? Yes
display authorized use message? No (situation dependent, if you had other users, Yes)
Put limits on system resource usage? Yes
Restrict console access to group of users? Yes (then choose root)
Add additional logging? Yes
Setup remote logging, if you have a remote log host, I don´t so I answered No
Setup process accounting? Yes
Disable acpid? Yes
Deactivate nfs + samba? Yes (situation dependent)
Stop sendmail from running in daemon mode? No (I have this firewalled off, so I´m not concerned)
Deactivate apache? Yes
Disable printing? Yes
TMPDIR/TMP scripts? No (if a multi-user system, yes)
Packet filtering script? Yes
Finished? YES! & reboot

OKLink the dns resolver nslookup to the anonymizing tor-resolve
We are going to write about Tor (The Onion Router) at the end of our excurs. If you already use Tor, secure up your system by linking nslookup with the DNS-anonymizing resolver tor-resolve:
make a copy of nslookup: cp -f /usr/bin/nslookup /usr/bin/nslookup-save
links nslookup with tor-resolve: ln -sf /usr/bin/tor-resolve /usr/bin/nslookup.
You can do the same for dns-resolving host and dig too.
Notice, that the output of those programs is not the same (but in all cases they do contain the IP for the domain requested).
For programs that do not work past this linking, enter the ip-domain-pairs in /etc/hosts and adjust /etc/nsswitch.conf. Read more about /etc/hosts at the end of our excurs.
At last, think about setting ACL-rights upon these files, see our section for setfacl.

OKFor our "Universal-Linux" (backported sytem) an actual kernel and actual kernel-firmware can be downloaded from PCLinuxOS, a backport of Fedora Core, ROSA, Mageia and Mandriva, or or and other URL. We strongly recommend LONGTERMED kernel-4.20.13 (pclos) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)), glibc (pclos) and kernel-firmware (pclos) and kernel-firmware-extra (pclos) and Konqueror (el6) with the intergrated adbocker resp. actual Firefox (ESR, the backported company edition) from or with extensions named on this webside in the following.

OKDeinstallation of programs (also see section "Updating/Updates"): If sudo, rpcbind, portmapper, sshd SSH-Daemon, rsh, telnet, avahi-daemon or cups-browsed daemon of the CUPS-system is not needed for example, it is possible to deactivate or deinstall them: "dpkg ..." , "rpm -e [nodeps]" source:

Quota limits the memory consumption for a single user and/or group, so that an "overflow" of a volume resp. partition is prevented. For quota the kernal must be configured. If CONFIG_QFMT_V2 is set as modul, kernel modul quota_v2.ko is added to /etc/modules:

sudo echo quota_v2 >>, /etc/modules

For quota following packages have to be installed:

sudo aptitude install quota quotatool

If there is not any quota upon NFS-mounted file systems resp. RPC-quota-server, the service RPC-Remote-Quota-Server can be deactivated:

sudo systemctl disable quotarpc.service # sh /etc/init.d/quota... stop # and disable

In /etc/fstab the mount-options of the /fs file system are added with the options for the usage of journaling quota:


/fs /mountpoint ext4 optionen,usrjquota=aquota.usr/,jqfmt=vfsv0|1

Use usrjquota for quota of user and/or grpjquota for groups. Volumes with a size of 4TB use quota-format vfsv1.

Finally restart the system, if the file system can not be mounted by the following command:

sudo mount -o remount /mountpoint

More details and source:

Deactivate as much as possible, that means all modules, that are not needed. The preconfiguration for single user is already set for the everyday life. This might differ from special requirements and development and a backup-kernel should be installed parallely too, if the configuration and the boot fails. BR>
More details and source:
We are describing, how to configure and compile the kernel-source in our section for updates.

OKBlocking of modules (resp. by "blacklist modul-name" within /etc/modules.d).

OKDienste mit systemd
Removal and deactivation
Deactive all services, that are not needed. Either deinstall complete packages or, if a deinstallation is not wanted, use systemctl (alternatively: ntsysv, chkconfig or MMC#system-services (mdv2010) for deactivation).

More about security-settings for services by systemd and source: .

OKat & cron
Resrict the users, that are enable to create and modify at (batch) and cron jobs, enable them within /etc/at.allow and /etc/cron.allow by entering them with their login-name line-by-line (only for users, that are enabled).

OKHardend compilation
Flags, that can be set for the configure-Script.


´CFLAGS= -g -O2 -fPIE -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Wformat-security -Werror=format-security´
´CXXFLAGS= -g -O2 -fPIE -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Wformat-security -Werror=format-security´
´LDFLAGS= -fPIE -pie -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now´

Shared Library

´CFLAGS= -g -O2 -fpic -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Wformat-security -Werror=format-security´
´CXXFLAGS= -g -O2 -fpic -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Wformat-security -Werror=format-security´
´LDFLAGS= -fpic -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now´

If option "-fpic" does not work, use "-fPIC".

OKEvtl. deinstall ( rpm -e packagename or rpm -e --nodeps packagename )
rpcbind (el6, mdv2010.2), sudo (el6, mdv2010.2), portmap (el6, mdv2010.2), dayplanner, mmc-agent (mdv2010.2), tracker (mdv2010), codeina (mdv2010), xguest (mdv2010), wu-ftpd (mdv2010), anonftp (mdv), mdkonline (mdv2010), f-spot (does not work on the base of updated mono (rosa2014.1), abrt (el6), funguloids (mdv2010.2), banshee (rosa,mdv) and amarok (rosa,mdv): unavailable for el6, both ones do not work, qmmp (el6, mdv) does not work, lxde (mdv2010, lxpanel tries to get inpredictable root-access).

OKStart only the processes needed. Use net_applet from NetworkManager and not nm-applet. There might be an error in the skript for NetworkManager. Replace everything except last line in start() with "/usr/bin/NetworkManager --login-level=INFO".

Commercial modules: Linux and the NSA
tgruene, 16.10.2013
Bei dem letzten Newslink über Oracles Versuch, dem DOD den Vorteil kommerzieller Software zu erkläeren, kam mir der Gedanke, dass auf einem.typischen Linuxrechner eine ganze Reihe Module laufen, fuer die kein Quellcode zur Verfuegung steht (die dafür von US-amerikanischen Firmen zur Verfügung gestellt werden und somit vermutlich auch gesetzestreue (aka NSA-freundliche) Hintertüren enthalten), seien es Nvidia/ATI-Treiber, Virtualbox oder unter Debian vermutlich fast der gesamte Inhalt von firmware-linux-nonfree.
Mich interessiert, wie gut der Kernel und die Module voneinander abgeschottet sind - wie leicht ist es, solch einem Modul z.B. einen Keylogger einzubauen, der meine Passwörter beim Tippen abfängt und übers Internet irgendwohin schickt? Dass die NSA meine Emails liest, ist unverschämt, stört mich aber an sich nicht weiter, sonst würde ich ja keine Emails an Leute schreiben, deren Schlüssel ich nicht kenne, doch meinen GPG-Schlüssel und die Passwörter abzuhören - dagegen habe ich ganz ordentlich etwas.

OKTerminal -> lsmod
blacklist mei
blacklist it87
blacklist i2c_dev
blacklist coretemp
blacklist vhost_net
blacklist tpm_infineon
blacklist tmp_tis
blacklist tmp_tis_core
blacklist i82875p_edac
blacklist pcspkr
blacklist snd-pcsp
blacklist rivatv
blacklist i82875p_edac
blacklist pcspkr
# watchdog drivers
blacklist i8xx_tco
# framebuffer drivers
blacklist aty128fb
blacklist atyfb
blacklist radeonfb
blacklist i810fb
blacklist cirrusfb
blacklist intelfb
blacklist kyrofb
blacklist i2c-matroxfb
blacklist hgafb
blacklist nvidiafb
blacklist rivafb
blacklist savagefb
blacklist sstfb
blacklist neofb
blacklist tridentfb
blacklist tdfxfb
blacklist virgefb
blacklist vga16fb
blacklist matroxfb_base

OKPartition-check during each system boot)
This is described later on, but it might be such important, to tell it alrady at this place.
We assume, that the partitions got already encrypted with LUKS/dm-crypt (we are describing later on, how this can be made, if not). But the check will work upon unencrypted ones too. To be careful, we are going to check out partitions with file systems like ext4 or reiserfs each system boot, especially thinking of all the updating with rpm-packages in future.

tune2fs -c 1 /dev/mapper/cryptedhomepartition


reiserfstune -m 1 /dev/mapper/cryptedroot_resp_home_resp_bootpartition


tune2fs -d 7 /dev/mapper/cryptedroot_resp_home_resp_bootpartition

For unencrypted and not internal kernel-partitions replace the container-file "/dev/mapper/cryptedhomepartiton" with a device file like /dev/sda1.

Also activate in the device configuration file /etc/fstab the check each boot. Do this line (partition) by line (partition) more or less regarding "priorities&uot; of the check, by setting a positive interger not equal to zero behind the number (zero) for the (deactivated) dump at the end of the line: "0 1" for the root-partition, "0 1" or "0 2" for the home-partition and so on.
An example of the content of /etc/fstab as a whole is given further below.

OKApache-Webserver (httpd.conf) (analogous: LAN/Samba (samba.conf, database server/MySQL (my.cnf and mysld.conf) and other server, print-server (CUPS) see end of this website )
Now it is the turn for the webserver, almost Apache httpd 1.3 or 2.0. Basic functions are enriched by many loadable modules.
To see, which modules are really needed, have a look into /etc/apache/httpd.conf (CentOS 6 and CentOS 7: /etc/httpd/httpd.conf):

LoadModule autoindex_module /usr/lib/apache/1.3/
LoadModule dir_module /usr/lib/apache/1.3/
LoadModule cgi_module /usr/lib/apache/1.3/
LoadModule userdir_module /usr/lib/apache/1.3/
LoadModule proxy_module /usr/lib/apache/1.3/

Superfluos modules can be commented in by "#" plus blank at the very beginning of each line. Apache will work faster and will consumpt less memory the less modules are needed..

Only those modules should be loaded, that are really needed. The kind of server determines, which ones. Nevertheless there are modules, a standard webserver does not need:
* lib_status (presents a server-internal status)
* libproxy (an enormous security risk, as the webserver realizes a proxy for the accesses of other server)
* mod_cgi (to start so-called cgi-scripts. Such scripts are rarely used today as they are one more security risk)
* mod_userdir (generates a web-directory for each user)
In Debian, Apache 2.0 uses the file /etc/apache2/apache2.conf for configuration. All modules symbolically linked in /etc/apache2/mods-enabled are loaded by default. To deactivate such modules, the link has to be deleted.
After the config-files were changed,

apache -t

shows, if the configuration-syntax still is OK.

/etc/init.d/apache restart
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart # C6 (el6): sh /etc/init.d/httpd restart

restarts the server, therewith the changes can take into effect.

Notice, that SuSE makes it the other way. Apache-modules are loaded within the file /etc/sysconfig/apache2. Look out in this file for the line with "APACHE_MODULES" and delete the entries not needed. After this,

has to be started out of the shell. Restart Apache by
rcapache2 restart

Get more infos about the task for each module, have a look at und
More reports
Apache: Howto stop unwanted referer,

OKSecure Apache/PHP/Nginx server
Edit httpd.conf file (CentOS: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf) and add the following:

ServerTokens Prod
ServerSignature Off
TraceEnable Off
Options all -Indexes
Header always unset X-Powered-By

Restart the httpd/apache2 server on Linux
You must install and enable mod_security on RHEL/CentOS server. It is recommended that you edit php.ini and secure it too.

OKKill hack-attempts against the Secure Shell
In order to prevent hundrets of sshd-tasks starting at the same by a hacking attempt, add the line

MaxStartups 3:30:10

into the configuratio file /etc/ssh/sshd_config. This restriction is effective but complicated. The values in the example mean, that 2 (= 1. value minus 1) unauthenticated (and therefore in the Login-state assembled) sshd-connections are always allowed.
A third connection (= 1. value) is blocked by a probability of 30% (second value).
The probaliity of ending a connection is increasing linear, until up from 10 opened (built-up) connections (third value) each attempt to build up a connection is blocked at all at the rate of 100 in percent.

Notice, that useres already logged in do not refer to these values! The values in the example from above should suffer the need for each small and middle-sized server. If there are plenty of SSH-user, higher values might be recommended, for example:

MaxStartups 10:30:50 6


OKForbid root-access for SSH
Change the ssh-configuration:

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

and set

PermitRootLogin no

And to make it most secure, we add the following lines:

# Only permit user admin.
AllowUsers admin
# Generally block root or user of group root:
DenyUsers root
DenyGroups root

This lines can be added at the beginning of the file. Enhance the entry AllowUser, if further on more user are permitted for the SSH-login. New user are separated by a blank and not colon,. for example:

AllowUsers admin user1 user2 user3 Now the ssh-daemon gets started:

service ssh restart


/etc/init.d/ssh reload

CentOS: sh /etc/init.d/sshd restart

Now we open a new session and try to login as root. By using the correct password, we get the message:
Access denied

OKSecure Linux Server
From Qloc Wiki
Here you find significant basics to secure a Debian/Ubuntu System. Except the tips listed here there are a lot of security precautions to make attacks more difficult.
Generally for all public systems essential services should only be accessible from the outside. Unused services like webserver or MySQL Server should eiteher be inaccessible with the help of iptables-rules or be deactivated.

1 Secure keywords (passwords)
2 SSH Port: secure up by change
3 Creating SSH-keys
4 Opening of required ports only
5 Prevention of Brute Force Attacks
6 Installing security updates

Right here we´d like to mention the server configuration files for many more security settings (like access/login, ACL-access-rights, log, bandwidth and server-ports (now "client"-ports) to open). Also search for adequate modules resp. securing server-extensions.

- Apache: mod_evasive against DDoS, mod_cband as traffic-Cop
- Fail2Ban for the https-vHosts- resp. htaccess authentification
- 24/7 monitoring with SMS alerting through an SMS Gateway via monit
- encrypted backups in two different computer centers
- instead of unencrypted ftp: SFTP. Transfer gets encrypted through sshd.
Configure an ftp-server working with ssl-encryption, it es similar to POP3 and IMAP. Then the transfers get secure, noone can read data.
Forbid anonymous accounts and run the ftp server in a chroot environment. This keeps away most annoynances.
Use ssh instead of ftpd just relying on ssh too.
Normalerweise ist das Verbinden mit einem FTP-Server mit SSL nicht schwieriger als mit einem ohne.
Just configure the ftp-client for the SSL-ecnryption and he will connect. The everyting works like connecting with a ftp-server without SSL. One will be just asked, if the certificate is accespted.
SSH use port 22. It is possible to upload files too, but the user once logged in has the possibility to access the system- except the account is chrooted.

Chroot ( Befehl chroot ): is part of commands resp. communication-protocols like mount, ssh, stfp and effects one of the most serious hard threats! Help is given by sandboxes and/or/including the locking of the shells of the user (unfortunately a sandbox only, if a program works upon sandboxes, for example tor-browser does not (but migh have its own one). We are going to talk about this problem!

Chroot and Chroot-Jail (Chroot-Enviroment, Chroot-Sandbox)
Step by step:

Chroot and Chroot-Jail,,
A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation, that changes the apparent root directory for the current running process and its children. A program that is run in such a modified environment cannot name (and therefore normally cannot access) files outside the designated directory tree. The term "chroot" may refer to the chroot system call or the chroot wrapper program. The modified environment is called a chroot jail.

Linux - Keeping users inside their home directory - Super User
If you use chroot like this, everything the user needs (executables, libraries, etc.) has to be within the chrooted directory. I´ve seen ftp-servers set up that way, with static executables copied into a bin directory.

How to configure ProFTPD to chroot users to /home directory or any ...
If you´re using ProFTPD user on a Linux server, you most certainly have wondered, how you can configure the FTP server to chroot (or jail) it´s users to a particular ...

Furthermore past the configuration the server can run in a lower, but even more safer runlevel like runlevel 3 (command: "init 3") than common runlevel 5 or 6. mgetty resp. mingetty: terminal-switch ( ALT + CTRL + F1 up to F7), server configuration file (if it is possible there), systemd (sysctl) or chkconfig (to set the runlevel for the server during system boot)

OKCoreboot - flashing the BIOS: Manufacturer BIOS-replacement by the Linux-System,
"System security already defines upon the hardware-level. Even today it might be difficult to find out WLAN-chipsets open source driver are provided. Exceptions like for AR9170 chipset are provided, same for the BIOS.
Idally Coreboot can replace the actual BIOS for a open-source, free BIOS. Otherwise hidden backdoors are risked usable by secret services.
We can be only really "secure", if open-source is used by hard- and software. [...].
Therefore I am urged for the project "hardened Linux" to make an exception and like to repeat, that this project does not protect against directed secret services.
I...] As I wrote with the first article, a secure operating system can only be obtained using Linux resp. Unix." # u.a.
Many BIOS-variants are associated with software failures. Getting rid of them often implies updates from manufacturer. Beneath these unintended restrictions basic approaches exist to implement more functions in proprietary firmware (BIOS resp. UEFI) in future, that make afraid of more conscious restrictions of functionality.
With Coreboot the system-startup-time can also be declined.

OKKonfiguration der Netzwerkschnittstelle /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

# This file was automatically generated by the /lib/udev/write_net_rules
# program, run by the persistent-net-generator.rules rules file.
# You can modify it, as long as you keep each rule on a single
# line, and change only the value of the NAME= key.
# Drakx-net rule for eth0 (cb:ad:b3:81:1a:53)
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="?*", ATTR{address}=="cb:ad:b3:81:1a:53",ATTR{type}=="1", KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth0"
... only the network-devices and as much no more entries else als possible! For this purpose make a copy of file 70-persistent-net.rules in any directory and copy it into /etc/udev/rules.d/ each boot by rc.local: add "cp -fp ...", what prevents many udev based network conflicts in future!



DHCP_CLIENT=dhclient -4 -cf /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf eth0
MACADDR=e1:a0:b0:cd:a1:b8 # original OR "black masked" hardware address (ethernet-card): Try /etc/rc.local. "macchanger --mac e1:a0:b0:cd:a1:b8 eth0" and set in Linfw3 "your IP" to the by this mac-address new resp. origin pregiven one (local IP) next (or past) the connection-build-up. The computer (system) might break down after all these changes, but after some newstarts, the system will gain its old´n good stability right back.



link-local # link-local # In a computer network, a link-local address is a network address that is valid only for communications within the network segment (link) or the broadcast domain that the host is connected to. Link-local addresses are most often assigned automatically through a process known as stateless address autoconfiguration or link-local address autoconfiguration. Link-local addresses are not guaranteed to be unique beyond a single network segment. Routers therefore do not forward packets with link-local addresses.
For protocols that have only link-local addresses, such as Ethernet,[dubious - discuss] hardware addresses assigned by manufacturers in networking elements are unique, consisting of a vendor identification and a serial identifier. Link-local addresses for IPv4 are defined in the address block in CIDR notation. In IPv6, they are assigned the address block fe80::/10,

The Tool Preload accelerates not the boot time, but program starts or autostarts (under "Start programs"), that are used often or regulary awaiting past each system login. This simple service protcols the program favorites and loads them into the RAM right before. The program start accelerates by this. Preload is obtainable as rpm and deb packet.

A manual configuration is not essential, but possible ("/etc/preload.conf") (start preload for example within /etc/rc.local)

OKrkhunter, chkrootkit, Lynis - security check
With lynis an audit can simply be made:

lynis audit system --quick

After the first run one gets confronted with the total result named "Hardening index". "Warnings" and "Suggestions" howto secure resp. harden the system are shown during the scrolling.

OKDelete X Windows on server
X Windows on server is not required. There is no reason to run X Windows on your dedicated mail and Apache web server. You can disable and remove X Windows to improve server security and performance. Edit /etc/inittab and set run level to 3. Finally, remove X Windows system, enter:

# yum groupremove "X Window System"
On CentOS 7/RHEL 7 server use the following commands:
# yum group remove "GNOME Desktop"
# yum group remove "KDE Plasma Workspaces"
# yum group remove "Server with GUI"
# yum group remove "MATE Desktop"

OKX-Server: Howto secure up: Host- and cookie-based access
he number 1 rated high risk system vulnerability noted by the recent ISS audit of BNL was the use of "xhost +" or an open X display. Using "xhost +" allows anyone the ability to watch your keystrokes, capture windows and insert command strings into your windows. This situation is particularly bad when you have root access to a machine. There is no legitimate reason to run "xhost +". Most people will be using ssh to make their connections to other machines than their desktop and ssh tunnels X11 traffic, eliminating any need for "xhost +". To use turn on X11 forwarding with ssh call it like:

ssh -X host.domain

This can be turned on by default by adding the following to DOLLARSIGNHOME/.ssh/config:

Host *
ForwardX11 yes

Make sure of the following things:

You should not set your DISPLAY variable, ssh will do it for you. It will look something like:


X11 forwarding must be allowed by the SSH server. Check /etc/ssh/sshd_config for a line saying "X11Forwarding yes".
On Linux/UNIX machines, the "xhost +" command can be issued at many locations, so you will have to remember, where you did it or find the location to turn it off (I believe that all recent version of the Linux X server have "xhost -" as the default). If you cannot find where the "xhost +" command is issued, adding a call to "xhost -" somewhere will turn it off.

Some of the most common files where you can find the "xhost +" command are in the X11 startup files. These file are


Also, doing a man xinit will give you more information on startup files which are executed when one starts up X11.

If you want to test to see whether you have fixed the "xhost +" problem on your systems, log into another unix computer, disable the ssh X11 encryption channel by resetting the DOLLARSIGNDISPLAY environment variable back to the server port 0 of your desktop, and then try starting up an xclock. For example, type the following commands

setenv DISPLAY

If an xclock pops up on your screen, you still have not properly enabled X11 access control. You should contact your computer liaison for further assistance.

To enable access control (set xhost -) on Tektronix Xterminals bring up the "Setup" menu (F3 key). In the "Configuration Summaries" pull down menu select "X Environment". On the X Environment page toggle "Enable Access Control" to "Yes". Return to the Main Menu and then "Save Settings to NVRAM". The terminal will now reject all X connections except those coming from the machine you connect to via XDM and those coming through tunnels to you XDM host created when you ssh to another machine. If you run "xhost +" on the XDM host, then you will again disable access control, so you should make sure that you do not do this in any of the X setup files (see the UNIX discussion above).

The following is an e-mail from Ofer Rind, who tells us how to enable X11 authentication on NCD Xterminals. Thanks Ofer for you post.
- Disabling Xhost+ on an Xterminal
(NB: This was tried on both NCD and Textronix Xterminals and seemed to work; however, your mileage may vary. The description is for an NCD.) Press Alt-F3 to pull up the Xterminal control bar. Select "Change Setup Parameters" from the "Setup" menu. When the setup parameters window pops up, select "Access Control." This will expand the menu, revealing an option called "Enable Access Control." Turn this on by pressing the adjacent square. Then, at the bottom of setup window, press the "Apply" button to effect the change. This sometimes takes several seconds, be patient. When the arrow cursor returns, close the setup window and return to your previously scheduled program. X access control should now (hopefully) be enabled. NOTE that this access control can be superseded by a user who logs in on the Xterm and sets "xhost +".

So our settings typed in terminal and /etc/rc.local after login to superuser by command "su" are (reset by "xhost +" on problems past the login):

xhost -
xhost +si:localuser:local-username

xhost +si:localuser:lokaler-Benutzername# lokaler-Benutzername: nur user, d.h. alle anderen Benutzer sind gesperrt, darunter Benutzer root, surfuser und toruser1
xhost -si:localuser:root # bereits mit "xhost -"
xhost -si:localuser:toranonym # bereits mit "xhost -"
xhost -si:localuser:surfuser # bereits mit "xhost -"
xhost -inet6:user@ # Das @-Zeichen muss bei inet6 (IPv6) im Unterschied zu si hinter dem Benutzernamen user stehen.
xhost -nis:user@ # nis: Secure RPC network

Output of command xhost:
access control enabled, only authorized clients can connect

Do not set it for any other user, even NOT root! These simple two rules (for example in /etc/rc.local) make the system once more mouseclick-fast..

OKX-Server, cookie-based access: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1
When using xdm (X Display Manager) to log in, you get a much better access method: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.
A 128-bit "cookie" is generated and stored in your .Xauthority file. If you need to allow a remote machine access to your display, you can use the xauth command and the information in your .Xauthority file to provide access to only that connection. See the Remote-X-Apps mini-howto, available at

Cookie-based access
The cookie-based authorization methods are based on choosing a magic cookie (an arbitrary piece of data) and passing it to the X display server when it is started; every client that can prove having knowledge of this cookie is then authorized connection to the server.
These cookies are created by a separate program and stored in the file .Xauthority in the user's home directory, by default. As a result, every program run by the client on the local computer can access this file and therefore the cookie that is necessary for being authorized by the server. If the user wants to run a program from another computer on the network, the cookie has to be copied to that other computer. How the cookie is copied is a system-dependent issue: for example, on Unix-like platforms, scp can be used to copy the cookie.
The two systems using this method are MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 and XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1. In the first method, the client simply sends the cookie when requested to authenticate. In the second method, a secret key is also stored in the .Xauthority file. The client creates a string by concatenating the current time, a transport-dependent identifier, and the cookie, encrypts the resulting string, and sends it to the server.
The xauth application is a utility for accessing the .Xauthority file. The environment variable XAUTHORITY can be defined to override the name and location of that cookie file.
The Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol implemented by the Inter-Client Exchange Library for direct communication between X11 clients uses the same MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 authentication method, but has its own iceauth utility for accessing its own .ICEauthority file, the location of which can be overridden with the environment variable ICEAUTHORITY. ICE is used, for example, by DCOP and the X Session Management protocol (XSMP).

Fetch the magic cookie entry relevant to your local display:
[garth@server1 ~]DOLLARSIGN echo xauth add xauth list DOLLARSIGN{DISPLAY#localhost}
xauth add server1.localdomain/unix:12 MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 2928a6e16b7d6d57041dcee632764b72
Switch user to "oracle" and add the entry into your /home/oracle/.Xauthority file (by copying the ‘xauth add…’ line from above:

[garth@server1 ~]DOLLARSIGN sudo su - oracle
[oracle@server1 garth]DOLLARSIGN echo DOLLARSIGNDISPLAY
[oracle@server1 garth]DOLLARSIGN xauth add server1.localdomain/unix:12 MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 2928a6e16b7d6d57041dcee632764b72
xauth: creating new authority file /home/oracle/.Xauthority

After this your X-session should work…try something like "xcalc" or "firefox" to test it first and you should be ready to go!

OKAlso use ssh to allow secure X connections. This has the advantage of also being transparent to the end user, and means that no unencrypted data flows across the network.

OKAlso disable any remote connections to your X server by using the ´-nolisten tcp´ option to your X server. This will prevent any network connections to your server over tcp sockets.
Take a look at the Xsecurity man page for more information on X security. The safe bet is to use xdm to login to your console and then use ssh to go to remote sites on which you wish to run X programs.

kdm: /usr/share/config/kdm/kdmrc

ServerArgsLocal=-deferglyphs 16 -nolisten tcp

OKX11: Graphic card adjustments, especially for opengl- and SDL-games
Adjustment influences system and graphic card.
BIOS-Setup: Northbridge -> COMBO-mode
Start driconf (hardware see data sheed)
1) performance
+ synchronisation follows the verticale frequency rate, so that programs choose the minimal one
+ buffer object reuse: Enable reuse of all size of buffered objects
2 ) display (screen) quality
+ activate S3TC texture compression, even if unsupported by software
3) on failures
+ activate the immediate emptyting of the batch buffer each call for char
+ activate the immediate empying of the GPU-buffer
+ disable throttling on first batch after flush
+ force GLSL extension default behavior to "warn"
+ disable backslash-based line continuation in GLSL-source
+ disable dual source blending
+ perform code generation at shader link time

OKDeny administrative remote access
/etc/security/access.conf should be changed the way, that a remote access into an administrative account becomes impossible. By this user have to start the program su (or sudo) for administrative rights, so that there is always a track to check.
Add the following line into /etc/security/access.conf:


Do not forget to activate pam-module each service (or the standard configuration), if you want changings within /etc/security/access.conf get noticed.

OKHow to Check Password Expiration of User
In Linux, user´s passwords are stored in ´/etc/shadow´ file in encrypted format. To check password expiration of user´s, you need to use ´chage´ command. It displays information of password expiration details along with last password change date. These details are used by system to decide when a user must change his/her password. To view any existing user´s aging information such as expiry date and time, use the following command.

#chage -l username
To change password aging of any user, use the following command.
#chage -M 60 username
#chage -M 60 -m 7 -W 7 userName
-M Set maximum number of days
-m Set minimum number of days


OKChecking Accounts for Empty Passwords
Any account having an empty password means its opened for unauthorized access to anyone on the web and it´s a part of security within a Linux server. So, you must make sure all accounts have strong passwords and no one has any authorized access. Empty password accounts are security risks and that can be easily hackable. To check if there were any accounts with empty password, use the following command.

cat /etc/shadow | awk -F: ´(DOLLARSIGN2==""){print DOLLARSIGN1}´

OKKeep a (daily) watch onlog-files (for example with logwatch) as much as the last logins in /var/log/lastlog
With the help of the command lastlog the content from /var/log/lastlog can be transferred into a readable format.

OKServices should not run as root-processes
deactivate services not needed (smalling the place for attacks): check out opened ports
netstat -lnptu
veralteter inetd noch nötig?
xinetd sicher konfigurieren
(gefährdete) Dienste absichern:
nur auf einer bestimmten IP lauschen, auf andere Ports wechseln
evtl. Port-knocking einsetzen (Beispiel SSH)
Bind mit chroot
sicheren FTP-Server einsetzen: vsftp oder pure-ftpd
unsichere Dienste nicht für kritische Aufgaben (Login) zulassen:
veraltete r-Dienste (rsh, rlogin, …)
nur notwendige Benutzerkonten einrichten
regelmäßig die Passwörter der Benutzer auf unsichere Passwörter überprüfen
leere Passwörter nicht erlauben
Kernel absichern
eigenen (minimalen) Kernel bauen
Integritätschecker, z.B. tripwire als cronjob laufen lassen. Die Signaturen sollten auf einem sicheren Drittsystem gelagert werden bzw. read-only gemountet sein (z. B. auf einer CD oder Diskette mit Schreibschutz)
Die Benutzung von Shadow ist meist schon aktiviert (shadowconfig on) Protokolle (Logfiles) sichern:
Loghost einrichten oder
Logfiles absichern: Mit Secure Logging von Core-Wisdom können Sie Logfiles auch in mySQL-Datenbanken ablegen oder per Fingerabdruck gegen Veränderung sichern.
msyslogd oder
logrotate → Log per mail
regelmäßig nach suid-Programme suchen:
automatisch mit Programmen:
sxid schickt eine tägliche Report über dazugekommene suid/sgid per mail zu
find / -perm -4000 2>/dev/null
allgemein suids:
find / -perm +6000
find / -perm -2000 2>/dev/null
volle Ausgabe mit allen Rechten bekommt man mit:
ls -lad --full-time ´find / -perm +6000´
Banner (Versionsnummern etc.) von Diensten abschalten
in /etc/motd die Kernelversion nicht anzeigen lassen, stattdessen Warnungen für Angreifer
SSH: Im Sourcecode
Logfiles studieren
Monitoring betreiben

SVGAlib programs are typically SUID-root in order to access all your Linux machine´s video hardware. This makes them very dangerous. If they crash, you typically need to reboot your machine to get a usable console back. Make sure any SVGA programs you are running are authentic and can at least be somewhat trusted. Even better, don´t run them at all.

OKGGI (Generic Graphics Interface project)
The Linux GGI project is trying to solve several of the problems with video interfaces on Linux. GGI will move a small piece of the video code into the Linux kernel, and then control access to the video system. This means GGI will be able to restore your console at any time to a known good state. They will also allow a secure attention key, so you can be sure that there is no Trojan horse login program running on your console.

OKDisable USB stick to detect (recommended for companies etc.)
Many times it happens that we want to restrict users from using USB stick in systems to protect and secure data from stealing. Create a file ´/etc/modprobe.d/no-usb´ and adding below line will not detect USB storage.

install usb-storage /bin/true

Disbale USB/firewire/thunderbolt-devices
echo ";install usb-storage /bin/true" >> /etc/modprobe.d/disable-usb-storage.conf
echo "blacklist firewire-core" >> /etc/modprobe.d/firewire.conf
echo ";blacklist thunderbolt" >> /etc/modprobe.d/thunderbolt.conf

Once done, users can not quickly copy sensitive data to USB devices or install malware/viruses or backdoor on your Linux based system.

Formulate any "welcome"-text after the login into the server on the system in /usr/lib/ to make unwanted users really think, if to proceed or if it would be better to log out or get away..

OKHow to Spoof a MAC Address (identifying hardware address of the ethernet card) permanently [...] A 48-bit MAC address (e.g., 08:4f:b5:05:56:a0) is a globally unique identifier associated with a physical network interface, which is assigned by a manufacturer of the corresponding network interface card. Higher 24 bits in a MAC address (also known as OUI or "Organizationally Unique Identifier") uniquely identify the organization which has issued the MAC address, so that there is no conflict among all existing MAC addresses.
While a MAC address is a manufacturer-assigned hardware address, it can actually be modified by a user. This practice is often called "MAC address spoofing." In this tutorial, I am going to show how to spoof the MAC address of a network interface on Linux.
Why Spoof a MAC Address?
There could be several technical reasons you may want to change a MAC address. Some ISPs authenticate a subscriber´s Internet connection via the MAC address of their home router. Suppose your router is just broken in such a scenario. While your ISP re-establishes your Internet access with a new router, you could temporarily restore the Internet access by changing the MAC address of your computer to that of the broken router.
Many DHCP servers lease IP addresses based on MAC addresses. Suppose for any reason you need to get a different IP address via DHCP than the current one you have. Then you could spoof your MAC address to get a new IP address via DHCP, instead of waiting for the current DHCP lease to expire who knows when.
Technical reasons aside, there are also legitimate privacy and security reasons why you wish to hide your real MAC address. Unlike your layer-3 IP address which can change depending on the networks you are connected to, your MAC address can uniquely identify you wherever you go. Call me a paranoid, but you know what this means to your privacy. There is also an exploit known as piggybacking, where a hacker snoops on your MAC address on a public WiFi network, and attempts to impersonate you using your MAC address while you are away.
[...] If you want to spoof your MAC address permanently across reboots, you can specify the spoofed MAC address in interface configuration files. For example, if you want to change the MAC address of eth0, do the following.

macchanger: Some things have to be done: "macchanger -r eth0" suggests a random MAC-address to add into /etc/rc.local (by "macchanger --mac new-MAC-address eth0"), same in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 and change the by this new obtained, local IP in LINFW3 (Dialog -> NONYESNO -> own IP), eventually restart the system.
On Fedora, CentOS or RHEL:

nano /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0


Alternatively, you can create a custom startup script in /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d as follows, especially if you are using Network Manager. I assume that you already installed macchanger.

nano /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/000-changemac


case "DOLLARSIGN2" in
macchanger --mac=00:00:00:00:00:01 "DOLLARSIGN1"

... or macchanger -r "DOLLARSIGN1" Quelle:
This might depend on the hardware. "macchanger -r eth0" can be started at the end of a dialin-script like /usr/sbin/ifup or ifup-eth too for example. The same is possible by ifconfig.

If all this does not function, try same or similar command manually by terminal after the dialin.

Find out the actual set MAC- resp. MAC-Fake-Adresse by

macchanger -s eth0 or


OKAdjustments within /etc/sysctl/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

ONBOOT=no # automized dialin each boot
USERCTL=yes # user are allowed to configure the dialin and to dial in itself
IPV6INIT=no # perfer IPv4 with dynamic (changing) IP

OKResolver configuration file
File /etc/host.conf contains special information, how to configure the resolver library with a configuration keyword each line, followed by belonging configuration information.

order hosts,bind
multi on
reorder on
nospoof on
spoofalert on

Quelle: man host.conf

OKNetworkManager-Configuration by /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf:




More (secure) configurations of he NetworkManager by NetworkManager.conf see

OKDeactivate NIS
... in order to avoid password-sharing. For this, LDAP is recommended.

OKSicheres finger
Es gibt viele finger-Daemon, als besonders sicher gilt ffingerd. Hier kann die Anzahl der zur selben Zeit laufenden Prozesse und die Anzahl der darauf zugreifenden Hosts limitiert und das verfügbare Interface eingegrenzt werden.

OKSichere Nutzung von PCs unter Ubuntu (und andere, Anm., Gooken)- für kleine Unternehmen und Selbstständige v2.0 (PDF, 189KB, Datei ist barrierefrei⁄barrierearm), BSI, 01.08.2018

EUD Security Guidance: Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

Created: 24 Jul 2018
Updated: 24 Jul 2018

OKpaxctld von (Aufruf paxctld in /etc/rc.local mit "paxctld -c /etc/paxctld.conf -d -p /var/run/paxctld"
/etc/paxctld.conf (allowed issrpmE; out tip: to beware kernel-security-features, paxctld should not get started and deinstalled)

# /usr/bin/gdb srpm

# steam
# /usr/lib32/ m
# /usr/lib64/ m

# node
# /usr/bin/node m
# /usr/bin/perf m

# firefox
# /usr/lib64/firefox/firefox m
# /usr/lib64/palemoon/palemoon m

# tor-browser
# /home/toruser1/tor*/Browser/firefox m

# /usr/lib64/thunderbird/thunderbird m

# oxide
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/oxide-qt/oxide-renderer m

# valgrind
/usr/bin/valgrind m

# python
/usr/bin/python E
/usr/bin/python2.6 E
/usr/bin/python2.7 E
/usr/bin/python3.2mu E

# java
# /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun- m
# /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun- m
# /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk/jre/bin/java m
# /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk/jre/bin/java m
# /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk/jre/bin/java m
# /usr/lib/jvm/oracle-jdk-bin-1.8/bin/java m
# /usr/lib/jvm/oracle-jdk-bin-1.8/jre/bin/java m
# /usr/lib/jvm/zulu-8-amd64/bin/java m

# openrc /lib/rc/bin/lsb2rcconf E

# tuned
# /usr/sbin/tuned m

# libreoffice
# Ubuntu doesn´t seem to carry this patch:
# libreoffice will still run fine without the below line,
# but it will report an RWX mprotect attempt
# /usr/lib/libreoffice/program/soffice.bin m

OKLock virtual consoles except tty7 by default
/etc/inittab, comment in:
# Run gettys in standard runlevels
#1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1
#2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2
#3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3
#4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
#5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5
#6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6

Start as few root-processes as possible!
OKRemaining essential root-processes except those started by kernel (kthreadd):

X # xhost-access-control or run in usermode, see, and X with option "--nolisten tcp" (by default, check it out by pressing keys ESC + STRL and moving mouse over process X; configuration for X: /etc/X11/xorg.conf section "ServerLayout")
hald # makes acpid superfluosly
console-kit-daemon # needed only for the login, timeout possible
wpa-supplicant # part of NetworkManager
psad # or iptables: psd, port-scan-detection; start only with securing options like --no-rdns, --no-whois and --no-snort-sids

udevd # devices and interfaces
dhclient # or dhcpd etc.
spamd # alternatively try bogofilter for example always running in usermode

OKLost or forgotten password, no access onto the system?
The steps you need to take in order to recover from this depend on whether or not you have applied the suggested procedure for limiting access to lilo and your system´s BIOS.
If you have limited both, you need to disable the BIOS setting that only allows booting from the hard disk before proceeding. If you have also forgotten your BIOS password, you will have to reset your BIOS by opening the system and manually removing the BIOS battery.
Once you have enabled booting from a CD-ROM or diskette enable, try the following:

Boot-up from a rescue disk and start the kernel

Go to the virtual console (Alt+F2)

Mount the hard disk where your /root is

Edit (Debian 2.2 rescue disk comes with the editor ae, and Debian 3.0 comes with nano-tiny which is similar to vi) /etc/shadow and change the line:

root:asdfjl290341274075:XXXX:X:XXXX:X::: (X=any number)



This will remove the forgotten root password, contained in the first colon separated field after the user name. Save the file, reboot the system and login with root using an empty password. Remember to reset the password. This will work unless you have configured the system more tightly, i.e. if you have not allowed users to have null passwords or not allowed root to login from the console.

OKChecking file system integrity
Are you sure /bin/login on your hard drive is still the binary you installed there some months ago? What if it is a hacked version, which stores the entered password in a hidden file or mails it in clear-text version all over the Internet?
The only method to have some kind of protection is to check your files every hour/day/month (I prefer daily) by comparing the actual and the old md5sum of this file. Two files cannot have the same md5sum (the MD5 digest is 128 bits, so the chance that two different files will have the same md5sum is roughly one in 3.4e3803), so you´re on the safe site here, unless someone has also hacked the algorithm that creates md5sums on that machine. This is, well, extremely difficult and very unlikely. You really should consider this auditing of your binaries as very important, since it is an easy way to recognize changes at your binaries.
Common tools used for this are sxid, aide (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment), tripwire, integrit and samhain. Installing debsums will also help you to check the file system integrity, by comparing the md5sums of every file against the md5sums used in the Debian package archive. But beware: those files can easily be changed by an attacker and not all packages provide md5sums listings for the binaries they provided. For more information please read Do periodic integrity checks, Section 10.2 and Taking a snapshot of the system, Section 4.19.
You might want to use locate to index the whole filesystem, if so, consider the implications of that. The Debian findutils package contains locate which runs as user nobody, and so it only indexes files which are visible to everybody. However, if you change its behaviour you will make all file locations visible to all users. If you want to index all the filesystem (not the bits that the user nobody can see) you can replace locate with the package slocate. slocate is labeled as a security enhanced version of GNU locate, but it actually provides additional file-locating functionality. When using slocate, the user only sees the actually accessible files and you can exclude any files or directories on the system. The slocate package runs its update process with higher privledges than locate, and indexes every file. Users are then able to quickly search for every file which they are able to see. slocate doesn´t let them see new files; it filters the output based on your UID.
You might want to use bsign or elfsign. elfsign provides an utility to add a digital signature to an ELF binary and a second utility to verify that signature. The current implementation uses PKI to sign the checksum of the binary. The benefits of doing this are that it enables one to determine if a binary has been modified and who created it. bsign uses GPG, elfsign uses PKI (X.509) certificates (OpenSSL).

Solution: encryption of the root-partition, see Full System Encryption (FSE)

OKLifetime hardware, conductor pathes: secured contacts on graphic cards, boards and platines
Sounds like it is our last advice (but of course it isn´t), not to forget to put some chalk into the computer tower inside. The trick is to keep contacts on mainboard including graphic-chip resp. graphic card and other electronic devices always rust-proof and save from moisture!

OKRemove online accounts of internet service provider
Phishing, profiling, spam, data handling, investigations by law, organized criminality, secret agencies, ad networks, large server farms, artificial intelligence, social bots, hacks, doxxing, honeypots, man-in-the-middle-attacks, ...: Before starting with the installation of "Universal Linux" resp. before going to update programs and system, try to remove as much online-accounts as possible, that means as making sense for you: social media, Google, paypal, online banking, online shopping, ... This might become quit difficult: So read out belonging manuals and follow the instructions. For still existing accounts security settings should be made serious hard after the logins into the online portals.

OKAllround-protection through iptables-firewall Linfw3
Linfw3 can be downloaded during further below. With Linfw3 all hacker and all trojans can be blocked, if only the user like surfuser within a group like surfgroup are allowed the password protected start of processes going online into the net. Even superuser root resp. uid 0 belongs to all the user, who are not allowed going online, only processes started by (surfuser) of group (surfgroup). By this, programs can go online in a very easy way, after belonging ports once got opened in Linfw3. This is the main advantage. The next advantage: All passwords except the ones for the LUKS-encrypted root partition get irrelevant - even if others know them! The access rights for files should be set local for each user only onto <=700 ( what can be done automatically per "umask 077" within /etc/fstab, manually by chmod or graphically through the context menu). The last risk remains in the Chrooting, settings by msec like "Forbid root-access", "Forbid extern access for root/forbid chrooting" and/or Sandbox firejail prevent by locking the consoles of the user accounts (including root (uid 0, gid 0), but except surfuser). Even the shell-login of all system- and user-accounts except surfuser can be restricted to /sbin/nologin too - no login possible. This can be done with msec_gui or by a special UNIX/Linux-(bash-)command). ACL-access-control (request by getfacl, settings by setfacl) can restrict processes owned (started) by surfuser access on all kind of (exectuable) files too. Scripts over once opened (established) net-connections can be blocked by Firefox-Extensions ABP, noscript and RequestPolicyBlockedContinued resp. Firefox >= 64 with mechanisms against Cross-Site-Tracking/-Scripting and all other kind of tracking. Beneath this, the Port-Scan-Detektor psad or psd of iptables activated by Linfw3 does its best too! And do not forget FSE (Full System Encryption by LUKS/dm-crypt) thinking of the command mount and therefore also cryptsetup (LUKS) including such chroot... All in all the remaining risk is given only by the started root-processes from kernel from the house Linus Tovalds, although they get blocked by Linfw3 too as long as owned by root by the way already depicted. Especially one root-process envokes some distrust - X (the X-Server, including the graphic card driver), but X can be restricted by own ACl through the command xhost as described in some points from above. There it is described, howto start X with option "-nolisten tcp" and that X can also be started in normal usermode. To get total paranoid, MAC (control resp. restriction of process interaction) might interest too - but that really mustn´t.
This excurs specifies Linfw3, firejail, ACL-Access Control Lists, MAC, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, if needed), important Firefox-Extensions upon opened connections and further methods later on, past the section for updating.

SL-Banner Regardless from all Linux-distributions, one and the same Linux gets installed package by package, although this might not possible for each distribution as a fault of their specific architectures (library-structure and so on).

OKWe would prefer the most complete Linux by electing certain distributions getting mixed to call it slackware either by installing a brandnew distribution to mix it up after getting updated or by the backport concept we are going to describe here.
Linux resp. (backported) "Universal-Linux" can origin in mdv2010.1 for example. It is updated long-termed and consequently with Fedora Project (fc), especially CentOS 6 (el6) and CentOS 7 (el7) resp. Scientific Linux (sl6/el6, sl7/el7) and fc -> EPEL (el6, el7) and other el6/sl6 and el7/sl7, where each source package is listed directly under the binary one on It finally managed to stop leaving rubbish over rubbish of packages from all the outworn over outworn distribution behind. The speciality for the backport-concept is, that almost one and the same version with its own releases get patched over patched in many cases for the same version by new releases, what is marked in the rpm-package name behind the point at the end of the package name, until the intern code does its work stable and secure. So one and the same package-version of the same release got fixed resp. picked out and overworked and overworked until security and functionality (as amost the best sign for security) are given, leading to new releases to one and the same versions. Nevertheless the version might differ resp. change in some, quit seldom cases too.

OKSecure Programming HOWTO, David A. Wheeler, 2015-09-19
This book provides a set of design and implementation guidelines for writing secure programs. Such programs include application programs used as viewers of remote data, web applications (including CGI scripts), network servers, and setuid/setgid programs. Specific guidelines for C, C++, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl, and Ada95 are included. It especially covers Linux and Unix based systems, but much of its material applies to any system. For a current version of the book, see

Suse Doc: Deployment Guide - Backporting Source Code
SUSE uses backports extensively. The information in this section helps you understand, why it can be deceptive to compare version numbers in order to judge ...

Debian richtet neues Backports-Repositorium ein - Pro-Linux
Mit dem neuen Repositorium "lenny-backports-sloppy" stehen Debian-Anwendern künftig aktualisierte Programme ohne große Risiken und Mühen zur Verfügung.

This backporting is provided for CentOS for more than 10 years (CentOS 6: form year 2010 until year 2020), accompanied by CentOS 7.
Installed Linux can be completed to talk about this one and only Linux by installing packages from many other distributions too.
You can read more about CentOS and this fact in our section for Updates.
Alternatively you can order this complete mdv2010 already in an FSE-encrypted form (full system encryption by dracut and LUKS) preinstalled on SSD, where all updates past the update expiration time of mdv2010 including those from CentOS el7 and el6 are already installed. Now, just unpack the tarball of an actual Firefox (actual or actual ESR, extended security release from CentOS or Rosalabs) and Thunderbird (actual ESR (el6, el7)) into a directory like /usr/lib64/firefox-any-name and /usr/lib64/thunderbird-any-name and link the executable files /usr/bin/firefox by the command "ln -sf /usr/lib64/firefox-any-name/firefox-bin /usr/bin/firefox" to update firefox in future following the firefox-INFO-menu. We are going to describe the update of Firefox (and Konqueror) explicitly further below. At last you care for a more or less actual GNU C standard library (glibc(pclos)), for this purpose we tested mga6, ver. 2.22-29 form 17. June 2018. Of course all already installed glibc-packages can be upgraded to mga6 (2.22-29) or higher) or main glibc-package (mga6) with all other glibc-packages coming from el6.

OK We decided us for kernel 4.20.13 (pclos) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) on the base of the GNU C Standard Library glibc-2.26 (pclos), glibc-2.22 (mga6) out of:

glibc (pclos, mga6), libc6 (rosa2016.1, rosa2014.1), compat-glibc (el6), glib2.0-common (pclos, el6), glibc-i18ndata (pclos, mga6), glibc-headers (pclos, el6), glibc-static (el6), glibc-utils (pclos, mga6), glibc-profile (pclos, mga6), glibc-glibc_lsb (rosa2016.1, rosa2014.1), locales (pclos, mga6), glib2 (el6), prelink (mga6, mga7, mga5, pclos, rosa2016.1, rosa2014.1), lib64stdc++ (pclos, mga6) or (and this is our tested-well choice:) glibc complete mga6 or: glibc (pclos, mga6 main glibc, rest-rpm: el6), libstdc++ (mga6), libsigc++ (mga6)

additionally, but be careful, miroplayer (el6) and the MCC-printer-administration might not work anymore: lib64glib2 (rosa2014.1), lib64gio2 (rosa2014.1), lib64gobjet2 (rosa2014.1), lib64gmodule2 (rosa2014.1). If they do not, reinstall glib2 (el6) and glib2.0-common (el6).

You can get all such glibc-packages from and without any problems, but the new filesystem of glibc for mga3 since version 2.17 consists of new linked directories in directory root named /bin, /sbin, /lib and /lib64, so that all of their files have to be copied into equal named directories of /usr: /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/lib and /usr/lib64. This can cause programs like terminal "konsole" not working anymore, so that the cursor remains in the upper left corner of the started terminal, to think about other terminals like the recommended xterm and the very secure rated but no unicode supporting aterm and the next step to do like installing package (rpm) shadow-utils. Konsole is still functioning only, after devpts is mounted in the device-configuration-file /etc/fstab. This can be done by the following entry:

none /dev/pts devpts mode=620,gid=5

with gid for tty and in the user-administration of MCC set user to a member of group tty,wheel,lp. Now it is possible to install many packages from more actual distributions like not only mdv2011 and mdv2012, but also Mageia Cauldron 1 up to 4 and especially Fedora Project resp. CentOS 6.8 el6 (release: 2010, modificiaton release date (rpm) CentOS-release: 03.08.2015) and el7 (
in the last two cases with update-guarantees until year 2020).Now software-packages are provided by and for CentOS (resp. el6, el7, Scientificlinux (sl6, el6), ALT Linux, Repoforge (el6.rf), CERT Forensics Tools, PUIAS Computational, KBS Extras Testing, P.N., Nux Dextop (el6.nux), Rpmforge (el6.rf), Epel (el6), Atomix, Russian Fedora (, NauLinux School (el6.nau), Nau Linux Extras, LinuxTECH und Ghettoforge (, Mandriva mdv2010, mdv2011, mdv2012, Mageia5 down to Mageia 1, Rosa2014.1, Rosa2012.1, newest Fedora, OpenSuSE and Tarballs and programs for any other OS to emulate from everywhere. With el6 and el6 you can follow the Gentoo-GLSA ( ) update security list. We list each package in our section for updates. This all can also be made for other distributions, annoying, if not. Folllowing our steps, this OpenSource-System full of device-driver can be made incomparible secure, while the iptables-firewall Linfw3 bewares the central meaning. For more details, please follow the details from our excurs as follows, especially in the section for updates. For this please notice, that one should not be forgotten: to make 1:1-backups during the installation process on at least one extern storage media, especially by command dd.

report from 21.10.2004, last update: 06.23.2017. If you can not see a menu on the left side, please click here.

Time for the system boot < 1 second

It was long ago, year 2010, my computer satisfied my needs, even in future. Soon you will agree. You can not make more secure what is secure, same by versatile and who really follows this report by an everlasting, 100% secure computer-system including a ultraslim 18W-WLED-Monitor (TÜV certified) for about 200€ power-consumption 20 up to 40W only, all for about 200 &euro. Many other models might interest too. On our linksites section for "News&Links" ( we even found out Rasperry Pi 3 and especally C.H.I.P., a 3-W-computer for 9&euro;, a model with much memory and as powerful as the smartphone. Further on we are going to present an independent from defragmentation and (included) virus-scanner and so on most secure Mandriva-Linux-computer-sytem from kiosks for only some Euro in year 2010, that is able to manage quit all one can imagine, because of its covering software seized in about more than 65 GB (15 DVD) quit for free. Not only the suspend-mode is working on our hardware, where the complete monitor gets "suspended", whenever you choose the resting mode resp. state (similar to the poweroff-state by hardware), Gooken of the computer tower blinks and Mandriva (2010) turns off all devices except RAM, in order to

"boot" the complete system in less than one second after pressing the powerbutton of your computer tower!

If this does not function, update acpid to at least 2.0.4 or el6. For these two suspend modes including hibernate of all in all four modes make yourself sure, that ACPI_2.0 is activated in the BIOS, that the SWAP-partition is sized by around 2 GB and that all USB-devices like usb-memory-stick are plugged out (umounted, umount and unplugged). Now the green LED of the computer-tower is blinking for mainboards like ITX-220 (details see data-sheed). Envoke the system again by pressing the power-buttom of the computer tower. Now a password request out of the OpenGL-screensaver (also used for the case of screen-locking) is made, but only if activated within power-management of systemsettings.

Here once again all energy saving modes (suspend modes) under "Universal Linux" (backported system) in detail:
- blanked screen, readiness (passive) - dark blanked screen. Some power is already saved by this.
- locked screen - OpenGL-screensaver with user-password request - protection during all the (almost short kept) time, a user abandons the computer. Power is still consumpted, until power saving modes might get into effect.
- abandoned / suspended - The monitor is powered off (almost automatically after a some time set), but awakes again with the user activity like mouse-move, mouseclick or any keystroke. Saved power: 18 Watt monitor-power- consumption
- hibernation - the actual state gets saved into the SWAP-file, the computer seems to be "powered off completely" , while the BIOS blinks the green LED at the computer tower, but an awake resp. the backup of the state right before is possible by pressing the power-on/off-buttom of the computer-tower. After the awake, the user-password is requested to go on working with the computer in the state right before, if determined by the power-management of systemsettings; saved power: quit all 37 Watt.
- deep sleep - another kind of hibernation or similar to it, but the data is written onto the hard-drive resp. SSD. All internet connections (network manager) got closed after the awake in both last hibernation modes, so they have to build up again.

And... much happened: incredible 38 Gigabyte Traffic with our websites last month April without making ads: Computer age without aging, no platform without fundamental IT security, so be welcome on the excurs for IT-security from Gooken on as a significant contribute to the successful interplay of informatics and society!

Now you can resign from things, that the world does not need! So everything is already authorized on DVD mdk2004 - except some special software like Nasa-moon-watch perhaps. After waiting quit the same long time, hardware fulfills important criteria too.

Starting Situation

Whoever posseses a "(mirolike) suneater" (a computer), one theme can interest: security. "Earlier so-called cybercriminals immobilized foreign calculators by computer-viruses, today the data thieves strip of whole bank accounts (by credit-card-betrayal, cracking of chips, debit entries, emails like scams, skumming, hacking and phishing");, wrote the press even after the millennium change. Eyes Since George Orwell we discuss the phenomenon of the Big Brother as someone trying to find out our habits, in order to achieve the aims for his few interests groups. Can´t enumerate all this: Spied offices and toilettes, cams in banks, in railway-stations and airports, right in front of petrol stations and bank automats: The eyes and ears of the big brother seem to be everywhere. Worlds get handicraft and abused (by censoring not fitting facts, opinions and views) .Trains were getting late, delrailed, while planes, cars and ships crashed or sank. Power supply systems had their blackouts, user konterminated by elements from platines and therefore got irrediated by the normal use of hardware, see postings form newsgroups cited and linked on our linkside. Significant preparations against thunder-storms were not made. Prices for power supply drifted. Votings were not encountered right. Opinions got suppressed and manipulated by positionings within search engines and legitimating rules, in some cases their listings took more into effect than prepunishment registers of criminal courts, unmanned airoplanes threatened with shooting us, corruption escalated.

Once, in year 2003, SuSE Linux 7.3 appears including four printed out manuals: one reference, one for the programs, one for networks, but still the market share for Linux except for server reached less than 10 percent. Linux has got the right intellectual touch, many people do not like. The handbooks interest a lot, but did not explain, how to create and manage a really secure computer system. Upon the base of a software surface covering distirbution like mdv-Linux from year 2010 we dare to say it managed us to do so by this excurs resp. report. This mdv also makes it possibles to emulate other popular operating systems on the platform of powersaving but ergonomic fast working hardware. Even diversified games for this distribution understand to convice us very much, many of them are running upon OpenGL and SDL. Nice to notice, and what is interesting most: They and all Software of this distribution do really, really run! See how risky other operating systems had been constituted, for not many people did believe us before it all happened with them:

Focus:de, February 2015: "Also unreal e-mails from betrayer and cyber-criminals are well known, it is a matter of a few seconds we click on such emails to make it happen. As soon as such email do open, we forbode this email not to be sent only to us. Dangerous viruses can take into effect (prevention: UNIX-Linux filesystems, spam-filter with a first virus-scanner like spamassassin and clamav prevent the propagation of viruses). The second next mistake is to open the atteachments and links too. Cyper-Criminals can rob millons of email-addresses by data-robbery. Inourdays plenty of time is spent online to be reachable so that we can get abused. The problem to protect the increasing amount of data becomes day by day more difficult Fingerprints are left in emails, by online-shopping (registrations, tracking-scripts), whats-app-news and more."

niue-muenzen Viruses, trojans, worms, bots: 40 percent of the computers are "zombies", Focus, 02.03.2014
The amout is alarming: 40 percent of all PC in Germany are infectedt and can be remoted by cybercriminals. Once set free, malware opens the backdoorr for more abuse. How to protect: The amount of infected computer increased last year up to 40 percent, confirmed the Anti-Botnet-Support-Center of the internet community Eco. More than 220.000 computer with old browser-versions have been scanned. This forwards to trojans and viruses. In many cases, the first varmint opens the door for more infecitons, describes the community. "Zombie-computers" could be remoted. Infected so colled "zombie-computers" could be remoted by cybercriminals. "Their systems are engaged as part of networks, that are abused by criminals for abuse like spam-transfer or denial-of-service-attacks, leading to die immense harms", described Markus Schaffrin, the ECO security expert. The result is alarming, said Eco. For more security, a well configured firewall and anti-virus-scanner remained essential. Focus explains, how you can find the best virus-scanner (we, Gooken, think it´s clamav. This open sourced scanner is always checked well, as he can be installed on all popular operating systems).

Linux does not work? How you can solve every driver-problem,, 04.07.2017
Linux runs on quit all PC and notebooks, but not each hardware periphery is recognized automatically. For new devices some problems are possible.
[...] Linux-distributions provide a wide hardware support and run on quit all PC. With SATA, ethernet, graphic-card and monitor as much as mouse and keyboard there are no problems at all awaiting. Those basic functions should be warranted each case.
Elder printer, scanner or tv-cards without driver for Windows 7, 8 or 10 can often be reused for Linux, but for very new or seldom devices sometimes there is no support pregiven. Before the installation tests for hardware-compatibility should be made.
Report in german language onle:

New nvidia-driver cause system-breakdowns,, 10.03.2016
Nvidia´s new graphic card driver 364.47 cause serious hard problems for some PC-user. Concered user can do the following: .

Even a supergau in Fukoshima took place! Even have a look onto the section for "News&Links" from our left menu! If we follow such reports, we remind of emergancies, catastrophes and incalculatable payments. Since computer-technique seems to be part in almost everything (Na/ST), it and the companies behind seem to be quit liable for all, in person also see our linkside....! One question seems to be central:

Do we reign computers, or do computer reign us?

Computing begins, where it ends

Green LED vs. red LED: "Yes, I think I´am OK vs. yes, I think I am (the) stupid idiot (while our own system signs: "..." with one very short blinking point more or less periodically after the other one in around two up to ten seconds, asking the user back for "any complaints?", reminding him for "more activity, please..." and saying "I tell you...(heartbeats)"), what shall not confound with the three LED at the top of the num-block the keyboard saying to the user "Hi!" and "bye" resp. "out of order" (kernel-panic). All or something, that of course is not essential anymore in the case of touch-screens, and that´s the naked truth. The own computer should be no disadvantage and not stand for riscs (red LED) without loosing his advantages and opportunites (green LED). Computer systems should not think about themselves, that they are stupid for all, by making themselves work with capacities reducing and control wresting self-checks for virus-scans, bot-processes, bugs (program-errors), processes of trojans and self-maintenances as the cause of their technical unjustifiance. This is almost self-signaled by the blinking orange or red LED of the computer-tower. A solution far from MS Windows is found since year 2004 resp. 2010: Gooken does present even more a (classical, quit everlasting) computer-system on lowest costs with quit all software almost in top-graphic running as secure and stable without much blinking of the red LED as computer can! In spite of red marked text and our linksite you become a witness of the eight wonder of the world named "the almost 100% security bewaring computer running on lowest cost, where there is quit no software of rubriques of all kind missing", even not of games and TOP-games! Please do not forget to read our linksites from the left menu section "News&Links" These linksites contribute to the right understanding of the work with the computer and, although we are going to provide the promised security by this excurs, many remaining threatenings from the outside are still awaiting! For security studies for MS Windows, please have a look upon News&Links too.

Very past installation phase, a system almost free from security-leaks, maintenance and administration will be provided. The only thing one has to do from time to time is, to install some actual updates.

MS Windows "Replacement": Windows-Emulation by virtualbox, VM, qemu, xen, mingw and wine (mdv2010), same for MAC-OSX by BasiliskII and Amiga by uae and so on

Through wine, winecfg and at last playonlinux of mdv2010 emulation of software running on MS Windows (98, XP, 7, ... ) including MSOffice and Internet Explorer 6 up to actually 8 is not the problem anymore (although in our opinion with the well-equipped mdv2010 we need much or anything of it...). More than 100 Top-Games: see our data sheed.

Frontend playonlinux presents software, that can be installed groupwise like accessories, development, education, games, graphics, internet, entertainment, office and others and offers the following software in detail beneath many other one to install:
MS Office, MS Word Viewer, Intenet Explorer, 6 up to (actually) 8, Google Picasa, WowApp, 7-Zip, Ultimateencoder, Amazon Kindle, Azuon, Cadstd Lite, PDU Spy, Photofiltre Studio X, Dreamweaver, Codeblocks, Flashplayer, Flash 8, Flash MX, Notepad++, Graph, Teach2000, Simultit, Rocket Reader, Huckel 95, Adobe Photoshop, Fireworks8, Microsoft Paint and more, more than hundred games see our data sheed!

playonlinux installs different Wine32 and Wine64 depending on the programms chosen.

It also offers installation of any setup.exe regardless from the download out of the internet, that means from harddrive or CD/DVD too.

Wine: How to use the Windows-Replacement in Linux,, 08.11.2015
Wine is a a clone of the Windows-API with many windows-programs to run under Linux too. Whenever functioning, it is in opposite to virtualization (virtualbox, Xen, qemu, ... ) the more direct way:, zahlreiche Top-Games aus playonlinux siehe unter Datenblatt.

PCWelt also presents security tipps for the user,, 03.08.2015 and 22.08.2015

Create your VPN (private internet tunnel)
Most public WLAN-net are - as already told by name - public. Hacker, equipped even with only a few programs, can "catch" the traffiic from the next area. Although it is useful to provide more security by calling websites per https in the address-line of a browser, it is not the best solution. A private network (VPN) should be used, in order to provide an encrypted data-tunnel between your device and the internet. There do exist versions of such programs for free like "Hide My Ass", "Hotspot Shield" and "Tunnel Bear"- a payed VPN belongs to the better alternatives (or use the real secure freeswan, strongswan, openvpn or openswan). The versions to pay like Hide My Ass cost 40 € the year for example and protectis not only your PCs but also your mobile devices.

libreswan (rpm): "Libreswan is a free implementation of IPsec & IKE for Linux. IPsec is the Internet Protocol Security and uses strong cryptography to provide both authentication and encryption services. These services allow you to build secure tunnels through untrusted networks. Everything passing through the untrusted net is encrypted by the ipsec gateway machine and decrypted by the gateway at the other end of the tunnel. The resulting tunnel is a virtual private network or VPN.
This package contains the daemons and userland tools for setting up Libreswan. To build KLIPS, see the kmod-libreswan.spec file. Libreswan also supports IKEv2 (RFC4309) and Secure Labeling. Libreswan is based on Openswan-2.6.38 which in turn is based on FreeS/WAN-2.04"

suneater_miro You can use a virtual private network-client for free like OpenVPN (or Freeswan, Anm., die Red.), in order to connect to a VPN-service, where you have an account, so that you can visit the internet through an encrypted access. This is a good reason for VPN, but not the only one. Maybe you do not want, that your internet provider surveys all your online-activities at home. Normally, if you go online, the provider can survey all of your activities. By VPN your internet service provider can only see the connection to the VPN. Besides from this VPN help you to bypass regional restrictions for websides like Amazon, Hulu, Netflix and BBC iPlayer. One example for a VPN-provider is the company IPredator from Schweden offering VPN-services for eight Dollar the month, keeping its connection to the famous torrent-tracking-site "The Pirate Bay". IPredator promises not store any traffic data of their user. You can also use PGP-encryption, if you contact IPredator-support per mail. One more popular VPN-provider is Private Internet Access, that promises not to protocol traffice data too. PIA costs 7 Dollar per month or 40 Dollar the whole year. PIA also helps to bypass reginal blocks in the USA, Canada, Great Britain and several countdries in continental europe. Although VPN protects your privacy, provider of websites like Facebook and Google can protocol your internet-activites. The use of your anonymous-private-mode of your browser is not caring for complete anonymity, but it keeps websites from reading out your cookies and the histroy of your browser, in order to get more to know about you. We are going to see, what we can do, comment by Gooken.

Howto configure and establish VPN-connections can be read here (in german language): .

The risk remains by the VPN-provider, as he knows the IP-address - so you have to convice him. This is the central disadvantage in opposite to Tor.

I2P is a decentral network connecting users, in order to make an point-to-point- (end to end-) encryption possible. It is still under development and provides an experimental additon to other methods for encryption or anonymization.

Tor is a connection-based low-latency anonymous communication system. This package provides the "tor" program, which serves as both a client and a relay node. Scripts will automatically create a "toruser" user and group, and set tor up to run as a daemon when the system is rebooted. Applications connect to the local Tor proxy using the SOCKS protocol. The local proxy chooses a path through a set of relays, in which each relay knows its predecessor and successor, but no others. Traffic flowing down the circuit is unwrapped by a symmetric key at each relay, which reveals the downstream relay. Warnings: Tor does no protocol cleaning. That means there is a danger that application protocols and associated programs can be induced to reveal information about the initiator. Tor depends on Privoxy and similar protocol cleaners to solve this problem. This is alpha code, and is even more likely than released code to have anonymity-spoiling bugs. The present network is very small -- this further reduces the strength of the anonymity provided. Tor is not presently suitable for high-stakes anonymity., about tor, 18.01.2016

Another example, why to resign from TOR is named by

"In November last year the anonymizing-network Tor started his first spend campaign. With overwhelming success. Exact 205.874 US-Dollar (around 190.262 Euro) from 5265 different givers are taken by the project Tor during six weeks. With this amount of money, the Tor project is going to reduce the dependencies from the US-government, financing Tor of about 80 up to 90 percent. As the US security agencies try to infiltrate the tor-network, it makes sense Tor making more independent from USA. Alleged the US-policei FBI spent one million dollar to an explorer of the Carnegie Mellon University, in order to help the FBI, to intrude into the anonymizing-network. The NSA is going to crack TOR too.",

Tor - no absolute security,, 30.08.2016
The anonymizing network like Tor left security leaks and access points: if many Tor-nodes gets observed, conclusions to the location as much as identity of a user can be drawn - and not only by institutes by law than NSA. There are some tor-based virusses and malware on their way - probably seldom, but really existant, .

OK Protect the router
The most important connection to the internet for the everyday life is your router at home for the use of online banking and so on, where sensible data is transferred. So do not use ever the same passwords, especially not that of the router. For most secure home connection always use WPA2-encryption and random generated login-passwords out of at least 30 characters, that should be kept within a password-manager. One more report about router is following below at the end of step 1 of this excurs.

OK Resign from Java (whenever possible)
Oracle´s Java does not belong to the required software for PC-user for our relief. Java is full of lacks in security. Security experts postulate from Oracle the complete overworking of Java. January 2013 they advised all PC-user to deactivate Java as possible, that means except the cases where Java is needed. One should wholehearted attempt to delete Java from system completely and at once! This can be done for MS Windows by the system control. Nevertheless, if a webside requires Java, the recommend of installing actual Java software is not missing.

OK Be careful with the password-recovery of mail accounts
Make hacker the life as hard as possible. Use different mail-accounts with different passwords kept in a password manager with hard to hack address names like "". Then hacker can not hack in an easy way and especially not all passwords at once.

OK Do not use only antivirus-software but also anti-malware-scanner
Virus scanner alone do not cover and remove all malware. It is a good idea to use malware-scanner too.

OK Screen the webcam Times were known, malware sended word-documents all over to email-contacts. This can get even more and more worse, if computers are suited with webcams and microphones. Put adhensive tapes, maybe with paper between, over the lense of the webcam. Whenever the webcam is needed by the user, he just has to deduct it.

Databasis (SQL)

OK Password-protection for MySQL after the login into MySQL by starting the daemon mysqld and entering "mysql -h -localhost -u username -p" in order to type into beloginging terminal:

grant usage on *.* to ´username´ identified by ´password-to-set´;

This method is advised as secure. Alternatively, but for some protocollings not such secure:

SET PASSWORD FOR ´username´ = PASSWORD(´password-to-set´);

The (own) computer should escape from the dark empire, here named by Miro´s "Suneater", but how?

Technical failures cause from human ones. "The way is the target", means their leader Konfuzius. Gooken itself is a meeting place for the scientific based IT-Security since computer might run secure. Its excursion is introducing the security-concept without the accumulation of any costs for consultation, training, conversion and licenses. It does so by realizing a secure and standard company management database and an everlasting as possible, standard IT-Security-concept for your computer-system through all of companies (fields, mandators, master, departments, standard-processes, editor, printouts, diagrams, security) intergrating Mycompanies company management in PHP-MySQL standard with intergratable PHP-FCKEditor for text-fields, also all ready for WEB-2.0-and 3.0-technology, the determination of security levels, computer-manual, (security-)commands, checklist and prototypes in order to resign from scans from hard-disks as much as from the amount of essential updates and upgrades to none (!) at all as much as possible, a deep look into the work resp. code of search-engines like Gooken, "News&Links" especially for the friends of MS Windows to carry on and more. In comparison with other projects, those of Gooken do not only consist of an everlasting character, but also find an end to the very beginning! the_wall_by_christo


All this direct help online is offered to beware stable positions right before law and opposite fellow men. It is is realized by adjustments and downloads consisting of SQL through company. management, pdf like the computer-manual with checklist and surface covering security-software for prevention, diagnosis and repair to solve the survival-request of computer-age with its central rating for computers completely concretisizing the book "Security in Information Technology" second edition by Prof. Dr. Kersten, Oldenbourg-Hochschulverlag from 1995. Therefore Gooken tries to contribute to the calm, troublefree enterprise! Quit all needs and security problems of the computer can be solved! Gooken offers

Introduction-"basics" to reach the highes IT-security-level" as possible, and a pdf containing also next step 2 to reach an enhanced IT-security-level, pdf system-(security-)commands and pdf checklist,

Anonymizing Proxyserver

surfing with the anonymizing base64-, rotate-13 URL- and SSL-encrypting Proxy and den base64, rotate13, nonssl Proxy for free (with restricted capacity for dowloads) programmed by Abdullah Arif. In both cases, for payment as much as for free, IP are not only exchanged, but also all kind of scripts including tracking-scripts beneath cookies get blocked, by choosing the option "remove scripts". This is important to avoid methods like Canvas Fingerprinting, details see our "online check". If there is no access for our free proxy, try

Webdesign- and programming in HTML, JavaScript, PHP, PHP-MySQL and MySQL

Search engines

suneater_miro Many search-engines tell us, that we can search secure, because they resign from storing the IP of their user. But since Edward Snowden june 2013 the fact is, that many search engines host on server within the USA, even those recommended by so called privacy protectors. Such search-engines have to refer to the Patriot Act and US-law and therefore have to serve the full access of US-authorities. So they can not offer protected privacy (even not, if they try. source: metager, year 2014).

German government and the EU-commission, Tagesschau, 21.05.2014: Mundt supports the demands of Bundeswirtschaftsminister Sigmar Gabriel postulating a hard reglementation and the annihilation of the Google concern. Paris also postulates for harder rules. The minister and his french administration colleague Arnaud Montebourg postulted in a letter to sharpen the suggested conditions for Google. Indeed the ministre from Berlin and Paris do not find the sympathy of the EU-competition commissioner Joaquin Almunia signed by scepsis against the annihilation of Google. But all with Google is by far not obivious. It can not be exclude the commission following all the compaints against Google in further processes by law, explained Almunia at the same time.

trustrank-100 Instead the platform independent Gooken is a self-learning search-engine with SSL-support. Gooken was developed for answering still unanswered questions in conjunction with IT-security past our excurs with downloads as much as for any purpose. You are searching completely anonymously, no click-registration by meta queried searchengines! Actually, no data are stored, neither your IP nor the user-agent-specification of your browser! Gooken resigns from tracking-scripts, participating in a web-advertisement net as much as from server-farms! You can open all websites anonymously.

Open Website Reputation: Gooken 100/100

downloads making Linux, what it proclaims to be: free from any intrusions, without any hacker and any trojan and therefore secure independent from most distribution and version: Linfw3 - the unbeatable fortress with protection against insecure browser-plugins - the comfortable end of all hacker and trojan (for single user, client, server) - besides Klean, Rename-Manager, the (LAN-supporting, platform-independent) PHP-MySQL-library Bibliomaster, platform-independent PHP-MySQL company-management-database Mycompanies and

a filterlist for the adblocker of the konqueror and other adblocker from the Easylist and during the time collected entries

Trials against small money for the attempt to improve your online-reputation within the internet on price at agreement

Fedora and CentOS (resp. ALT Linux) Updates, Linux for Security, and Top Seven by Susan Linton - Jan. 17, 2014Comments (0)
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LinuxToday was another interesting day in the newfeeds, so much so I can܌t pick just one. There were several headlines focusing on Fedora or CentOS (resp. ALT Linux) today. has posted a top seven distro list for 2014 and Jack Wallen says CESG recommends Linux for security. Tha´´s not all either. First up today, Jack Wallen over at published an article discussing the results of the United Kingdom´s Communications-Electronics Security Group (CESG) operating system security tests. The tests consisted of 12 categories of security focus such as Disk Encryption, Authentication, and Platform Integrity and Sandboxing. As if there was any question, Linux proved the most secure of all the desktop and mobile systems tested. So, be sure to check out Wallen´s article for more detail and relevant links.

Operating Systems and covering well designed Software ready to start: after all those computer systems really one to work and game with (stable)!

mdv on USB-memory-stick: Opensource from (bootable) DVD, (bootable) USB (-memory-stick and memory-cards), from DVD onto SSD and HDD, so take the - as we think - one time chance to avoid in future not only computer-techique but also all operating systems. This can be performed by the shell-script mandriva-seed, unetbootin and other programs.:

mdv on DVD: from mdv-final for quit all devices - comuter-final, computing has right begun, where it ended: Opensource-2010-FINAL, secure, easy to handle, but most comfortable Linux fullfillingFSH 2.3 (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) and ISO-standard-LSB 4.0, with 65 GB (15 DVD) + Fedore rpm + unlimited software from see our data-sheed (left menu) also recommended by, stable and secure from DVD onto your SSD (and/or harddrive) with lifetime installation-support, fc-SuSE-mdv: We also offer complex as much as the mdv2010 already updated, stable and secure Linux-distribution powerpack+final version mdv2010.0 from year 2010 (x86_64, 64-bit, optionally MAC based ("NSA-")Tomoyo-Linux by NTT DATA Corporation, Japan) with driver-comfortable kernel 2.6.31 (2.6-final resp. Knoppix 2010 like mdv-2010-Kernel 2.6.33-7-2, 2.6.39 (with allow-discards-support for FSE and FDE and patches up to actual date from see in our section for updates) or kernel-4.20.13 (pclos/PCLinuxOS) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos), kernel-rsbac (hardened), RFC-rules bewaring methods for encryption, Firefox 3.6.17 you can update to an actual version like Firefox ESR, patched bash, LUKS/dm-crypt (cryptsetup) with most driver for desktop-computer, all postscript-based printer, PPD from manufacturer or diver-CD, alternatively see compatibilty-list and foomatic-, PPD- and cups-filter-driver and cupsddk (cups driver development kit) from these DVD or Linuxfoundation, and powerpack+ from year 2007 (i586, 32-bit), many graphic-card-drivers including IPG-driver intel, IGP-openchrome and IGP-unichrome3D, ati-, nvidia- and the universal VESA-standard-graphiccard-driver and other ones; each version out of one installation-DVD (1) for the binary-packages (rpm), one DVD for more mdv-2010-software-packages, most already known from mdk10.1 (2004) (2) including Debian Linux paket-manager (apt, dpkg, alien), more drivers and software listed in the data sheed below and one DVD for the belonging (updated) sourcecode-packages (3): 3 DVD Linux total, stable and secure mdv2010.0-final (x86_64) or mdv2007-powerpack+(i586), 3 × 4,4 GB comfortable, most stable and secure Linux total, free from shipping costs, for 20 € 24h-livetime-support from and sources or installation-DVD mdv2010.0 from for 8 € (2013), or

mdv from SSD: 65 GB mdv-software (15 DVD for mdv2010 out of mdv2010.0, updates, mdv2010.1, mdv2010.2 including all GLSA-updates except KDE and 2014 patched bash and openSSL 1.0.2, Firefox ESR ) extract see data sheed plus source-rpm from your sent-in at least 120GB sized SSD, FSE (FDE) of all partitions: root (around 65 GB) , (by keyfile from the root-partition automounted) home (around 25 GB), SWAP (around 3GB) and one more partition (around 30GB), 24h-livetime-support from or

mdv out of the internet: mdv2010-packages for free from:, and, 24h-livetime-support from and sources, plus quit all Linux-tarballs,

kernel-4.20.13 (PC-LinuxOS) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos) resp. kernel-desktop-2.6.39 (mdv-2011-standard-kernel), kernel-server-2.6.39 (standard-kernel with patches up to now, year 2016, from see our section for updates), kernel-linus-2.6.31 (original kernel from Linus Tovalds), kernel-rsbac (hardened kernel), kernel-uml (protected usermode-kernel), xen-Kernel (XEN-virtual machines), lirc-kernel (infrared-driver), kernel-tmb (laptop), kqemu-kernel (kquemu-driver for the standard-kernel), vpnclient-kernel (vpnc-driver), fglrx-kernel (nvidia-driver), em8300-kernel, broadcom-wl-kernel, hfsmodem-kernel, madwifi-kernel (WLAN-driver), libafs-kernel, lzma-kernel, kernel-rt (SMP-onboard-Realttek/Atheros-LAN-BIOS-Chip with an activatable LAN-ROM), fusion-kernel (fusion-driver), kernel-netbook, kernel-openvz (SMP: multiprocessor-kernel), libafs-kernel, kernel-kerrighed (kerrighed-Support), obencbm-kernel, psb-kernel, actuator-kernel (actuator-driver), lzma-kernel (lzma-driver), m560x-kernel, broadcom-wl-kernel, nvidia-current-kernel, nvidia96xx-kernel, nvidia173-kernel, netfilter-rtsp-kernel, fortune-kernel, vhba-kernel (vhba-driver), em8300-kernel, r5u870-kernel, r5u870-kernel-laptop, squashfs-lzma-kernel, vboxadditions-kernel, virtualbox-kernel, actual Kernel-3.X.X (from or, ...

Notice, that in order to keep transparency and other aspects, the system boot does not in main follow the kernel with its many firmware, but the runlevel-init-scripts out of /etc/rc.runlevel0-6 out of tarball resp. rpm named initscripts and util-linux, almost steered by the script named init.

uml-kernel: User-Mode-Linux is a safe, secure way of running Linux versions and Linux processes. Run buggy software, experiment with new Linux kernels or distributions and poke around in the internals of Linux, all without risking your main Linux setup. User-Mode Linux gives you a virtual machine that may have more hardware and software virtual resources than your actual, physical computer. Disk storage for the virtual machine is entirely contained inside a single file on your physical machine. You can assign your virtual machine only the hardware access you want it to have. With properly limited access, nothing you do on the virtual machine can change or damage your real computer, or its software; you need an uml-kernel and an adequate root-fs-filesystem of about 1GB from; start: #./smb-kernel-name ubda=name-of-root_fs rw mem=256m; stop: #halt.

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the directory structure and directory contents in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, maintained by the Linux Foundation. The current version is 2.3, announced on 29 January 2004.[1]

Only some Linux-distributions fullfill the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard and LSB standard. The Linux Standard Base (LSB) itself is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the filesystem hierarchy used in the GNU/Linux operating system. The LSB is based on the POSIX specification, the Single UNIX Specification, and several other open standards, but extends them in certain areas. According to the LSB, the goal of the LSB is to develop and promote a set of open standards that will increase compatibility among Linux distributions and enable software applications to run on any compliant system even in binary form. In addition, the LSB will help coordinate efforts to recruit software vendors to port and write products for Linux Operating Systems. The LSB is registered as an official ISO standard. Linux Standard Base aims to make binaries portable.

mdv2010.0, LSB-version by after typing in the command

lsb_release -a

LSB Version: lsb-4.0-64...
Distributor ID: MandrivaLinux
Description: Mandriva Linux 2010.2
Release: 2010.2
Codename: Adelie (Napoleon, annotation by the red.)


With mdv2010 software is not only covering, it also can be displayed advantageous and interesting:

Window-administration (die hält, was sie verspricht): always-in-foreground, always-in-background, remember, force of positioning and seizing function and so on, fringes, work surface assignment, window-heaver, menü for behaviors, screen-edges, window-effects, changes of windows, actions, activation, spezific settings, ...

Effects for the desktop: kiba-dock, 3D-window-galery, 3D-windows-stack, fade in and out for the system-login and -logout, cube, preview (of minimized windows), showcase with miniaturized images for opened windows, translucency, transparency, dimming, zoom, auto-reticle for centering, gliding, magnifier, shadow, wonderlamp (during the maximizment of minimized windows), wave, ... on the base of composite: spotlighter (justable desktop-spotlight), ardesia (desktop-sketching), curtain (curtain to move on the desktop from one side to the other)...; like plasmoids without markable loss of performance for active processes of mdv2010.


Key-strokes for KDE-desktop-effects: STRG+F9 or mouse pointer into upper left corner: preview with mini-pictures of opened windows, ALT+TAB: window change, STRG+ALT+Scrollrad: window-transparency, STRG+Arrows: cube-rotation of the workplaces

Plasmoids resp. plasma (applets) for the desktop and the controlbar (please notice, that in differnence to mdv2010-rpm-packages actually not all of them do function, so we have to wait, and that some of them get their information

Desktop right upper corner with halfmoon-plasmoid: toolbox out of add control-line, configuraiton of key shortcuts, adjustment for the active-directory-perspective, enlargement/declinement of fonts and symbols and unlocking of the (plasmoid-)miniprograms


to present out of the internet): Daisy (free program choice within rings or bars), Lancelot (desktop-menu), timezones and weather, birthday-reminder, calculator, widget-dashboard, system-monitoring, multiple rowed fast-loader (more-rowed compressing collector for icons with optional mini-pull-down-(up-)menu), unit-conversion, LCD-weather-station, weather forecast, wordclock with timezones, accu-check, image frame, comic, egg-clock, jumping ball, colorchoosing stick, calculator, moon phases, zoom, social desktop, ToDo-lists, remember the milk, system-monitor, guitar-tuner, image-preview, widget-dashboard, birthday-reminder, flickr, language-translator, sun-system, fishtank, DVB-signal-meter, newsticker, Mountoid, Bundesliga, Facebook, Flickr, bsun (wandernde Sonne), FrustML resp. (Mensch-Ärger-Dich-Nicht), Fancy Tasks (quickstarter similar to cairo-dock), Koala (similar to Tamagocchi), Astrocalendar, Plasmio (SMS), daisy (desktop-icons in a cricle), 15 stones,Tomatoid, egg-clock, spell verification, blackboard, WorkContext (nepomuk) and much more ...

Gadgets, Apps-Installer, ...

Gai, The General Applet Interface Library von oder : gai-pal, gai-album, gai-bgswitcher, gai-blobs, gai-clock, gai-mailcounter, gai-nebulus, gai-sun, gai-othello, gai-pager, gai-terrain, gai-visual-audio, gi8k, gwlan, vpn, bluecombo, FishTime, shermans-aquarium, TV in a box (tvib), usermon, ...

Cairo-Dock Cairo-Dock from or

Direct text-search like Cortana: krunner (press ALT+F2)

mdv-screenlets Desktop-Screenlets, image: GUI-Screenlet-administration with more than 100 screenlets additionaly downloadable ones and screenlet-daemon, screenlet in the fore- and background, scalable size, widget-attribute, more attributes like: growing flower ( to give some water from time to time), slideshow, pager, control (to add more screenlets), radio, meter, stocks, speech, sensors, ringssensors, ruler, convert, example of howto create a screenlet, copystack, clear weather von, ...

For more details see the data sheed from left menu.

"4.65 from 5 stars are the results of the average voting of a test from year 2014 for Mandriva based upon 204 meanings of customers from investigates regulary such votings from all sources out of the internet, that are carefully read out by hand and stochastic methods."

Metisse Mandriva Metisse takes 3D to a New Level,
This morning I´ve been watching videos of the Mandriva Metisse Linux that, in my opinion, puts some amazing 3D features at your fingertips. All of this XGL and 3D stuff is often shrugged off as merely being eye candy, but there are four video demonstrations that really show the usability that these features can really offer. I always thought that openSUSE Linux was always the furthest advanced version of Linux since they often implement the latest technology. However, Mandriva seems to be taking that crown away, and I have really considered switching to it as my primary version of Linux that I use. I like the look and feel of their operating system, and it is obvious that they are exploring new ways to make it the best it can be. Download Mandriva Metisse
Thanks for the tip Chris!

Convince yourself: The quit short and many years overworked errata-list of the comfortable mdv2010.0 can be directly obtained from Mandriva Errata 2010.0. Not all of the mentioned problems there have to be solved. With mdv2007 and mdv2010 the time has come to install many, if not all, packages of this distribution and maybe more tarballs at once on the same SSD resp. harddisc instead of, to go sure, a few ones only as generally recommended by institutes like BIS.

The address of Mandriva is not missing on mandriva´s homepage.

Mandriva S.A. (prev. Mandrake), Paris, St. Etienne, Frankreich, Tel...., email-addresses... ( founder: Gael Duval, 70 persons employed )

"Mandriva Linux the brainchild of Gael Duval, who wanted to focus on ease of use for new users. Duval became the co-founder of Mandrakesoft". Most packages origin in Fedora (but I knew a distribution of Fedora on DVD from the same year 2010 remaining quit scanty in comparison).

TrayAbb.: System tray (plasmoid) out of Krandr (screen resolution), kmix, Klipper, parcellite (additional configuration of klipper), NetworkManager, Stardict, USB-connections and encrypted partitions, kgpg, korganizer (calender and. dating planner with reminder function), printer-applet (printer jobs), nepomuk (semantic search), i - information for system messages by kwrited (actually not started, that means still without: knotes or tomboy, tvbrowser, ...), clock with date and calendar and the fast screenlock- and poweron-off-plasmoid; enfastened load of the tray after the deinstallation of interfering draksnapshot
"Mandriva Linux 2010 - perhaps The Best Linux Release All Year - Mandriva Linux 2010 was recently released and brings lots of nice improvements to an already nice system. Mandriva has a long and distinguished history in the Linux distribution arena. They began over a decade ago using Red Hat as their base and quickly became the preferred choice of the new Linux user. This release hopes to offer some amenities to appeal to users of newer trends in technology such as semantic desktop and netbook support. The Mandriva Linux installer sets the standard in user-friendly Linux installers. For those familiar with Mandriva this release brings some great improvements. The best two so far have been the increased stability and performance. Mandriva may have had a reputation for being a bit crashy in the past, but it appears those days are gone. In the several days since a fresh install only one application crash has occurred here, and this application is known to be unstable across distributions. This new-found stability comes with even better speed as well. Not only does Mandriva boot quicker (speedboot: kernel-parameter that can be set in /boot/grub/menu.lst or /etc/lilo.conf, speedboot=yes), but desktop performance has improved noticeably. Applications open and function faster, including the two heavyweights and Firefox. There is virtually no graphic artifacting and redraws are immediate. In addition, the 2010 graphics are just beautiful (source:

mdv2010 enpossibles to choose any design and style out of desktop, appearance and desktop-design-details from systemsettings and gnome-control-center - self mades as much as pregiven ones. A screen covering bootsplash can appear right up at the beginning when powered on using grub or escpecially grub2. Color-schemes can be imported like the one from the CD of the monitor-manufacturer and there are a lot of emojis. Addtionally plasmoids and many ressources-saving 3D-deskop-effects can enrich the desktop. With compiz, the deskop-workplaces are ordered cube or metisse, while the desktop-background can be any wallpaper, slide-show, global map, weather map, mandelbrot and so on as much an image on the fly. Especially OpenGL, fast direct-rendering, SDL and pulseaudio guarant the video- and audio-processing. Mandriva´s center of gravity lies together with the up to year 2020 actualizing Scientifclinux alias CentOS 6.7 (el6) and 6.7 (el7) in the extended hardware-support of our days as much as in future.

Nevertheless keep an actual mirrored 1:1-backup on another media during the installation! After all the installation, mdv2010 is running fine.
Mandriva for free: Mandriva Lx 2014 1,6GB free download. Notice, that we would like to keep mdv2010. Therefore we did not test this Mandriva-distribution!


Bootstrap of mdv2010 (creates) a basic Debian system: debootstrap is used to create a Debian base system from scratch without requiring the availability of alien, dpkg or apt. Notice, that in comparison with package manager of mdv2010, those off Debian 2010 like aptitude and synapitic do consist of errors, error-messages, breakdowns and bad overviews. It does this by downloading .deb files from a mirror site, and carefully unpacking them into a directory which can eventually be chrooted into (although we recommended to forbid this command). Debian is also supported by dpkg, apt, dselect, dash, ..., but with mdv2010 there seems to be not much Debian software missed, see The coloured out listings of Mageia Cauldron - and Mandriva-rpm to select is most satisfying on

Mandriva-One (mdv2010.2-final, i586) direct bootable from your USB-memory-stick, USB 2.0 and higher. Harddrive and SSD do remain not only unused, but can also be used for installation.

Linux on your USB-memory-stick:

with a free partition of at least 2 GB or unformatted for 64- and 32-Bit-CPU, mdv-fundament, optional installation onto your harddrive resp. SSD, kernel 2.6.33, grub (with a optional md5-encrypted password-protection for each bootable dracut resp. kernel and memory check by memtest) and lilo (boot-manager, especially for kernel < 2.6.39), Firefox 3.6.13 including the security-addons we recommend and privoxy, KDE 4.4.5, Dolphin 4.4.5, Konqueror 4.4.5, Kontact with kmail and bogofilter, clamav, Korganizer, OpenOffice, packet-manager drakrpm, rpm, gurpmi and urpmi, drakconf, gparted/parted (for changing the partition-size even on USB-stick), software for repair, mplayer (i chose video: X11 (XImage/Shm) and audio: sdl SDLib audio output), mplayer-codecs, mplayer-codecs-extra, mplayerplugin, amarok, image viewer, gimp, gcc, gcc-c++, kwrite, fsck, rkhunter and chkrootkit, xskat, pysol, gnuchess and eboard with crafty (chess), shell-shock resident bash, bash-completion, konsole, xterm, many repair-functions and so on, mdv-i586-rpm-packages OR

of at least 6 GB free partition or unformatted 5.5GB more mdv2010-software from installation-DVD out of all rubrics like gparted, system-monitors, system-tools and more programs for repair, wine and qemu (emulation), k3b and brasero, xscanimage, xsane, tesseract, gocr, cups, xine, totem, flphoto, gtkam, tvtime, zapping, dvbtune, jikes, kino, audacity, supertux, toppler, rocksndiamonds, ....

both free from porto the way back to you. Therefore you just have to put your USB-stick and 10€ protection-fee into an envelope to send it to our address, see impressum. Before your order this, please test your BIOS, if it supports the booting with USB-storage-media (BIOS-boot-sequence and/or keys to determine the boot-sequence like F8), username: user and root, password: mandrivaone.

Reader discussion on, Opensource disconnect vs. proprietary Ghostery
chromax 29. JUN 2015 @ 20:42
Where do you know, if OpenSource-code refers to the compiled one? Still missing security…
CrX 29. JUN 2015 @ 22:06
This question is of academic nature. Practitioner interest in the verficiation (indentically) of executable files and source code.
Therefore oneself compiles the Open-Source, if confident with it.
skoam 24. SEP 2015 @ 10:09

This is immer the right question and an answer does already exist: Open Source can be compiled, in order to compare the build with the receipt executbale binary code. If the hash-sums (md5sum/shasum/file sizes) do not agree (that means differing), the executable code deals with code not listed by its source.

Why UNIX/Linux? Because I know it is opensource and the kind of its (almost german) programmers behind (book from Prof. Kersten and books from some other authors).
It always must be caviar? Tell us about any more secure distribution ever!

Gentoo Linux 12.1 2012 Live-DVD (x86_64 for 32 and 64 bit- and AMD64 forr 64 Bit-CPU) from, burnt 3,3 GiB ISO. The so called meta-operating-system Gentoo is recommended by It is bootable from DVD as much as installabe onto SSD/HDD by open-source-packages to compile in. You can also order already DVD-burnt Gentoo 12.1 AMD64 from us free from postage-fees for 10 €


In comparison with IPhone 6: This smartphone can something like no other one, Focus, 01.11.2014
For 12 US-Dollar only, it rivals with Apple or Samsung - with uncommon features. "Smartphone-the drug is real like everywhere. This handy does not pig up your dates, does not irritate you during concerts, does not disturb you in the cinema and cleans up the passways. The solutiion is found. With this promise, a user names quot;The NoPhone Team" of the Crowdfunding-platform Kickstarter his project. It is a handy like no other one and can do like no smartphone can. Namely... nothing. Perfect for the pockets of the trousers: its wireless design made of flexible plastic feels cool and real. "Just pull it out and hold it." The most signifcatn features are named by the manufacturers: no accu, no nerved updates, splinter-free, water-proofed. This project has it success: the No-Phone-Team wanted to collect 5.000 Dollar but accounted 18.000. With this phone, that can neither phone nor write SMS nor surf in the internet, should cost twelf Dollar. There is another "NoPhone"-version with selfie-function. This model has a mirror in its display and is distributed in the words: "Show your friends your newest selfie, if they stand directly behind you."

We do not believe much in honesty of the other ones in all matters: In regard to SAR-values, cases like Macolini and the feel of the "slap in the face" (probably metastasis) on the side of the handy taken from our section for News&Links and other cases, where magnetic influence was felt by second persons in the circumcirlce of more than three meters from the handy phoning, Gooken dissuades from all kind of wireless (mobile) phones except emergencies!

Get more to know about smartphones at the end of this webside: Linux-Smartphones! All methods marked by a green hook are relevant for Smartphones too, but, as you might know, one has to think more in Apps than programs.

Two cameras, several microphones, a GPS-modulel and oodles private user data: smartphones are the perfect supervisory devices
Security export leaks out: Your smartphone can spy out - although you powered off everytjhing
,, 08.02.2018
Über GPS und Co. können uns Smartphones permanent überwachen. Zum Glück kann man die Funktionen aber abschalten. Ein Forscher erklärt nun, wie man diese Sicherheitsmaßnahmen trotzdem aushebelt - und warum das kaum zu verhindern ist.
Zwei Kameras, mehrere Mikrofone, ein GPS-Modul und Unmengen private Daten der Nutzer: Smartphones sind die perfekten Überwachungsgeräte.

How to make mobile end-devices secure:

This links origins from our section News&Links#computer#smartphones, CHIP, 26.12.2016: Android-security is one thing to take care of with fitting apps. With such apps you do not need to fear NSA, data robbery, viruses and Co. anymore. CHIP presents the apps protecting your android-handy in a perfect way.

Data-backup for Smartphones: Here are the best solutions for data-backup for Android, iOS and Windows.

ifixit: It is easy to repair smartphones - FOCUS Online.

10.000 mAh powerful monster-akku from Smartphone-Manufacturer OUKITEL, Focus Online 02.07.2015
Four times more powerful than Galaxy S6: This Smartphone has a akku-load durability of one week

The days of empty smartphone-akkus might be gone. The manufaturer OUKITEL plans the first smartphone with an akku-load of one week ...

See reports from our linkside: They are manufactured by perverts (Apple; see a report from our linkside), tiny displays bother the eyes, they radiate and cause serious hard accidents, while one can not care enough for IT security even around them: smartphones. Gooken primarily cares for the Desktop-PC. Therefore, before the (similar) use of smartphones and handies it is strongly recommended to have a look upon our linkside by clicking onto links or here, but remark, that the use of so called-crypto-smartphones and crypto-mobil-phones can provide the needed protection up to the already endangering point of crypto- resp. supercomputers.

ZDNet / Mobile: Why Open-Source-Handies are the better smartphones, from Jack Wallen, 24. september 2009
Open Source provides the mobil market plenty of advantages beginning with the reducing of costs, more security up to many adoptable settings and a more productive development of applications. Do you agree, that Open-Source-devices are the better smartphones? Or does Apple, even Microsoft with Windows Mobile 7 win the fight for the market share? You can write a comment.

Hardware-Support: device-drivers, hardware-databasis

Kernel-4.20.13 (PCLinuxOS) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos, mga6) resp. kernel 2.6.39 (mdv2010) with actual patches up to now from see our section for updates provides extended hardware support. But sometimes you just have to wait. So called "old" hardware must not be bad, the drivers are almost provided. Popular driver are already wtihin the kernel or kernel-modules. If missing in kernel-modules, belonging packages (rpm, deb) can be taken over into such modules. CPUs of mainboards consist of standard machine command sets that are already regarded in the package name like x86_64, i686, ia64, ppc, ppc64, ppc64le, aarch64, s390, s390x, arm, armhfp, sparc and so on, while the BIOS (BIOS-chip) on the mainboard should be socked, so that it can ordered, if malfunctioning. For the graphiccard you can use the UNIX/Linux-standard-driver fbdev or vesa. And the plugin of TFT-monitors is as simple as it can be in the case of postscript-printers by naming the belonging PPD-file out of (rpm) openprinting-packages, manufacturers or manufacturer-driver-CD. Start MCC, go to section "add a printer" and link to such PPD-file. Good to know, that USB is downward compatible. If the (W)LAN-chip does not work, a standard-PCIe- or PCI-ethernet-card helps out, until the packages or Tarballs for the driver are released in the internet, same for graphiccard and the onboard-soundchip..

OK, 01.09.2015: "Find out compatible hardware before you order it
Whoever does not want to care for Linux-driver, one should check out the compability of the hardware before it is ordered. In most cases it is sufficient to start a search by searchengines with the name of the hardare device in combination with "Linux". One can also search in hardware-databasis. It es also useful to get informed by websites like with lists of hardware, that functions and tipps for their installation. Informationen about TV-cards and Sticks are also providid by Linux TV.
Of Linux should be installed on a notebook, or Ubuntu Wiki provide userful information. There are some manufacturer specialized for notebooks with preinstalled Linux like Tuxedo Computers, although such devices might be a little bit more expensive than Windows-notebooks."

After an upgrade of the glibc from mdv2010 to rosa2014.1 or mga3 a hugh repertoire of driver-packages and -tarballs are provided for even actual hardware.

Such companies do provide drivers for Linux:
Graphic cards: Intel, Nvidia, AMD
Printer and scanner: Epson, HP, Intel, Samsung, Brother and Canon

Hardware databasis and hardware support: for Ghostscript- and the PPD-files of postscript-printer

A detailed report about the hardware-support of drivers is provided by the following article:

If a driver is still missing, he can be buid (constructed) by any user. Several howtos can be found in the internet. For the printer packages lke cups-ddk are released for cups.

X11-server-troubleshooting (graphic card): see our section for "updates"

Printer-Troubleshooting: see our data sheet, section printer

Lacks in security

"The way is the target" are the well-known words from our precedent security-manager Konfuzius (...), that made us write here so much. Our main aim is to drag him out of the computer-scene for IT security and, who is awake enough, even forever! Together with the checklist it is proofed, that computer technology must not be nonsens, even if it is meant so and even if there is nothing really secure in this world, because of the race of the safeendangering with the secure and the certain kind of human behind this scene. Computer-history of nowadays with the typical constitution of software in intransparent „pirate-black“ binary machine-code, unlucid amounts of versions and distributions have shown some more (responsible) difficulties in satisfying claims for achieving real protection for the jack of all trade. Smartphones, notebooks and so on are only mentioned on our linkside. MG Chip: "The combination of raster-electron-, raster-Auger- and raster-plammet-microscope is cracking any kind of chips, however signed secure from manipulation". Serious hard cases of system-self-destructs can not be excluded. But resignation does not help. Nevertheless the aim in general of this excursion is to provide computer-systems with almost no lacks in security at all, and therefore (quit) without any scans from hard-disks by any scan-software. By following the excursion, your UNIX-computer will be freed from all (!) problems with the computer quit at once like (... ever seen so much red in your documents?)

suneater_miro proprietary software (opensource against liablity, more clearance of question about liablity), cost-traps (here: billing by handies and SMS, overread of additional parts of contracts and the conditions), blackmail for unlocking suddenly locked computers (see our report under links), abuse of copyrights and patents, cult for criminals, billions hard investment into spying software and techniques, missing, confusing or the fluctuating IT-security-concept, hard-disk-scans, defragmentation (unnecessary for many UNIX-file-systems), harddrives (instead of MC-SSD, cite: "A magentic harddrive is much to risky to intrust data. Although a lot of improvements took place, who has not heart or - in worst cases - made the experience of lost data. Therefore enough reasons are relevant." (source:, 13.05.2014)), the demand for a registry, registry-errors (UNIX-systems have no registry), degeneracy of the registry, suddenly or inpredictable lost files, explosion (of net-adapter), fire (net-adapter, porous PC-lautspeaker-cable, ...), your own ununderstandable blackened company (enlighted by our PHP-MySQL-company management Mycompanies), virtual blackmail by encrypting harddrives against ransom, shooting through unmanned flying objects as a technical response to stored data, kontermination (through chipsets, preventable by IGP and all-in-one-mainboards) and radiation, WLAN-radiation (see our linkside), CRT-radiation, CD-burner-radiation, netadapter-radiation, warning high SAR-value (handies), zero-emission (reflectable monitor emissionf or example by special PCMCIA-cards prevented by special editors like the zero emission pad), hardware-recognigtion (standarized driver, Kernel ver. greater 2.6.30), infiltration of social networks, handy-hunts through nets, inconsistency (vs. everlasting science), need for upgrades (new tarballs, zip-archives, functionality), updates, patches and bugfixes (vs. functionality), browser with outdated ssl3.0 (modern usage is provided by TLS), changeovers to different security software, missing changelogs, software-overload on harddisc (Opensource, independency-checks, other introduced methods), hacker (STATE-NEW lined iptables-blocking), large holes in firewalls (iptables block-rate), intrusion and valdalism, viruses (access-rights of UNIX-filesystems), freak (patch or prefer browsers like Firefox or Konqueor instead), abuse by virus scanner (standard opensource clamav), worms, rootkits (rkhunter) resp. botnets and trojans (no botnets and no trojans by correct usage of the OWNER-concept of iptables), manipulation by system-administrators upon software, files and configurations, ddos-attacks (almost on the base of bots and trojans), inactual alarms, false-alarms, forgotten or coded warnings and error-messages, ad- and spyware as much as Trackingscripts (firefox-addons), Driveby-Downloads, Canvas Fingerprinting (see under online check), forced acquisition because of truncated customer support for old operating systems (lifetime installation-support for all mdv/mdk over "pointed 1-" to "pointed 0" versions), product-manufacturing fault right on the surface of installation-CD/-DVD, aggressive marketing, need of updates and upgrades instead of functionality, unknown authors behind the named, burn-errors, problems with the BIOS and during the system-startup resp. boot, flush and reset, intransparent boot-processes, hard undestandable process-names (partial standarizement by UNIX/Linux), unmushed nets (failsafed mushed nets), video- and voice-recording, judge-microphons, observing satellite technique (see under links), spanish flies, night viewers, evaluation of such recordings (audit, protocolling files), text- and image-manipulation, manipulation of websits by webhoster, instability, system-breakdowns, broken USB-Sticks (secure umount and never before, fsck), usage of USB-hubs instead of prolonging USB-cables only, manipulated electric meter and cables (UPS: unbreakablel power supply), ineffective encryption through non scientific based cryptograhic methods from highschools, the search for important function-keys,iweak point human, insufficient set of (security-) system-commands, hangons and newstarts, anomal login attempts (LADS - login anomally detection system), inactual alarms and warnings, installation of malware by the opening of e-mail-attachements, unsigned installation from anywhere, installation by everyone, inportability, defect peripherals and hardware, restricted presentation of websides, keylogger and other malware, wiretrapping bedbugs (from USB-cards and other devices), hack of sensible data from USB-sticks through their microcontroller, crack of WLAN-encryption-keys, spy-nets, false email-sender-addresses (disabled browser-cache, header of email-source-text, digital signatures by public signature-keys, de-Mail), DoS-attacks, root-rights providing buffer-overflows (bugs),
niue-muenzenaggressive marketing, missing warnings of the BIOS during overheatings of the CPU and from the inside, malfunction of USB-memory-sticks, intransparent boot-procedures without detailed information, long boot-times, weak-point-human (as a title of a contribution from a newsgroup), hard to understandable files and processes by name, side-manipulation and censorship by webhosters, need for additional software for example for ftp-transfer, use of harddiscs instead of durable and less power-consumpting (MLC-) Solid State Disks (SSD), installation of malicious software by opening attachments from e-mail, need for external graphic- and sound-cards (IGP, onboard integrated graphic- and sound-chips), software from unspecified sources (integrity checks, checksum), installation by any users instead by users with special access rights only, cloud computing (by avoiding storage onto foreign media, extern harddrive, USB-memory-stick), bad cable connection, listenings in to WLAN, cracks of WLAN encrypting keys, illegal access into WLAN-access-points, broadcasting bedbugs from USB-cards or other devices), lack of test reports and exchange of experiences (datasheed and test-forums), low duration of batteries and akkus, unknown details of OS-kernel bad or low encryption, encryption by elsewheres cryptographic methods instead of those checked resp. developed by high-schools, bad or low encrpted instant messaging (OTR, ...), manipulation of files like out of /etc/security/msec (FDE, FSE for full disc and full system encryption), file-encryption), vandalism "you can power off your computer now!", insecure passwords, inpredictable exhaust of passwords, amount of passwords (kwallet and relevation), visiblity of files storing passwords (steghide), bad adhere to deadlines, intimelineness, forget of the sourrounding (dating planner, countdown clocking, scheduler, task scheduler, ntp-daemon), burn error on CD/DVD (noflushd), inportability, unmashed nets (failsafe mashed), security endangering security software, missing software, incomplete set of (security-)system-commands, instabilty (breakdowns, blackouts and hang-ons, Alpha-Beta-software-developement stages, ...), release of authorizing root-rights, hacker, smashed wholes into firewalls, viruses, worms, rootkits (rkhunter) resp. trojans, dialer, hoax (watching out for the sender), false alarms, anomal attempts to login (Login Anomaly Detection System like LADS, delays after false-logins, commands to list logins and login-times, risks of WLAN (many single security operations have to be performed), security lacking file-systems, restricted file-systems (capacity of copied files, sytem dependencies, looking out for important function keys (BIOS, security modes...), inpredictibale deletion of files from anywhere, inpredictable remote maintenances, changing of fundamental configurations and settings, need for a registry, registry-errors, Entarten and Verwaisen der Registryeinträge, capacity restricting zombies, adware, popups, tracking scripts, ad- and spyware, online registrations for the release of software, spy-nets, intransparent connecitions over foreign net-nodes ( traceroute-command tcptraceroute see News&Links#Computer ), DoS-attacks, click-ping-tracing, cookies and Third-Party-cookies, supercookies, informing browser-chronicle, ABE, cross-side-scripting, operating time with akku/batteries, suspicious plugins, encryption cracking supercomputers, restricted presentation of websides, censorship depending of the true aims behind, spam (Spamassassin), spam-entries (Captcha), scam, missing option resp. missing command for even foreign notes through the net registrating traceroute (comannd tcptraceroute), read and writes from harddiscs by other parties, phishing, dialer, dissuasiveness, need of upgrades, errors and mistakes, missing software, registration, forwardings and therefore profiling by search-engines and depreciation, pass of hugh server-farms and advertising-networks, personalized advertisment, profiling, identifying ua-browser-answerback (see our online check) resp. IP, static new IP-adress-room ipv6, identity theft, pre-punishment-registration (cybermobbing), bad support, maintenance, bad sectors and file-systems with errors resp. the long time for their repair, capacity-resctriction of file-systems during file-transfer, bad encryption, online speed-blocker, editors (programming) without syntax-highlighting, missing log-files for protocolling, wait-states, needs for many drivers, more than hard to understand names for system-files, processes and errors, hard to understand names for processes and files, support for children and disabled (input-support and other programs like dasher, mouse-tweaks, speech, squid-guard, window-manager like LXDE and XFCE, ...), problems typing in by the ten-finger-system (missing keyboard), manufacturing faults on CD-surfaces (MS 98/SE), insufficient or bad tuned software-components and the risk of their dependencies, need for additional software like for ftp-transfer, old concept of magnetic hard-drives instead of long-durationed, specific natural durabilities for the storage, fast working and powersaving Sold Sate Drives (SSD), need of repair, (extern) graphic-, sound- and ethernet-cards (all-in-one boards, ideally with CPU, cooler and RAM) as a contribute to the enburdening of net-adapter to prevent open fire and explosions, 1000-Watt-PC, 65-Watt-CPU, techical reconstruction of direct debit mandates, missing delivery of online-ordered goods, especially from foreign countries and in cases of a too low amount in controversy, different device-interfaces (well known solved by downward-compatible USB), the disperse resp. page of the security-concept, waste of ressources, waste disposal problems, intern self-destructs, write-offs, science pocketing software-companies, costs for acquistion, licences, training, additional costs, difficulties or bad handlings, ...

... "in West Nix Niue (not new)" ...

with alternatives from our data sheed now all at low cost on the ground of power-consumption like energy saving lamps!

Data Protection
Windows 10: Deactivated funtions do send data to Microsoft

Other person do in the best case thinkable even not know, if you possess a computer at all, neither by IP nor DNS nor they know about your installed operating system resp. operating systems, installed software and files!

Although only human failures can cause errors during the installaton of mdv2010, some errors can happen. There is an amount of error-messages of mdv2010, that do not help troubleshooting, some are missing. Therefore we recommend a second SSD for the backup of every important installation-state of the first one. Then as many packages can be installed on the SSD as the user likes and ever needs without lacking in system-security, if you are installing operating-systems like mdv2010 with packages totally sized over 65 GB!

Survey of the internet node: DE-CIX sues BND, Tagesschau, 22.04.2015
The BND is taken into response before law for his surveys of the net-node DE-CIX in Frankfurt at Main. The holde of the node is going to sue. Criticizer do also sue the government for making tricks. Arond thre terabit data per second are passed and overworked, an amount of 600 CD-Rom. To the customers count all big internet companies like the Deutsche Telekom, Vodafone and Verizon, more details see Links, section "NSA, GHCQ & Co.".

Prism.break is right to recommend both alternatives (addition from 07.09.2013): Tagesschau reports about weak-points in many security software. The industry for software would have been built-in backdoors in their programs. It were possible to get information right before a user encrypts them and to send them over the internet. Super-computer were constructed to crack encrypted codes. NSA-program "Bullrun" belonged to the most kept secrets. The british agency GCHQ were very successfull in cracking code. "With proprietary software, you need to have 100% trust in the vendor because there´s nothing except for their morality in the way of them leaking your personal information. Even if you can vouch for their integrity, proprietary software invariably has more uncaught security bugs and exploits because there are fewer eyes examining the source code.", 2014: "Apple, Google and Microsoft are probable part of PRISM. You can not trust their proprietary operating systems in the matter of keeping sensible data safe from NSA.

Two alternatives do remain: GNU/Linux and BSD.

GNU/Linux has a much hugh community than BSD in order to help us for the change. It is recommended to search for a proper GNU/Linux-distribution fulfilling the requirerments.", 19.10.2015: "BitBox BitBox is a browser-in-the-box - a virtual environment, in order to secure the internet to make it more comfortable during the surfing. This virtual machine with a separated webbrowser protects in front of dangers, for example the rebuild resp. modified browser Dragon from the antivirus expert Comodo. His appearence reminds of Google Chrome, but Dragon is constituted to be more stable and thanks the privacy mode this browser is able to stop serious hard cookies. The inspection of SSL-certificates is more precise. Whoever wants to keep his browser save before the rest of the PC, likes to prefer BitBox - a browser-in-the-box. The developers of BitBox, the Bundesamt for Information Security (BSI), has put their browser into a fitting virtual Linux-environment. Linux has got some advantages in comparison to Windows - there are only a few "varmints", known for this operating system offered for free. So you use a virtual Ubuntu for a surf-system resp. for online-banking. A virus scanner is not required anymore. Tip: Alternatively use Wubi.exe, in order to install Ubuntu beneath Windows. This small file installs Ubuntu beneath Windows on the harddrive. When the system starts, the system is chosen. In this case, a virtual box is not needed anymore."

On Tuesday, March 3, 2015, researchers announced a new SSL/TLS vulnerability called the FREAK attack. It allows an attacker to intercept HTTPS connections between vulnerable clients and servers and force them to use weakened encryption, which the attacker can break to steal or manipulate sensitive data. This site is dedicated to tracking the impact of the attack and helping users test whether they’´re vulnerable. In addition to browsers, many mobile apps, embedded systems and other software products also use TLS. These are also potentially vulnerable if they rely on unpatched libraries or offer RSA_EXPORT cipher suites. Vulnerable Browsers are Internet Explorer,. Chrome on Mac OS, Chrome on Android, Safari on Mac OS, Safari on iOS, Stock Android Browser, Blackberry Browser and, Opera on Mac OS. Firefox (Windows, MAX, Linux) and Konqueror (Linux) are not affected,
see for more details.

Tagesschau, 07.31.2014: Actually scientific experts found out, that sensible data can be read out through microcontrollers (processors) from USB-sticks, see the report from our linkside under the point links! Therefore a new USB-standard is devoloped. By this, all data of computers can be read out, even passwords and email-contents as much as devices be steered like webcams. The operating sytem does not notice all of this, as it believes in key-strokes and not software attacks. "We recommend MC-based SSD instead of magnetic harddrives, "A magentic harddrive is much to risky to intrust data. Although a lot of improvements took place, who has not heart or - in worst cases - made the experience of lost data. Therefore enough reasons are relevant" (source:, 13.05.2014)) (similar to magnetic hard-drives, in order to keep the very fast access-times of a SSD, at least 4 GB memory should be kept free, comment, the Red.)

Legend end: Microsoft ends up with Internet Explorer, Focus, 18.03.2015
New browser past 20 years
After two decades a legend of the internet died: Microsoft actually develops a new browser, in order to exchange the Internet Explorer. For the next time, his name is "Spartan" - and he shall have nothing to do with his precedor.

Tagesschau, 28.04.2014: Vulnerabilities of the microsoft-browser
USA dissuade from Internet Explorer
In Microsofts Internet Explorer, market share more than 50% (2012, studie web-analyzators from Net Applications), vulnerabilities past the date for support fof XP (08.04.2014) were found, that do still exist. The US-government advises to use other browsers for the next time. There would be so much difficutlies in the Explorer-version six to eleven, that hacker can cause enormous harm, warned the ministry of home country protection. Problems are known since the weekend. Microsoft told, to do something against them. The vulnerabiltity would cause in wrong programmed memory-accesses. Prepared websites, that user of the internet-explorer call, could provide access for attackers to the computer, in order to execute mailicous code and take control upon the computer. The vulnerabilty already is effectively in use. It is the first serious one, since the support for Windows XP ended. Therefore it could still exist for PCs with the 13 years old operationg system regardless from Microsoft having solved the problem.

In News&Links we describe, howto make an Internet Browser of MS Windows upon the base of a Debian-sandbox secure, downloadable for free.

Internet-Gang robbs one billion dollar from banks, Focus, 15.02.2015
A bank robbery in the internet-century were made in that way: A Gang broke into in computer-systems of credit institutes and manipulated even account balances. They would have get any amounts of money from cash automates they liked.

Focus 2015: Antivirus-scanner promise allround-protection for the computer and to make the surfing online more secure. But in the half of all cases, they can not defend cyber-attacks. 11/2013: Appelbaum from Wikileaks sees opportunities for effective encryption. Therefore free and open source were needed. Not all encryption were the same, not all companies have been confidential or can be trusted.

Tagessschau, 11/2013: Wikileaks sees opportunities for functioning encryption. One needs free and open sourced software. Not each encryption were secure, not all companies were trustable. Wikileaks hops for concete methods against. For expample, if an attorney were proclaiming trust on telephone, although he did not use an encrypted telephone, one should call careless.

Tagesschau, 10.03.2014, cite Snowden: "If you encrypt your hardware and connections within nets it is much more difficult to collect your data by mass-wise-controlling software. Of course, such data can be cracked resp. hacked for special surveillance, but remain more secure. The best proof would have been delivered by his encrypted kept own documents sent per email." ( two encryption can be made for e-mail-transfers: one of the text-includes of e-mails by pgp-gpg, one by pop3s and smtps (TLS) for the belonging connection to the pop3- and smtp-server).

OK Browse: Therefore always try to turn http:// -> https:// (ssl) in the address-line of your browser manually, before the URL of the webside is entered! Favorites should contain only such URL too. Notice, that a ssl-certificate of the webserver resp. webhoster is not present in all cases!

Our choice forever: Konqueror: Null problemo. With an actualized version of this browser and all his opportunities for various configuration you won´t get any security problems in the internet, see News&Links#Alternatives#The-Green-LED#BrowserCharts . And whoever still misses anonymization: java -jar /home/surfuser/jondo.jar

JonDoBrowser: Anonymous Firefox-replacement, still beta, CHIP, 14.09.2012
The JonDos GmbH (University Leipzig) accused Firefox for having built-in functions, that are harmful for data protection. Therefore their developers released the (together with Jondo) anonymizing JonDoBrowser Beta for free,

Jondofox - Firefox with condom
Download Jondofox:
We, Gooken, introduce a list of security browser on News&Links#Alternatives#The-Green-LED#BrowserCharts For installing Jondobrowser, set the path to the firefox-profile in the installation script of Jondofox manually to /home/surfuser/.mozilla/firefox. The inegration follows right past the start of firefox. Never install addons not basing on Open Source. Jondobrowser´s integration of Add-ons like https-everywhere should, as described, also be seen critically.

Freak: "Freak"-Sicherheitslücke: Auch Windows betroffen, 06.03.2015,
Mit einem sogenannten "Freak"-Angriff wird es Dritten möglich, eigentlich geschützten Datenverkehr zu entschlüsseln und womöglich persönliche Daten mitzulesen. Diese Betriebssysteme und Browser sind betroffen.
Am vergangenen Dienstag wurden Informationen über die sogenannte "Freak"-Sicherheitslücke öffentlich gemacht. Durch diese können Dritte Daten aus eigentlich geschützten SSL-/TLS-Verbindungen abgreifen. Damit dies aber tatsächlich möglich wird, müssen bestimmte Kombinationen aus benutztem Webbrowser und verwendetem Betriebssystem gegeben sein. Grundsätzlich sind Android-, iOS-, Windows-Phone-, Windows-, Mac- und Linux-Nutzer gefährdet. Zum Ausnutzen der Lücke müssen zudem Webseiten mit einer geschwächten Verschlüsselung angesurft werden, wie auf

During a normal browsing with MS Windows and MAC, focus 31.08.2014
Danger in the internet: the unvisible drive-by-download
Infections by drive-by-downloads are very perfide. During the surfing in the internet, malware of infected websites can be loaded onto the computer without the possibility to notify it - article by FOCUS-Online-expert Marco Preuss reports in April 2014 about adobe-flash-player with security-lacks that can lead into trojans finding out password and credit-card-information. Updating this software is strongly recommended, same for Java. With UNIX-Systems updates, patches and bugfixes can be be performed from their original sources and that means immediately with the date of their release as much as in the following example:

Checksum helps to prevent the download of trojans out of the internet.

Inceasing amount of data theft, Tagesschau, 07.04.2014
As IT-security-experts tell among other things in conjunction with lacks in security of OpenSSL, In year 2013 data of more than half billions internet-users have been stolen as a result of online-attacks. 552 million identities are involved, as told by a security-company about six × more than 2012., 21.12.2014 tells in a report, that you still can not trust cloud computing and the own data on other far-away-server. We believe not only in security risks of cloud computing, but also in data receiving consulting companies from there. Inspite of our excurs, on the base of some other operating systems there still were a need for security experts in 2014!

Tageschau, 28.04.2014 reports about actually found out one more serios hard security lack in Internet Explorer 6 up to 11 (market share value more than 50 %, 2012, .netApplications), so that XP, no further updates available since 04.08.2014, still has to be updated and even USA advised to use other browser by so called country-protecting organizations. The troubles caused by such Internet Explorer versions would have been such big, that hacker could do harm a lot. Since the last weekend, Microsoft is looking for solutions. The security-whole conisted of a buggish memory-access that enabled users using the IE to gain access to computers to execute mailicious code and to gain control over the computer. This security-lack would have been already taken in use.

AOL email-accounts including security-requests also would have been hackened.

Yesterday Apple Apple warned against data theft due to a lack in security in OS-X. If an attacker is provided access to the same network as other users - for example the usage of abad protected WLAN-connection of a restaurant - he could be able to access data from email-transfer and other communication procedures (protocols), that should have been encrypted instead as already mentioned by Edward Snowden, his former organization would already have taken advantage upon it..

Not much can be done against fake accounts in the name of identity theft of oneself in the internet except by law. One should register oneself in the most popular social networks like facebook to make a contribute to avoid it. Such account should be suited with as few sensible data as possible and be visited regulary in this sense of maintenance.

We, Gooken, also notice, that norisbank (Deutsche Bank) gots certified many times for online banking by german certifiers like "Stitung Warentest", although, as Tagesschau reported, states do invest billons more or less against such this security of encryption! In such cases UNIX-commands like "tcptraceroute" can provide users some important facts about such online-connections ( Instead OpenSSL should strongly be updated from at least to version >= 1.0.2d past 07.04.2014 ... as part of our DVD-2 mdv2010.0-updates!

Such red marked text does not come to an end on our webside "News&Links", if it were not enough red... . Please click here!

The essential Idea: "PC-refrigerator" through Airodynamic

might origin not from us, but is to do everything right at the beginning. Not software, but the exemplary, power-saving and therefore the net-adapter enburdening hardware depicted in our data sheed stands in the middle of interest here. To be more concrete, we talk about the computer tower itself, where everything should prepared for best air-cirulation. This cooling box (hardware-refrigerator) makes it possible to cool down warm air 3 up to 10 degree;C. All you need are one or better two cooler, one for the incoming air right up at the bottom of the front of the tower and one more for at the top of its back for the leaving of the air in a quit fast way. Therefore do not forget to seal the rest of the tower using plastic foils and adhensive tapes. Not only the circulating air but also the metal of the walls of the tower do also have the specifiation to increase the cooling of the inside. If possible, also follow the tip from, where the tower of the server system consists of half-cylindered metal plate between the two coolers upon the mainboard. Screen resolution and screen repition rate should be set to "auto" following an almost large rate between 59 up to 95 Hz and higher. Now, the eye-friendly graphic chip can show what is performance especially during extrem burdening play of opengl- and sdl- based computer-games-scenes, while the stable hardware might do its work forever too.

Mandriva Linux 2010 - The Calming

Therefore you almost need:

2 SSD at least a 128 GB or 1 SSD or 1 (external) harddrive of thecapacity of at least the installation-SSD or -harddrive for the restauration and the backup
1 USB-memory stick with a command dd and the partitionmanager gparted providing rescure system, Mindi, Mondo or a DVD with Knoppix (that you can download out of the internet), best, following the manual howto install on harddrive, such Knoppix on a separte, small, greater or equal 250 MB partition on the installation-SSD or harddrive and
1 directory for all the already installed packages.


See, how Linux is prepared for the endurable mouseclick-fast work with SSD:

Linux tips & tricks
Linux ready and optimized for SSD: The text of this webside is in german language, so we summarize, that we recommend the full-installation of Linux on SSD. Important seems to be the ability to trim the SSD, what can be checked out by the command "hdparm -I /dev/sda | grep -i TRIM". In /etc/fstab noatime,nodiratime,data=writeback and eventually option discard should be set for the root-, home- and the temporary partition, for SWAP use commit=0,data=writeback,discard. commit stands for the period, data are written out of the cache onto SSD. Do not set it too high, not above 600. The last thing for the SSD to make work mouseclick-fast is the installation of the rpm-packages hdparm and sdparm for el7. Following an instruction for Debian, also set in /etc/crypttab the option "allow-discards" for dm-crypt and in /etc/lvm/lvm.conf the option "allow-discards" for LVM (we resigned from LVM), for Btrfs-filesystems also set the mount-option "ssd" in /etc/fstab. The read-access-time in MB/s can be find out by "hdparm -t /dev/sda" and
one more test still uses both options -t and -T, but also option --direct ("Use O_DIRECT to bypass page cache for timings"), what leads to direct read without page cacheing. This test is almost used, as the pure data flow to the SSD within two resp. three seconds is measured: "hdparm -tT --direct /dev/sda"
Check, if the started kernel does already recognize the SSD: cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational
If zero resp. 0, he does! If not, please follow reports like

OK Following this report, the IO-Scheduler can be chosen: noops, deadline or CFQ. cat /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler shows the activated one in edged brackets. After performing tests like above, choose the right one, that is almost noops, especially deadline by Grub (analogous Grub2) entering in /boot/grub/menu.lst the option "elevator=deadline" past the kernel-options beginning with kernel=... and past ro resp. rw . The Firmware-version is named by "hdparm -iv /dev/sda"

For TRIM-supporting SSD "discard" can be set not only in /etc/fstab and allow-discards not only in crypttab, but for ext4 also by command tune2fs:

tune2fs /dev/device-filename resp. ( in the case of LUKS-encryption) tune2fs -o discard /dev/mapper/container_filename

This command makes the "durable" activation of the SSD-TRIM by option "discard" without blockings much more possible

Universal-Linux BULLET-PROOF: Root-partition read only
For the Root- and Home-Partition depending on conditons, we also can set the ro-Option for read-only, if we do not want to install and update anyhting anymore, do this by following the conditions of the arcticle from,, and . Even think about the deactivation of the journalling of reiserfs by option "nolog", that keeps the SSD from writing journals (that means logs of the last stable (error-free) state before errors occured, in order to restore in error-cases). More or less, setting root-partition read-only can be considered as useful, but a little bit "paranoid":

OK "Read-only rootfs: Theory and Practice - Chris Simmonds, 2net
Configuring the rootfs to be read-only makes embedded systems more robust and reduces the wear on flash storage. In addition, by removing all state from the rootfs it becomes easier to implement system image updates and factory reset.
In this presentation, I show how to identify components that need to store some state, and to split it into volatile state that is needed only until the device shuts down and non-volatile state that is required permanently. I give examples and show various techniques of mapping writes onto volatile or non-volatile storage. To show how this works in practice, I use a standard Yocto Project build and show what changes you have to make to achieve a real-world embedded system with read-only rootfs. In the last section I consider the implications for software image update. Expect a live demonstration" # (usage at your own risk!)
The FHS allows mounting all underneath /bin, /lib, /sbin and /usr read-only. But you can extend this much more by using different filesystems for some trees and take care for special files.
Locations that must be writable are /etc, /home, /srv, /tmp, /var. The hierarchies below /dev, /proc, /selinux and /sys are already handled by special filesystems.
For /tmp you can use a tmpfs filesystem or its own filesystem. For /var it´s prefered to use its own filesystem. An example can look like this:
Device file Filesystem Mount point RO/RW
/dev/sda1 ext2 / ro
/dev/sda2 ext3
/var rw

tmpfs /tmp rw
/var/local/home bind mount /home rw
/var/local/srv bind mount /srv rw
You can use a filesystem without a journal for /, because you don´t write there and you don´t need the journal. This can be an ext4, too, hence you can take advantage of the improvements of ext4. Create the filesystem with mke2fs -t ext4 -O ^has_journal /dev/sda1 or remove the journal with tune2fs -O ^has_journal /dev/sda1.
Special files in /etc
You have to take care for some files in /etc. These are
because it´s modified on boot up; see bug 156489
Solution for mdv and el6,el7: Change the hwclock-command in /etc/init.d/reboot and /etc/init.d/halt from "hwclock --systohc" to "hwclock --systohc --adjfile=/var/local/adjtime".
Solution for Debian Wheezy:
(1) add the option --noadjfile to HWCLOCKPARS in /etc/init.d/ and /etc/init.d/
(2) fix /etc/init.d/ by replacing -f by -L in "if [ -w /etc ] && [ ! -f /etc/adjtime ] && [ ! -e /etc/adjtime ]; then"; see 520606.
alsa: init.d/alsa-utils
All versions before alsa-utils/ (@2013-10-25 concerns wheezy version) of alsa-utils package startup script creates /.pulse files, leading to multiple error messages "Failed to create secure directory" when pulseaudio is installed.
Relevant bug: 712980
because it´s modified at runtime by libblkid1
Solution:You can´t create a symlink from /etc/ to /var/local/ because, unfortunately, libblkid1 will not honor this symlink. It will replace it on every write by a file, if the filesystem is mounted for writing (e.g. while doing an apt-get install). To work around this you must set the environement variable BLKID_FILE to /var/local/ You should do this in /etc/environment to set the variable for everybody, who might do mounting.
courier imap
Courier IMAP uses a text file (/etc/courier/shared/index) for fast user lookups, if running as a mail server for virtual mailboxes (the default configuration of authenticating against pam is unaffected by this).
If using virtual mailboxes with shared accounts the file will need to be moved elsewhere, the directory /var/cache/courier/shared/ would be suitable but will need to be manually created.
Once that is done update /etc/courier/imapd and change IMAP_SHAREDINDEXFILE to IMAP_SHAREDINDEXFILE=/etc/courier/shared/index .
See for information upstream provide about this setting.
CUPS stores any kind of state files under /etc (classes.conf, cupsd.conf, printers.conf subscriptions.conf) and upstream is against any modification.
Relevant bug: 549673
Lvm stores a backup of current and archives of previous metadata in /etc/lvm/{backup,archive}. That causes any operation altering the metadata (vgreduce, vgextend, lvcreate, lvremove, lvresize, ...) to fail if / is not remounted read-write during the operation.
Solution: The location of the backup and archives is specified in /etc/lvm/lvm.conf. Set backup_dir = "/var/backups/lvm/backup" and archive_dir = "/var/backups/lvm/archive", create /var/backups/lvm and move /etc/lvm/backup and /etc/lvm/archive there.
Note: Lvm normally creates a backup during boot. This no longer happens as it is smart enough to see that /var is not yet mounted (or still read-only). But unless you use cluster lvm you will always already have a current backup from the last time you changed the metadata. So no harm done.
Relevant bugs: 372207 562234 (for etckeeper behavior WRT LVM files see 462355)
mtab used by mount
Solution: Create a symlink from /etc/mtab to /proc/self/mounts
mount.cifs (before smbfs 2:3.4.3-1) doesn´t honour this symlink and replace it with a real file; see 408394
mtab is in /etc for historical reasons as per FHS 2.3.
Used by ifupdown up to Squeeze
Solution: ifupdown links /etc/network/run to /run/network in postinst if /etc/network/run is not a directory.
rm -rf /etc/network/run
dpkg-reconfigure ifupdown
Alternatively: Create a symlink from /etc/network/run to /lib/init/rw/etc-network-run (network/run is accessed by ifupdown init scripts before /var might be mounted, therefore, the abuse of /lib/init/rw)
Systems running Wheezy will be automatically moved to using /run/network no matter what their existing configuration was.
Relevant bug: 389996
modified on boot up by the initscripts and rmnologin
This should already be a symlink to /var/lib/initscripts/nologin
In wheezy the init scripts directly modify /var/lib/initscripts/nologin
If you have only a static nameserver configuration, then there´s no problem. Otherwise you should use the package resolvconf.
passwd, shadow
These files might be modified by the user with the tools chfn, chsh and passwd. If you are the only user of you system, you can remount the filesystem read/write, before using these tools. Otherwise you might think about using NIS or LDAP.
If the dhcp3-client (AKA isc-dhcp-client) package is installed, every time a DHCP connection is established, /etc/dhcp3/dhclient-enter-hooks.d/samba creates /etc/samba/dhcp.conf, no matter if it is used or not in /etc/samba/smb.conf.
Relevant bug: 629406
suck puts files in /etc/suck which are modified by suck at runtime; see 206631 To work around this problem, you have to move /etc/suck/sucknewsrc* to a new directory /var/local/suck, create a symlink /etc/suck/suckkillfile to /var/local/suck/suckkillfile and set etcdir in get-news.conf to /var/local/suck (this sets the -dd option of suck)
If the udev rules 75-cd-aliases-generator.rules and 75-persistent-net-generator.rules are enabled, udev will try to update the files 70-persistent-cd.rules and 70-persistent-net.rules in /etc/udev/rules.d/ if needed. It is recommended to create the files once with all the rules needed and then disable the /etc/init.d/udev-mtab init script. While the root is readonly new rules are added to /dev/.udev/rules.d/.

Copy /var/lock or /var/lock/* to the mini-partition for /var. Do this also for kernel-partition /tmp or set /tmp to read-write. Copy /var/log/* to it too and link it to /tmp: "ln -sf /tmp /var/log/*".

Link the konqueror-browser-cache to /tmp: This means linking some cache-files of /home/user/.kde4 resp. /home/surfuser/.kde4 with the temporary /tmp one. Enable readonly root
To make your root filesystem mounted readonly, you must edit your /etc/fstab and set the mount option ro.
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
# file system mount point fs-type options dump pass
/dev/hda1 / ext2 defaults,noatime,ro,errors=remount-ro 0 0
/dev/hda4 /var ext3 defaults 0 2
The option noatime is useful while the disk is mounted read/write while updates.,, und
ext4 partition READ ONLY mounten -

Next step: Deactivate journalling-feature of file systems like ext4 and reiserfs (reiserfs: nolog-option) and
disable filesystem-checks by tune2fs (ext4) resp. reiserfstune and by setting the fs-check-parameter for the root-partition to 0.

Now a correcture within /etc/rc.sysinit shall be done:
"if remount_needed ; then
action "Remounting root filesystem in read-write mode: " mount -n -o remount,rw /
"if remount_needed ; then
action "Remounting root filesystem in read-write mode: " mount -n -o remount /

At last the kernel-option "ro" should be entered in /boot/grub/menu.lst for grub, for example behind "root=UUID...".

Never mind or nevertheless, If these steps for setting the root-partition read-only do not help, try the following article:

Generally, the security level of software is not only presented by stability, but also by the freeness of errors and warnings during the compilation of their source codes listed by the compiler. Kernel-2.6.32 (el6) consits of many of them and most of them are caused by kmem.h, while kernel-4.20.13 (PCLinuxOS) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos, mga6) resp. kernel- (mdv2011) runs error-free on our system without any warnings during the compilation time of around four hours! The only thing remaining is to patch with the dirty-cow-patch in mm.h and memory.c (listed in the internet). You can get acutal patches for this kernel from see our section for updates.

New Kernel: Configuration and Installation out of its source

How to install a new kernel: Download and install all binary packages (rpm resp. deb) required for the kernel. Then download and enpack the kernel-source-rpm into /usr/src either by "tar -xvjf kernel-source-package" or file-roller. A new directory named "linux-kernelversion-xxx" or "kernel-source-xxx" is created within /usr/src.
Link this new directory to a linking file named linux: "ln -sf linux-xxx linux" resp. "ln -sf kernel-source-xxx linux".
Change into this directory linux resp. linux-xxx resp. kernel-source-xxxx and call "menu oldconfig". A file .config is created to configure the kernel.

Set the Kernel-Version at the top of the makefile.
Type "menu xconfig" or "menu gconfig" or "make menuconfig" and configure the kernel-drivers and so on needed (CC), needed as modules (CC MM) and such to resign from.

FSE (full system encryption) prevents from chroots, mounts (see "man mount") and bootups especially through systems on USB-sticks and from CD/DVD in order to read all kind of data from storage media like harddrives and memory (RAM) and data theft and so on.

For FSE (full system encryption) by dracut, two options have to be enabled, what is already done in kernel-desktop (mdv2011) but not kernel (el6):
within the first item "General Setup"enable "Initial-RAM-filesystem and RAM-disk-support"and in "general drivers" enable the option "Maintain a devtmpfs at /dev/ with subitem "automount devtmpfs at /dev, after the kernel mounted the rootfs".
If you do not know, what to enable or not, choose MM to load as a module wherever possible.

Linus Tovald called the grsecurity-patches rubbish (PRO-LINUX, 2017, 2018):
Nice description, but as far, as I know this kernelmodule does following.
The system is been protected by disallowing several things

- ´texec´ : TPE protection (Trusted Path Execution, more on this later)

- ´procfs´ : procfs protection

- ´hardlink´ : hardlink create protection

- ´symlink´ : symlink follow protection

- ´rawdisk´ : rawdisk protection

- ´pipe´ : Pipe (FIFO) protection

- ´trace´ : process trace protection

- ´systable´ : syscall table checking

- ´logging´ : if you want logging, turn this on

- ´persist´ : by default this is set to 0, so the module can be unloaded, but you may set it to 1 to make it unremovable

- ´capbits´ : set the capbits value. You have to supply a certain mode for the capbits variable.

Hardlink/symlinkprotection protects the system from making this links for users.
Persist sets a capability that the module cannot be unloaded.
Capbits are kernelbits, that define certain rights even for root - in normal
case root could do allmost anything.
Like in all cases you have to know, what you do, because with that module
loaded some processes will not have the full rights they need.
For example I tried a /proc protection module and hotplug freezed after that
(not funny).
There is no real desription of anything reguarding that module and I don´t
know, which bits to set and which not!
Another thing is the opensource thing within that modules, because you can only use them on SuSE (with some disadvantages you can use the
firewallscript on Debian and Red Hat).
It is allways a nice thing to make more a secret of a thing, than
describing, how it works.

OKgrsecurity-patch - Components (similar to secumod),
kernel source: subdirecotry of /usr/src/kernel-version/, "patch -p1 < ../grsecurity.patch"
A major component bundled with grsecurity is PaX. Among other features, the patch flags data memory, the stack, for example, as non-executable and program memory as non-writable. The aim is to prevent memory from being overwritten, which can help to prevent many types of security vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows. PaX also provides address space layout randomization (ASLR), which randomizes important memory addresses to reduce the probability of attacks that rely on easily predicted memory addresses.
Role-based access control
Another notable component of grsecurity is that it provides a full role-based access control (RBAC) system. RBAC is intended to restrict access to the system further than what is normally provided by Unix access control lists, with the aim of creating a fully least-privilege system, where users and processes have the absolute minimum privileges to work correctly and nothing more. This way, if the system is compromised, the ability of the attacker to damage or gain sensitive information on the system can be drastically reduced. RBAC works through a collection of roles. Each role can have individual restrictions on what it can or cannot do, and these roles and restrictions form an access policy which can be amended as needed.
A list of RBAC features
: Domain support for users and groups
Role transition tables
IP-based roles
Non-root access to special roles
Special roles that require no authentication
Nested subjects
Support for variables in the configuration
And, or, and difference set operations on variables in configuration
Object mode that controls the creation of setuid and setgid files
Create and delete object modes
Kernel interpretation of inheritance
Real-time regular expression resolution
Ability to deny ptraces to specific processes
User and group transition checking and enforcement on an inclusive or exclusive basis
/dev/grsec entry for kernel authentication and learning logs
Next-generation code that produces least-privilege policies for the entire system with no configuration
Policy statistics for gradm
Inheritance-based learning
Learning configuration file that allows the administrator to enable inheritance-based learning or disable learning on specific paths
Full path names for offending process and parent process
RBAC status function for gradm
/proc//ipaddr gives the remote address of the person who started a given process
Secure policy enforcement
Supports read, write, append, execute, view, and read-only ptrace object permissions
Supports hide, protect, and override subject flags
Supports the PaX flags
Shared memory protection feature
Integrated local attack response on all alerts
Subject flag that ensures a process can never execute trojaned code
Full-featured, fine-grained auditing
Resource, socket, and capability support
Protection against exploit bruteforcing
/proc/pid filedescriptor/memory protection
Rules can be placed on non-existent files/processes
Policy regeneration on subjects and objects
Configurable log suppression
Configurable process accounting
Human-readable configuration
Not filesystem or architecture dependent
Scales well: supports as many policies as memory can handle with the same performance hit
No run-time memory allocation
SMP safe
O(1) time efficiency for most operations
Include directive for specifying additional policies
Enable, disable, reload capabilities
Option to hide kernel processes

Chroot restrictions
grsecurity restricts chroot in a variety of ways to prevent various vulnerabilities and privilege escalation attacks, as well as to add additional checks:
No attaching shared memory outside chroot
No kill, ptrace (architecture-independent), capget, setpgid, getpgid and getsid outside chroot
No sending of signals by fcntl outside chroot
No viewing of any process outside chroot, even if /proc is mounted
No mounting or remounting
No pivot_root
No double chroot
No fchdir out of chroot
Enforced chdir("/") upon chroot
No (f)chmod +s
No mknod
No sysctl writes
No raising of scheduler priority
No connecting to abstract unix domain sockets outside chroot
Removal of harmful privileges via cap

Miscellaneous features
Among other things, it can be configured to audit a specific group of users, mounting/unmounting of devices, changes to the system time and date, and chdir logging. Some of the other audit types allow the administrator to also log denied resource attempts, failed fork attempts, IPC creation and removal, and exec logging together with its arguments.
Trusted path execution is another optional feature that can be used to prevent users from executing binaries not owned by the root user, or world-writable binaries. This is useful to prevent users from executing their own malicious
binaries or accidentally executing world-writable system binaries that could have been modified by a malicious user. grsecurity also hardens the way chroot "jails" work. A chroot jail can be used to isolate a particular process from the rest of the system, which can be used to minimise the potential for damage should the service be compromised. There are ways to "break out" of a chroot jail, which grsecurity attempts to prevent.
There are also other features that increase security and prevent users from gaining unnecessary knowledge about the system, such as restricting the dmesg and netstat commands to the root user.[13]
List of additional features and security improvements:
/proc restrictions that do not leak information about process owners
Symlink/hardlink restrictions to prevent /tmp races
FIFO restrictions
dmesg restriction
Enhanced implementation of trusted path execution
GID-based socket restrictions
Nearly all options are sysctl-tunable, with a locking mechanism
All alerts and audits support a feature that logs the IP address of the attacker with the log
Stream connections across Unix domain sockets carry the attacker´s IP address with them (on 2.4 only)
Detection of local connections: copies attacker´s IP address to the other task
Automatic deterrence of exploit brute-forcing
Low, medium, high, and custom security levels
Tunable flood-time and burst for logging

Activate only those options, that will not lead into serious hard malfunctionings of the kernel!

OKInstall paxctld (rpm or tarball from

Save the new .config.
Three possibilites, after the patching of the source-code (in our case the dirty-cow-patch):
make -i rpm (to create the binary kernel-rpm package, what endures on our system for around four hours)
make bzImage (to create its core vmlinuz for /boot only after renaming the created file bzImage: time needed: around 30 minutes) or
make bzImage && make modules && make modules_install for the installation of the kernel-modules too.
Copy the bzImage to /boot, rename it to vmlinuz-kernelversion.
Use mkinitrd resp. in the case of FSE (Full Disk Encryption resp. encrypted root-partition) dracut to create the initrd resp. initramfs within directory /boot.
If you use grub as the bootloader and not grub2 and the configufile is still not configured for the new kernel, do this by editing /boot/grub/menu.lst and exchanging the vmlinuz-kernel-versions. If a new initramfs or initrd is created, enter them in the line for initrd.

In our /grub/menu.lst, quit the same for grub2, the resulting entry for FSE (Full System Encryption) performed according to by gentoo-Schnatterente is:
title dracut-mdv-008-Linux
password --md5 DOLLARSIGN103Axa2112...
kernel (hd0,7)/vmlinuz BOOT_IMAGE=dracut-mdv-008-Linux root=UUID=2193ab...rootfstype=reiserfs ro elevator=deadline security=none apparmor=0 selinux=0 kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=3 nosmp speedboot=yes KEYMAP=de LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 rd.luks=1 rd.lvm=0 rd.luks.allow-discards rd.luks.uuid=ab1....vga=795
initrd (hd0,7)/initramfs

0 of (hd0,7) stands for sda, 1 for sdb usw. and 7 for the boot-partition sda8, deadline for the SSD optimizing elevator resp. scheduler to choose, what is introduced soon through the configuraiton by special echo-commands.

OK kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=2
# 0 - Default attach security permissions.
# 1 - Restricted attach. Only child processes plus normal permissions.
# 2 - Admin-only attach. Only executables with CAP_SYS_PTRACE.
3 - No attach. No process may call ptrace at all. Irrevocable.

echo "kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=3" > /etc/sysctl.d/10-ptrace.conf


The rescue-system Knoppix (Debian Linux, in our case Wheezy ol´ stable i386 (32 bit) from year 2010 with partition-manager gparted and dd, browser iceweazel and many tools and software) copied from DVD to an extra partition of at least 250 MB is listed in /boot/grub/menu.lst of the bootmanager Grub as follows:

title Rescue
kernel /boot/isolinux/linux knoppix keyboard=de lang=de_DE.UTF-8 desktop=kde tz=Europe/Berlin
initrd /boot/isolinux/minirt.gz


It boots within few seconds and makes password-request to make it run and to get decrypted from its partition. After the login, in order to decrypt all the other LUKS-encrypted partitions, LUKS/dm-crypt should be installed, so at first packet cryptsetup has to be downloaded from the Debian-pool ( Update glibc too. If you want, you can update and/or increase this system up to a more comfortablel Debian Linux on an enlarged partition.

Information about the availability of TRIM of a SSD for the TRIM with discard-option on the base of ext4 out of /etc/fstab:

hdparm -I /dev/sda | grep -i trim

Our partition-concept for MCC-" partition manager (local harddrives) or gparted upon parted,
our partiitions on SanDisk SSD 120 GB:
OK LUKS-(cryptsetup)-encrypted extra partition (for sensible data and so on, with a key-file, that means for automatic encryption and decryption): 29 GB
OK LUKS-(cryptsetup)-encrypted root-partition ("schnatterschnatter - but no ente"quot;): 50 GB
OK LUKS-(cryptsetup)-encrypted (urandomed self de- and encrypting) SWAP-partition: 1,9 GB (2 GB RAM)
OK Boot-partition (unencrypted, so that this partition should be backuped to compare files like kernel named vmlinuz with md5sum or sha1sum) : 203 MB
OK KNOPPIX-encrypted-partition Knoppix (rescue system from DVD, a up to year 2016 actualized Debian Ol´ Wheezy from year 2010 with gparted, dd and much more. LUKS (cryptsetup) should be installed additionally too for editing above listed other partitions): 894 MB
OK LUKS-(cryptsetup)-encrypted home partition (encrypted and decrypted automatically during boot by a once generated belonging key-file from the root-partition): 34 GB

Advantage: easy handling, without Logical Volume Management (LVM) !

This all 1:1 upon another securing media, in our case the same one and therefore one more SanDisk 120 GB.

OK /etc/crypttab
# <target name> <source device> <key file> <options>
cryptohome UUID=.... /somewhere/keyfile luks,data=ordered,allow-discards
cryptswap /dev/sda_certain_number /dev/urandom swap,check=/bin/true,data=ordered,allow-discards

setkey y z
setkey z y
setkey Y Z
setkey Z Y
setkey equal parenright
setkey parenright parenleft
setkey parenleft asterisk
setkey doublequote at
setkey plus bracketright
setkey minus slash
setkey slash ampersand
setkey ampersand percent
setkey percent caret
setkey underscore question
setkey question underscore
setkey semicolon less
setkey less numbersign
setkey numbersign backslash
setkey colon greater
setkey greater bar
setkey asterisk braceright
timeout 10
password --md5 ...
default 0
kernel (hd0,7)/vmlinuz-4.9.49 BOOT_IMAGE=dracut-el6-or-mdv-008-universal-linux root=UUID=... rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline
security=tomoyo speedboot=yes nosmp KEYMAP=de LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 rd.luks=1 rd.multipath=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.luks.allow-discards rd.luks.uuid=... vga=795
initrd (hd0,7)/initramfs-4.9.49

The root-partition seems to be sized quit small, so choose 60 GB instead of 50, we suggest to the disadvantage of the extra partition.

Order each entry in the device-configuration-file /etc/fstab: 1 device-file (partition or disc))/device/UUID/kernel-partition 2 mountpoint 3 filesystem 4 mount-options 5 Dump 6 fsck (self-check during the system start resp. boot), details:

OK So in /etc/fstab we can set for ext4 (discard supported), ext3 (withoud discard), reiserfs (without discard), reiser4fs (discard), btrfs (discard), vfat (without discard):

OKroot-partition: UUID=... / reiserfs notail,noatime,nodiratime,barrier=flush,data=writeback,nouser,user_xattr,mode=500,async,commit=0,umask=077,iocharset=utf-8,acl 0
OKBootpartition (hier wegen dracut): UUID=... /boot reiserfs noatime,nodiratime,ro,nouser,nouser,noexec,async,nosuid,mode=500,umask=077,user_xattr,data=writeback,commit=0,iocharset=utf-8,acl 0 3
OKHome-Partition: /dev/mapper/cryptohome /home ext4 rw,suid,nodev,noexec,nosuid,auto,async,noatime,nodiratime,discard,data=writeback,commit=0,nouser_xattr,barrier=1,journal_checksum,mode=700,umask=077,errors=remount-ro,iocharset=utf-8 0 # automatic cryptsetup is recommended (cryptsetup-option --key-file): Only access over the root-partion with the stored key-file will be possible. Acess-rights for the key-file: chown root:root path_to_key_file/key.asc && chmod 400 /patch_to_key_file/key.asc
# exec or noexec
OK /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom auto umask=0,users,noauto,iocharset=utf8,ro,noexec 0 0
OKproc /sid-root/proc proc notail,noatime,nodiratime,noexec,rw,nodev,nosuid,nouser,data=writeback,mode=555,hidepid=2,gid=user,surfgroup,torgroup 0 0 # mouseclick-fast
none /proc proc notail,noatime,nodiratime,noexec,rw,nodev,nosuid,nouser,data=writeback,mode=555 0 0
OK# usbfs /proc/bus/usb usbfs rw,relatime,devgid=43,devmode=664,noexec 0 0 # if not already mounted during system boot; notice: MMC-Partiton-Manager and so on will miss /proc/bus/usb
OKsysfs /sid-root/sys sysfs notail,noatime,nosuid,nodiratime,rw,noexec,nouser,nosuid,nodev,data=writeback,mode=555 0 0
OKTemporary, tmp ins RAM::
OKtmpfs /tmp tmpfs noatime,nodiratime,noexec,ro,nodev,nouser,nosuid,mode=1777,size=8M 0 0 # original tmp, that was made hidden by firejail using option "private-tmp" within any /etc/firejail/config-files
OKshm /tmp tmpfs noatime,nodiratime,noexec,rw,nodev,nosuid,nouser,mode=1777 0 0
OKtmpfs /tmp2 tmpfs noatime,nodiratime,noexec,ro,nodev,nouser,nosuid,mode=1777,size=128M 0 0 # one more tmp for the down- and uploads
OKshm /tmp2 tmpfs noatime,nodiratime,noexec,rw,nodev,nosuid,nouser,mode=1777 0 0
OK/dev/mapper/cryptswap swap swap defaults,discard,rw,data=writeback 0 0
OKnone /dev/pts devpts mode=620,gid=5,rw
OKUUID=... /var/local ext4 rw,noatime,nodiratime,nosuid,aync,nodev,noexec,user_xattr,acl,barrier=1,data=writeback,mode=755,umask=077,commit=0,iocharset=utf8 # needed in small size of around 1 GB in order to mount the root-partition read-only
OKbinfmt /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw,noatime 0 0 # binfmt_misc is a capability of the Linux kernel which allows arbitrary executable file formats to be recognized and passed to certain user space applications, such as s emulators and virtual machines. The executable formats are registered through a special purpose file system interface (similar to /proc). Debian-based distributions provide the functionality through an extra binfmt-support package.[1]...see

securityfs /sys/kernel/security /mnt/any_mountpoint securityfs rw,noatime 0 0 # lsm, secure fs for kernel-security-modules ... or mount it within /etc/rc.local by "mount -t securityfs -o rw,noatime /sys/kernel/security /mnt2"
# and /etc/fstab of our USB-stick:
/dev/sda1 / unionfs 0 1

/dev/mapper/usbstick1 /media/mnt_usb1 vfat rw,nosuid,nodev,uhelper=hal,users,noexec,uid=10001,utf8,shortname=mixed,flush,umask=077 0 1 # An entry in /etc/crypttab only instead of both files fstab and crypttab is sufficient. LUKS-encrypted USB-memory-stick with UUID (you can find out by mount -l ) and name usbstick1 within /etc/crypttab. Also think about mounting this encrypted USB-stick without having to enterthe password for encryption manually each system boot by creating a key-file or using the already present one from cryptohome, adding this key-file to /etc/crypttab and assocating it with the USB-stick by the command "cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sdc1 /path_to_keyfile/keyfile". Notice, that it might not be necessary to add this entry for an USB-memory stick in /etc/fstab here. Do this only in the case of problems with their hotplug!

OK and in /etc/rc.local (started by adding "sh /etc/rc.local" from any activated bootscript of /etc/init.d/, followed by a system-restart) for optimized SSD (in our example on the first S-ATA-port named sda) we choose the following parameters after a check with "hdparm -I /dev/sda": and "man hdparm":
hdparm -W1a0A0 /dev/sda (also try other optimizing parameters of hdparm)
echo deadline > /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler
echo 500 > /proc/sys/vm/dirty_writeback_centisecs
echo 20 > /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio
echo 5 > /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_ratio
touch /var/lock/subsys/local

SSD: commit=0: mouseclick-fast

Option defaults consists of the for security significant async,nouser,rw,suid,dev,exec,auto.

man mount: "All I/O to the filesystem should be done synchronously. In case of media with limited number of write cycles (e.g. some flash drives) "sync" may cause life-cycle shortening." In other words, for SSD prefer option async!

The namely security advised option "W0" instead of elected W1 deactivates the write-cache of the SSD, what protects data even more in the case of system hangons and breakdowns. More parameters of hdparm are explained by "hdparm -h" and manpages, see "man hdparm".Notice, that for more performcance "W1" for write-cacheing is generally recommended.

The pair of number from above like "0 1" stands for dump equal to no and fsck equal to yes, while the number itself stands for 0 none (no check), 1 recommended for the root-partition, 2 for all other partitionss and 3 for all less important partitions. With these setting, named filesystem can not be damaged anymore, otherwise, if ever thinkable, use manually "reiserfsck --no-tree device_file" to do its best for reiserfs.

umask: generally sets the access-rights as a subtrahend: Set umask 022 standing for less or equal 755 resp. umask 077 for less or equal 700 for the root- and home-partition in /etc/fstab and also in: /etc/profile, /etc/login.defs, /home/user/.bash_profile, /home/surfuser/.bash_profile, /root/.bash_profile, ROOT_UMASK=077 in /etc/security/msec/ and USER_UMASK=077; acl: enable POSIX Access Control Lists.

Keep everything as SSD-friendly and mouseclick-fast you can, link the browser-cbache of Konqueror to the temporary directory /tmp being part of shm (shared memory, RAM) from fstab above:

OKrm -df /home/surfuser/.kde4/cache-localhos and ln -sf /tmp /home/surfuser/.kde4/cache-localhost, /home/surfuser/tmp, /home/user/.kde4/cache-localhost, /home/user/.kde4/socket-localhost, /home/user/.kde4/tmp, /home/user/.kde4/tmp-localhost and

ln -sf /tmp/kde-user /home/user/.kde4/tmp-localhost.localdomain, ln -sf /tmp/kde-surfuser/.kde4/tmp-localhost.localdomain . In the long run this spares plenty of cleaning. Do not link cache-localhost.localdomain and socket-localhost.localdomain, as this might cause some problems starting KDE.

OKln -sf /tmp /home/alluser/.cache2 && rm -dfr /home/alluser/.cache && rename /home/alluser/.cache2 /home/alluser/.cache /home/alluser/.cache2

bleachbit (el6, cleaner): This program can cause serious hard damage!

We go on for SSD: Option discard is not functioning each kernel and SSD. commit sets the interval or frequency for write-operations, what is 5s per default. It is not recommended to change this value. barrier is one more feature of ext4 and ext3 caring for writing (coherent) data right in front of a barrier before such coherent data are writtten behind it. barriers=1 effects more securirty, while barriers=0 contributes to more perfmormance. ro for read-only still should not be set for the root-partition. This would have caused "skipping journal replay". data=writeback means "Data ordering (data=ordered) is not preserved, data may be written into the main file system after its metadata has been committed to the journal.", options see . Most options are accepted by ext3 too, but not reiserfs. Notice, that reiserfs does not accept all of the listed options like barrier, errors and discard, inspite of this option nolog is accepted. Test options by "mount -o options devicefile mountpoint", before they are set in /etc/fstab!

rpm-description cmospwd (el6): "CmosPwd decrypts password stored in cmos used to access BIOS SETUP. Works with the following BIOSes * ACER/IBM BIOS * AMI BIOS * AMI WinBIOS 2.5 * Award 4.5x/4.6x/6.0 * Compaq (1992) * Compaq (New version) * IBM (PS/2, Activa, Thinkpad) * Packard Bell * Phoenix 1.00.09.AC0 (1994), a486 1.03, 1.04, 1.10 A03, 4.05 rev 1.02.943, 4.06 rev 1.13.1107 * Phoenix 4 release 6 (User) * Gateway Solo - Phoenix 4.0 release 6 * Toshiba * Zenith AMI With CmosPwd, you can also backup, restore and erase/kill cmos."

So at first, generally the best thing one can do, is to abrogate the complete internet-access (what we do not suppose...) and to get a spare-parted backup-SSD or harddrive for the case of all the on mdv2010 remaining unsolved dependencies of packages your are going to install, that means in order to

Browser-Cache into RAM
about:config ->, to add a new entry type string
with the value /shm
After a newstart, firefox is cached into RAM. Go quit the same way for other browsers, source: For Konqueror just link directory /home/username/.kde4/localhost-cache to /shm.

Convince yourself to get gnutls (el7) with libtasn1 (el7) installed. Otherwise gnutls might not work correctly for firefox.

backup partitionwise 1:1 by command dd (details see below)

OKFlashrom, Coreboot
Have a second BIOS-chip. Save the actual BIOS-firmware of the used BIOS-chip into a bin(ary) resp. rom-file. This can be done by an utility from the disc with drivers for the mainboard, out of the internet or by the UNIX-(Linux)-program called
flashrom. flashrom is a utility for detecting, reading, writing, verifying and erasing flash chips. It´s often used to flash BIOS/EFI/coreboot/firmware images in-system using a supported mainboard, but it also supports flashing of network cards (NICs), SATA controller cards and other external devices, which can program flash chips. On malfunction especially after the powering on of the computer, you can flush the BIOS through the backup up right from the desktop, if not, you have to exchange the chip or the net-adapter, same for the RAM, that can be checked by progs of UNIX (Linux) like memtest. For the protection against wiretapping bedbugs care for "chassis intrusion detection", for the usage of as few USB-cards as possible, if the BIOS is resetted and if there are any hearable feedbacks from hardware inspite of FCC. Compare constructions and notice any specifications direct from the platines like the manufacturer-types or -ID . With some luck, a radio tunes their frequencies.

"Welcome to coreboot!
coreboot is an Open Source project aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS (firmware) found in most computers. coreboot performs a little bit of hardware initialization and then executes additional boot logic, called a payload. With the separation of hardware initialization and later boot logic, coreboot can scale from specialized applications that run directly from firmware, run operating systems in flash, load custom bootloaders, or implement firmware standards, like PC BIOS services or UEFI. This allows for systems to only include the features necessary in the target application, reducing the amount of code and flash space required.
coreboot currently supports over 230 different mainboards. Check the Support page to see if your system is supported."


If Linfw3 is used, so that root and all other user except a special surfuser get blocked, and if all other methods introduced here on this webside are performed, no password hacking and cracking is ever possible anymore, even not after the password got known by other ones and independent from its name or constitution or who and whatever, neither from the outside (net), inside (software) nor direct at office or home or anywhere. Keys for the LUKS-encrypted partitions must be stored on a portable USB-memory-stick, better memory-/chip-card or fingerprint-scanner

Password-protection on our introduced exemplary system:
Grub-md5-Password for all bootable partitions and memory-check within /boot/grub/menu.lst
Special (own) inportable password for always LUKS-encrypted partitions on the base of FSE (Full System Encryption) with keys (passwords) for the dracut-enbound root-Partition on a LUKS-password encrypted USB-memory-stick, rest (see exemplary listed /etc/fstab) as sha2-key-file for user:group root:root and chmod 400 within any directory of the root-partition
Secured LUKS-root-partition with manual password-login onto a separate storage media for the cass of data loss from USB-memory-stick etc.
ACL-locked su-login for "surfuser"
Keys (passwords) for the additional encryption of e-mail and single directories and files with gnupg (kgpg) within the for "surfuser" by ACL inaccessible made directory .gnupg
desktop-manager: user-password for kdm and other desktop manager (or simplefying automized login free from password-entry)
Passwörds for LUKS-encrypted USB-memory-sticks
Password-manager for the twice password-encrypted access storage for all other passwords: revelation (el6, el7, rosa2014.1, rosa2016.1, fc 2X)
/etc/shadow (password-)file: chown root:root and chmod 400
OKinacccessible shell-bash-login in /etc/passwd and eventually usage of sandbox firejail with option "shell none"

Password protection, Focus, 11.04.2015
Snowden meant, hacker could hack a primitive password within one second. But the whistleblower gives tipps, how to keep passwords safe, so that they can not be hacked: by passphrases. Most passwords are simple variants like "12345678", "password" or the forename of the user. Edward Snowden thinks, passwords with the length of eight characters still do remain very insecure. They could be hacked by supercomputers in less than one second. Passphrases are passwords consisting of more than one word. Long, one time appearing sentences like


are easy to remember and combine different characters. They could not be decrypted by hacking programs.

A similar uncrackable method for password generation is described by on .

Expert explains: The perfect password would be cracked by hackers in 227 millionen years, FOCUS Online, 09.05.2018

Passwords are stored in the, as we hope, only root-accessible /etc/shadow for Linux. This file is handled over /etc/passwd listing usernames, belonging groups, "x" as a replacement for the password to read-in and so on.

All sensible data should never be stored on the onboard resp. plugged-in storage-media, SSD and harddrives and only onto those unplugged ones containing the backups and onto well-encrypted USB-memory-sticks!

More Internet Security
pam_shield (el6): pam_shield is a PAM module that uses iptables to lock out script kiddies that probe your computer for open logins and/or easy guessable passwords. pam_shield is meant as an aid to protect public computers on the open internet. An IP can also be entered manually by the command shield-trigger add into the belonging database, same through "del" for deletion..pam_shield should get configured in /etc/security/shield.conf.
fail2ban (el6): Fail2ban scans log files like /var/log/pwdfail or /var/log/apache/error_log and bans IP that makes too many password failures. It updates firewall rules to reject the IP address.

DenyHosts is a Python script that analyzes the sshd server log messages to determine which hosts are attempting to hack into your system. It also determines what user accounts are being targeted. It keeps track of the frequency of attempts from each host and, upon discovering a repeated attack host, updates the /etc/hosts.deny file to prevent future break-in attempts from that host. Email reports can be sent to a system admin.

If you beware this principle, the computer generally provides the promised security for you.

Of course we tested and possess MS Windows. As we all know, it is not sufficient just to install an operating system and security-software to call the computer-system really secure, while finding out, that effective solutions may cost time! Installation should be done by users with the rights of the system-administrator only. During installation the signatur helps to be aware of the origin of software. Before the installation itself, packet-manager check out dublications and dependencies. If a packet is ever missing, packet-manager like urpmi can download and install all needed packages from different sources and the internet. to solve them. After that, version-control by CVS (Version Controlling Systems) can also do their best. The packet-database seems to be similar to the MS-Win-registry, but it is not such complex. If the packet-database should ever be damaged, it can be repaired in a simple way by the commands rm -f /var/lib/rpm/__* and rpm --rebuilddb. If this should not help, start the MCC packet-manager rpmdrake, in order to install any packet. rpmdrake is almost able to solve such conflicts. Notice, that MCC´s downloaded files are at least temporary in directory /var/cache/urpmi/rpms. Not all of the infinite amount of packet-dependencies are solved, even not in mdv2010!

Indeed: Our experience in mdv2010 tells us, that the only weak point grounds still in the overwhelming amount of existing packet-dependencies during an intensive installation of packages online (with a high amount of packages) by rpmdrake from MCC (drakconf) quit "at once" of a complexity much higher than from installation-DVD. Therefore we recommend not to download too many packets, not more than 50 "at once" and to have a look into the directory /var/lib/urmpi/rpms, where the not installed packages are still stored, if MCC is set to "do not empty the packet-cache after download" before. Then error-messages of the reinstallation by packet-manager like rpm, urpmi and yum almost tell what to do next - if there is inspite of checks of rpmdrake within the packet still any rpm, especially library-rpm, missing or if one rpm conflicts with another one to delete it before reinstallation is possible.

We repeat: agesschau, 07.31.2014: Actually scientific experts found out, that sensible data can be read out through microcontrollers (processors) from USB-sticks, see the report from our linkside under the point links! Therefore a new USB-standard is devoloped. By this, all data of computers can be read out, even passwords and email-contents as much as devices be steered like webcams. The operating sytem does not notice all of this, as it believes in key-strokes and not software attacks.


Mouseclick-fast: We almost have just the following services activated through MCC: NetworkManager, acpid, alsa, cups, dnsmasq, gpm, ip6tables, iptables, jexec, linfw3, lm_sensors, partmon, postfix, sound, sysstat, udev-post, uuidd, wine and sometimes ntpd and httpd.

That´s all. So service network got deactivated too by command "chkconfig --level 2345 network off".

Increase the surf-speed with the browser, press STRG and ESC, choose the process for the browser by right clicking onto him and pull the appearing shift register for the process-priority at least one quarter length right. Alternatively use the terminal-commands nice and renice for a priority between -20 and 19 incl., default is 0 (source. Focus Onine, 07.11.2015); Gooken recommends extrem high priorities for Dolphin, Kmail, Kontact, Kopete, Office, some OpenGL- and SDL-games (if useful) and Konqueror and/or any other browser,

Brake block and espionage: "root,-1", ( dangerous, speed lowering ) (system-)process named unknown (for login under uid:0) of owner "root,-1" with changing PID and unknown dimesioned CPU-enburdening "kept secret"

In advance, this might really help: setfacl -m u:root:- /usr/libexec/gam_server
. Also exchange gamin (mdv2010) with gamin (pclos2017).
Such a process is called a "comet" by systems administrators.
The process group ID (PGID) doesn´t change on fork, so you can kill it (or SIGSTOP it) by sending a signal to the process group (you pass a negated PGID instead of a PID to kill).
answered Dec 1 ´12 at 1:18
What if it calls setpgid/setsid each time too? :-) - R.. Dec 1 ´12 at 2:28
The only reason, I can see, why you wouldn´t see it is, that the forked child has not been created yet but the parent has progressed far enough in it´s death that it is no longer listed.
Unfortunately I don´t think it´s possible to kill this kind of process without some guessing. To do so would require knowing the next pid in advance. You can guess the next pid but not be certain that no other pid gets it assigned.

We generally want to get rid of such processes: Wait for our new experiences at this place! Mouseclick-fast and secure: the ultimative speed boost beneath SSD-technology from see data-sheed: At first, update the gam_server (gamin (fc25) and gamin-server (OpenSuSE13.2) with gam_server into /usr/libexec) or remove it (like in OpenSuSE, where gamin is not offered), that might has to do with it and never connect to the ISP (Internet Service Provider) using the NetworkManager (el6) together with networkmanager-applet (mdv2010.2), but through "ifup eth0" by surfuser (but without naming surfgroup) instead, maybe out of the K-Menu, in the case of Konqueror for example set:

renice -n 18 `pidof konqueror`

that means for surfuser joining surfgroup in order to start konqueror after the login to surfuser:

"knemo && sg surfgroup konqueror && renice -n 18 `pidof konqueror` && kded4"

rpm-description: "Run command in restricted environment. Chrootuid makes it easy to run a network service at low privilege level and with restricted file system access. At Eindhoven University, they use this program to run the gopher and www (world-wide web) network daemons in a minimal environment: The daemons have access only to their own directory tree, and run under a low-privileged userid. The arrangement greatly reduces the impact of possible loopholes in daemon software."

OK Or additionally on the base of the suid-sandboxfirejail (ram80:, rosa2014.1, rosa2016.1, pclos2017 or for all programs online and untrusted (following the includes, that might be some, we chose firejail for quit all), one more program for mdv2010.2 or el6 from rosa2014.1, that you also can download from here:

firejail-0.9.52-1pclos2017.x86_64.rpm (from December 2017, vendor:none,
or download firejail pclos2017 preconfigured by us for firefox, Konqueror and kmail and so on from our update-section preconfigured by us for firejail-0.9.52-1.

"knemo && sg surfgroup "firejail --private=/home/surfuser konqueror" && renice -n 18 `pidof konqueror` && kded4"

or, enhanced with option --profile:

"knemo && sg surfgroup "firejail --nice=18 --profile=/etc/firejail/konqueror.profile --private=/home/surfuser konqueror" && kded4"

This call seems to get quit long, so for a start with priority 18 from -20 up to 20 by a single (or double) mouseclick do not forget to add an this command into the belonging entry for konqueror within the k-menu, on the desktop or in the quick-starter of the taskline. For shell-scripts this can be done by "xterm -e /path_to/" resp. "konsole -e /path_to/"

Linux namespaces sandbox program firejail,
"Firejail is a SUID program that reduces the risk of security breaches by restricting the running environment of untrusted applications using Linux namespaces and seccomp-bpf. It allows a process and all its descendants to have their own private view of the globally shared kernel resources, such as the network stack, process table, mount table.
Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs on any Linux computer with a 3.x (and 4.20.13 with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos, mga6) resp., com., Gooken) kernel version or newer. The sandbox is lightweight, the overhead is low. There are no complicated configuration files to edit, no socket connections open, no daemons running in the background. All security features are implemented directly in Linux kernel and available on any Linux computer.
Firejail can sandbox any type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login sessions. The software includes security profiles for a large number of Linux programs: Mozilla Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc."

OK Firejail is a SUID sandbox program, that reduces the risk of security breaches by restricting the running environment of untrusted applications using Linux namespaces.

firejail - version 0.9.48

Usage: firejail [options] [program and arguments]

-- - signal the end of options and disables further option processing.
--allow-debuggers - allow tools such as strace and gdb inside the sandbox.
--allow-private-blacklist - allow blacklisting files in private
home directories.
--allusers - all user home directories are visible inside the sandbox.
--apparmor - enable AppArmor confinement.
--appimage - sandbox an AppImage application.
--audit[=test-program] - audit the sandbox.
--bandwidth=name|pid - set bandwidth limits.
--bind=dirname1,dirname2 - mount-bind dirname1 on top of dirname2.
--bind=filename1,filename2 - mount-bind filename1 on top of filename2.
--blacklist=filename - blacklist directory or file.
-c - execute command and exit.
--caps - enable default Linux capabilities filter.
--caps.drop=all - drop all capabilities.
--caps.drop=capability,capability - blacklist capabilities filter.
--caps.keep=capability,capability - whitelist capabilities filter.
--caps.print=name|pid - print the caps filter.
--cgroup=tasks-file - place the sandbox in the specified control group.
--chroot=dirname - chroot into directory.
--cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number - set cpu affinity.
--cpu.print=name|pid - print the cpus in use.
--csh - use /bin/csh as default shell.
--debug - print sandbox debug messages.
--debug-blacklists - debug blacklisting.
--debug-caps - print all recognized capabilities.
--debug-check-filename - debug filename checking.
--debug-errnos - print all recognized error numbers.
--debug-protocols - print all recognized protocols.
--debug-syscalls - print all recognized system calls.
--debug-whitelists - debug whitelisting.
--defaultgw=address - configure default gateway.
--dns=address - set DNS server.
--dns.print=name|pid - print DNS configuration.
--env=name=value - set environment variable.
--force - attempt to start a new sandbox inside the existing sandbox.
--fs.print=name|pid - print the filesystem log.
--get=name|pid filename - get a file from sandbox container.
--help, -? - this help screen.
--hostname=name - set sandbox hostname.
--hosts-file=file - use file as /etc/hosts.
--ignore=command - ignore command in profile files.
--interface=name - move interface in sandbox.
--ip=address - set interface IP address.
--ip=none - no IP address and no default gateway are configured.
--ip6=address - set interface IPv6 address.
--iprange=address,address - configure an IP address in this range.
--ipc-namespace - enable a new IPC namespace.
--join=name|pid - join the sandbox.
--join-filesystem=name|pid - join the mount namespace.
--join-network=name|pid - join the network namespace.
--join-or-start=name|pid - join the sandbox or start a new one.
--list - list all sandboxes.
--ls=name|pid dir_or_filename - list files in sandbox container.
--mac=xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx - set interface MAC address.
--machine-id - preserve /etc/machine-id
--mtu=number - set interface MTU.
--name=name - set sandbox name.
--net=bridgename - enable network namespaces and connect to this bridge.
--net=ethernet_interface - enable network namespaces and connect to this Ethernet interface.
--net=none - enable a new, unconnected network namespace.
--netfilter[=filename] - enable the default client network filter.
--netfilter6=filename - enable the IPv6 network filter.
--netns=name - Run the program in a named, persistent network namespace.
--netstats - monitor network statistics.
--nice=value - set nice value.
--no3d - disable 3D hardware acceleration.
--noblacklist=filename - disable blacklist for file or directory .
--noexec=filename - remount the file or directory noexec nosuid and nodev.
--nogroups - disable supplementary groups.
--nonewprivs - sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl.
--noprofile - do not use a security profile.
--nosound - disable sound system.
--novideo - disable video devices.
--nowhitelist=filename - disable whitelist for file or directory .
--output=logfile - stdout logging and log rotation.
--overlay - mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem.
--overlay-named=name - mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem, and store it in name directory.
--overlay-tmpfs - mount a temporary filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem.
--overlay-clean - clean all overlays stored in DOLLARSIGNHOME/.firejail directory.
--private - temporary home directory.
--private=directory - use directory as user home.
--private-home=file,directory - build a new user home in a temporary
filesystem, and copy the files and directories in the list in the new home.
--private-bin=file,file - build a new /bin in a temporary filesystem and copy the programs in the list.
--private-dev - create a new /dev directory. Only dri, null, full, zero,tty, pst, ptms, random, snd, urandom, log and shm devices are available.
--private-etc=file,directory - build a new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files and directories in the list.
--private-tmp - mount a tmpfs on top of /tmp directory.
--private-opt=file,directory - build a new /opt in a temporary filesystem.
--profile=filename - use a custom profile.
--profile-path=directory - use this directory to look for profile files.
--protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol - enable protocol filter.
--protocol.print=name|pid - print the protocol filter.
--put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename - put a file in sandbox container.
--quiet - turn off Firejail´s output.
--read-only=filename - set directory or file read-only..
--read-write=filename - set directory or file read-write..
--rlimit-fsize=number - set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.
--rlimit-nofile=number - set the maximum number of files that can be opened by a process.
--rlimit-nproc=number - set the maximum number of processes that can be created for the real user ID of the calling process.
--rlimit-sigpending=number - set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.
--rmenv=name - remove environment variable in the new sandbox.
--scan - ARP-scan all the networks from inside a network namespace.
--seccomp - enable seccomp filter and apply the default blacklist.
--seccomp=syscall,syscall,syscall - enable seccomp filter, blacklist the default syscall list and the syscalls specified by the command.
--seccomp.drop=syscall,syscall,syscall - enable seccomp filter, and blacklist the syscalls specified by the command.
--seccomp.keep=syscall,syscall,syscall - enable seccomp filter, and whitelist the syscalls specified by the command.
--seccomp.=syscall,syscall,syscall - enable seccomp filter, and return errno for the syscalls specified by the command.
--seccomp.print=name|pid - print the seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name or PID.
OK--shell=none - run the program directly without a user shell.
--shell=program - set default user shell.
--shutdown=name|pid - shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.
--tmpfs=dirname - mount a tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname.
--top - monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes.
--trace - trace open, access and connect system calls.
--tracelog - add a syslog message for every access to files or directories blacklisted by the security profile.
--tree - print a tree of all sandboxed processes.
--version - print program version and exit.
--veth-name=name - use this name for the interface connected to the bridge.
--whitelist=filename - whitelist directory or file.
--writable-etc - /etc directory is mounted read-write.
--writable-var - /var directory is mounted read-write.
--writable-var-log - use the real /var/log directory, not a clone.
--x11 - enable X11 sandboxing. The software checks first if Xpra is installed, then it checks if Xephyr is installed. If all fails, it will attempt to use X11 security extension.
--x11=none - disable access to X11 sockets.
--x11=xephyr - enable Xephyr X11 server. The window size is 800x600.
--x11=xorg - enable X11 security extension.
--x11=xpra - enable Xpra X11 server.
--x11=xvfb - enable Xvfb X11 server.
--zsh - use /usr/bin/zsh as default shell.

DO'LLARSIGN firejail firefox
start Mozilla Firefox
DOLLARSIGN firejail --debug firefox
debug Firefox sandbox
DOLLARSIGN firejail --private --sna= firefox
start Firefox with a new, empty home directory, and a well-known DNS-server setting.
DOLLARSIGN firejail --net=eth0 firefox
start Firefox in a new network namespace
DOLLARSIGN firejail --x11=xorg firefox
start Firefox and sandbox X11
DOLLARSIGN firejail --list
list all running sandboxes

License GPL version 2 or later

"Mit Firejail lässt sich das Risiko erheblich reduzieren, das von bis dato ungepatchten Sicherheitslücken in Programmen ausgeht.",

Firejail has got two very interesting options: --profile, what is done with default.profile by default as much as one profile for each program resp. process out of a hugh amount from /etc/firejail and --private. Last one completes the sandbox in a whole. Refering to linfw3, for still blocking all trojans resp. backdoors, use the already listed firejail-option --profile=/home/surfuser, especially the pregiven (and already listed) profiles.

Resign from firejail, if firefox does not work correctly, until firejail gets reconfigured well enough !

"SECure COMPuting with filters (like seccomp within firejail)
A large number of system calls are exposed to every userland process with many of them going unused for the entire lifetime of the process. As system calls change and mature, bugs are found and eradicated. A certain subset of userland applications benefit by having a reduced set of available system calls. The resulting set reduces the total kernel surface exposed to the application. System call filtering is meant for use with those applications.
Seccomp filtering provides a means for a process to specify a filter for incoming system calls. The filter is expressed as a Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF) program, as with socket filters, except that the data operated on is related to the system call being made: system call number and the system call arguments. This allows for expressive filtering of system calls using a filter program language with a long history of being exposed to userland and a straightforward data set.
Additionally, BPF makes it impossible for users of seccomp to fall prey to time-of-check-time-of-use (TOCTOU) attacks that are common in system call interposition frameworks. BPF programs may not dereference pointers which constrains all filters to solely evaluating the system call arguments directly.
What it isn´t
System call filtering isn´t a sandbox.It provides a clearly defined mechanism for minimizing the exposed kernel surface. It is meant to be a tool for sandbox developers to use. Beyond that, policy for logical behavior and information flow should be managed with a combination of other system hardening techniques and, potentially, an LSM of your choosing. Expressive, dynamic filters provide further options down this path (avoiding pathological sizes or selecting which of the multiplexed system calls in socketcall() is allowed, for instance) which could be construed, incorrectly, as a more complete sandboxing solution.
An additional seccomp mode is added and is enabled using the same prctl(2) call as the strict seccomp. If the architecture has CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_SECCOMP_FILTER, then filters may be added as below:


"knemo && sg surfgroup "firejail --profile=/etc/firejail/default-firefox.profile --private=/home/surfuser firefox --no-remote &" && renice -n 19 `pidof firefox` && sg surfgroup tor"

with default-firefox.profile like default.profile, but without blacklist /home/surfuser/.mozilla and /home/surfuser/.cache (commented in with "#").

Option tor: is used for the anonymizing TorDNS as the remote-DNS-server, what is introduced with Tor at the end of this excurs.

Following the many profile-files in /etc/firejail, the in comparison to sandbox docker-io easy-to-handle Firejail is recommended for all programs resp. processes online and you might not trust like webserver, server, dolphin (what causes a intern restricted bash, so that you should resign from it as much as for quit all processes online. Have a brief look into the configuration file of firejail in /etc/firejail too: many of them refer to single processes resp. programs, some like files named disable*.inc refer to more than it. There, encrypted partitions and directories including sub-directories (blacklist /mnt/) and USB-sticks (blacklist /media/ resp. blacklist /media/directory_for_the_usb-stick) can be secured once more too as much as the block of the intern start of bash-commands refering to outside of private and so on. Now everything online runs not only "two and three times more secure" but even much faster than already fast !

Firejail-options for *.inc-files within /etc/firejail/ :
caps.drop all
protocol unix,inet,inet6
OKshell none

To the profiles of actual firejail 0.9.48-1.pcclos2017 in /etc/firejail, that is provided preconfigured by us (Gooken) to get downloaded from our section for updates, belong (description see "man firejail")

140 25. Jun 14:30 7z.profile
1225 25. Jun 14:30 abrowser.profile
704 20. Mai 23:55 akregator.profile
489 25. Jun 14:30 amarok.profile
568 20. Mai 23:55 arduino.profile
499 25. Jun 14:30 ark.profile
347 25. Jun 14:30 atom-beta.profile
342 25. Jun 14:30 atom.profile

535 25. Jun 14:30 atool.profile

410 25. Jun 14:30 atril.profile

267 25. Jun 14:30 audacious.profile
357 25. Jun 14:30 audacity.profile
458 25. Jun 14:30 aweather.profile
1742 20. Mai 23:55 baloo_file.profile
785 20. Mai 23:55 bibletime.profile
271 25. Jun 14:30 bitlbee.profile
488 25. Jun 14:30 bleachbit.profile
488 8. Mai 23:07 bleachbit.profile
595 20. Mai 23:55 blender.profile
492 25. Jun 14:30 bless.profile
492 8. Mai 23:07 bless.profile
535 25. Jun 14:30 brasero.profile
535 8. Mai 23:07 brasero.profile
338 25. Jun 14:30 brave.profile
878 20. Mai 23:55 caja.profile
407 25. Jun 14:30 cherrytree.profile
66 25. Jun 14:30 chromium-browser.profile
695 25. Jun 14:30 chromium.profile
393 25. Jun 14:30 claws-mail.profile
268 25. Jun 14:30 clementine.profile
598 20. Mai 23:55 clipit.profile
340 25. Jun 14:30 cmus.profile
564 25. Jun 14:30 conkeror.profile
262 25. Jun 14:30 corebird.profile
379 25. Jun 14:30 cpio.profile
178 25. Jun 14:30 cryptocat.profile
524 20. Mai 23:55 Cryptocat.profile
582 25. Jun 14:30 cvlc.profile
99 25. Jun 14:30 cyberfox.profile
245 20. Mai 23:55 Cyberfox.profile
304 25. Jun 14:30 deadbeef.profile
366 25. Jun 14:30 default0.profile
366 25. Jun 14:30 default2.profile
607 25. Jun 14:30 default-firefox.profile
371 25. Jun 14:30 default-gftp.profile
367 25. Jun 14:30 default.profile
397 25. Jun 14:30 deluge.profile
526 20. Mai 23:55 dia.profile
450 25. Jun 14:30 dillo.profile
755 20. Mai 23:55 dino.profile
4812 25. Jun 14:30
7239 25. Jun 14:30
3788 25. Jun 14:30
3788 11. Mai 15:08
7239 25. Jun 14:30
91 25. Jun 14:30
1470 25. Jun 14:30
725 25. Jun 14:30
187 25. Jun 14:30
567 25. Jun 14:30
4949 25. Jun 14:30
538 25. Jun 14:30 display.profile
770 25. Jun 14:30 dnscrypt-proxy.profile
327 25. Jun 14:30 dnsmasq.profile
831 25. Jun 14:30 dolphin.profile
831 8. Mai 23:07 dolphin.profile
370 25. Jun 14:30 dosbox.profile
529 25. Jun 14:30 dragon.profile
448 25. Jun 14:30 dropbox.profile
562 25. Jun 14:30 elinks.profile
276 25. Jun 14:30 emacs.profile
229 25. Jun 14:30 empathy.profile
535 25. Jun 14:30 enchant.profile
505 25. Jun 14:30 engrampa.profile
376 25. Jun 14:30 eog.profile
374 25. Jun 14:30 eom.profile
609 25. Jun 14:30 epiphany.profile
356 25. Jun 14:30 evince.profile
476 25. Jun 14:30 evolution.profile
630 25. Jun 14:30 exiftool.profile
402 25. Jun 14:30 fbreader.profile
367 25. Jun 14:30 feh.profile
223 25. Jun 14:30 file.profile
514 25. Jun 14:30 file-roller.profile
553 20. Mai 23:55 filezilla.profile
230 20. Mai 23:55 firefox-esr.profile
1819 20. Mai 23:55 firefox.profile
2985 25. Jun 14:30 firejail.config 898 25. Jun 14:30 flashpeak-slimjet.profile
300 25. Jun 14:30 flowblade.profile
544 20. Mai 23:55 fontforge.profile
429 25. Jun 14:30 fossamail.profile
220 20. Mai 23:55 FossaMail.profile
481 25. Jun 14:30 franz.profile
817 25. Jun 14:30 gajim.profile
601 20. Mai 23:55 galculator.profile
543 20. Mai 23:55 geany.profile
621 25. Jun 14:30 gedit.profile
582 25. Jun 14:30 geeqie.profile
36 20. Mai 23:55 gimp-2.8.profile
295 25. Jun 14:30 gimp.profile
418 25. Jun 14:30 git.profile
383 25. Jun 14:30 gitter.profile
833 25. Jun 14:30 gjs.profile
555 20. Mai 23:55 globaltime.profile
653 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-2048.profile
654 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-books.profile
503 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-calculator.profile
431 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-chess.profile
526 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-clocks.profile
499 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-contacts.profile
612 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-documents.profile
543 20. Mai 23:55 gnome-font-viewer.profile
627 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-maps.profile
627 8. Mai 23:07 gnome-maps.profile
329 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-mplayer.profile
552 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-music.profile
663 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-photos.profile
669 25. Jun 14:30 gnome-weather.profile
493 25. Jun 14:30 goobox.profile
704 25. Jun 14:30 google-chrome-beta.profile
670 25. Jun 14:30 google-chrome.profile
76 25. Jun 14:30 google-chrome-stable.profile
732 25. Jun 14:30 google-chrome-unstable.profile
452 25. Jun 14:30 google-play-music-desktop-player.profile
493 25. Jun 14:30 gpa.profile
542 25. Jun 14:30 gpg-agent.profile
530 25. Jun 14:30 gpg.profile
543 25. Jun 14:30 gpicview.profile
458 25. Jun 14:30 gpredict.profile
55 25. Jun 14:30 gtar.profile
370 25. Jun 14:30 gthumb.profile
501 25. Jun 14:30 guayadeque.profile
535 20. Mai 23:55 gucharmap.profile
424 25. Jun 14:30 gwenview.profile
153 25. Jun 14:30 gzip.profile
425 25. Jun 14:30 hedgewars.profile
632 25. Jun 14:30 hexchat.profile
546 25. Jun 14:30 highlight.profile
544 20. Mai 23:55 hugin.profile
1224 25. Jun 14:30 icecat.profile
445 25. Jun 14:30 icedove.profile
99 25. Jun 14:30 iceweasel.profile
508 25. Jun 14:30 img2txt.profile
302 25. Jun 14:30 inkscape.profile
509 25. Jun 14:30 inox.profile
192 25. Jun 14:30 iridium-browser.profile
631 25. Jun 14:30 iridium.profile
479 25. Jun 14:30 jd-gui.profile
479 8. Mai 23:07 jd-gui.profile
326 25. Jun 14:30 jitsi.profile
475 25. Jun 14:30 k3b.profile
475 8. Mai 23:07 k3b.profile
700 25. Jun 14:30 kate.profile
617 20. Mai 23:55 kcalc.profile
219 25. Jun 14:30 keepass2.profile
400 25. Jun 14:30 keepass.profile
630 25. Jun 14:30 keepassx2.profile
630 8. Mai 23:07 keepassx2.profile
673 25. Jun 14:30 keepassxc.profile
673 8. Mai 23:07 keepassxc.profile
427 25. Jun 14:30 keepassx.profile
665 25. Jun 14:30 kino.profile
665 8. Mai 23:07 kino.profile
356 25. Jun 14:30 kmail.profile
356 21. Apr 13:50 kmail.profile
526 20. Mai 23:55 knotes.profile
545 20. Mai 23:55 kodi.profile
288 25. Jun 14:30 konversation.profile
709 20. Mai 23:55 ktorrent.profile
558 20. Mai 23:55 leafpad.profile
122 25. Jun 14:30 less.profile
400 25. Jun 14:30 libreoffice.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 localc.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 lodraw.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 loffice.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 lofromtemplate.profile
345 25. Jun 14:30 login.users 131 25. Jun 14:30 loimpress.profile
506 25. Jun 14:30 lollypop.profile
506 8. Mai 23:07 lollypop.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 lomath.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 loweb.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 lowriter.profile
349 25. Jun 14:30 luminance-hdr.profile
556 20. Mai 23:55 lximage-qt.profile
579 20. Mai 23:55 lxmusic.profile
263 25. Jun 14:30 lxterminal.profile
533 25. Jun 14:30 lynx.profile
562 20. Mai 23:55 mate-calc.profile
42 20. Mai 23:55 mate-calculator.profile
533 20. Mai 23:55 mate-color-select.profile
579 20. Mai 23:55 mate-dictionary.profile
213 20. Mai 23:55 mathematica.profile
491 25. Jun 14:30 Mathematica.profile
213 8. Mai 23:07 mathematica.profile
387 25. Jun 14:30 mcabber.profile
545 25. Jun 14:30 mediainfo.profile
533 25. Jun 14:30 mediathekview.profile
551 20. Mai 23:55 meld.profile
301 25. Jun 14:30 midori.profile
526 25. Jun 14:30 mousepad.profile
363 25. Jun 14:30 mpv.profile
717 25. Jun 14:30 multimc5.profile
717 8. Mai 23:07 multimc5.profile
734 25. Jun 14:30 mumble.profile
734 8. Mai 23:07 mumble.profile
890 25. Jun 14:30 mupdf.profile
514 25. Jun 14:30 mupen64plus.profile
774 25. Jun 14:30 mutt.profile
859 25. Jun 14:30 nautilus.profile
859 8. Mai 23:07 nautilus.profile
674 20. Mai 23:55 nemo.profile
658 25. Jun 14:30 netsurf.profile
774 25. Jun 14:30 652 20. Mai 23:55 nylas.profile
554 25. Jun 14:30 odt2txt.profile
542 25. Jun 14:30 okular.profile
284 25. Jun 14:30 openbox.profile
294 25. Jun 14:30 openshot.profile
591 25. Jun 14:30 opera-beta.profile
611 25. Jun 14:30 opera.profile
584 20. Mai 23:55 orage.profile
1601 25. Jun 14:30 palemoon.profile
371 25. Jun 14:30 parole.profile
660 20. Mai 23:55 pcmanfm.profile
439 25. Jun 14:30 pdfsam.profile
439 8. Mai 23:07 pdfsam.profile
541 25. Jun 14:30 pdftotext.profile
363 25. Jun 14:30 pidgin.profile
483 25. Jun 14:30 pithos.profile
483 8. Mai 23:07 pithos.profile
412 25. Jun 14:30 pix.profile
503 25. Jun 14:30 pluma.profile
707 25. Jun 14:30 polari.profile
507 25. Jun 14:30 psi-plus.profile
439 25. Jun 14:30 qbittorrent.profile
452 25. Jun 14:30 qemu-launcher.profile
418 25. Jun 14:30 qemu-system-x86_64.profile
560 20. Mai 23:55 qlipper.profile
405 25. Jun 14:30 qpdfview.profile
448 25. Jun 14:30 qtox.profile
222 25. Jun 14:30 quassel.profile
626 25. Jun 14:30 quiterss.profile
813 25. Jun 14:30 qupzilla.profile
533 25. Jun 14:30 qutebrowser.profile
426 25. Jun 14:30 ranger.profile
353 25. Jun 14:30 rhythmbox.profile
574 20. Mai 23:55 ristretto.profile
360 25. Jun 14:30 rtorrent.profile
885 25. Jun 14:30 scribus.profile
885 8. Mai 23:07 scribus.profile
100 25. Jun 14:30 seamonkey-bin.profile
1293 25. Jun 14:30 seamonkey.profile
355 25. Jun 14:30 server.profile
562 25. Jun 14:30 simple-scan.profile
506 25. Jun 14:30 skanlite.profile
267 25. Jun 14:30 skypeforlinux.profile
243 25. Jun 14:30 skype.profile
624 25. Jun 14:30 slack.profile
349 25. Jun 14:30 snap.profile
131 25. Jun 14:30 soffice.profile
844 25. Jun 14:30 spotify.profile
464 25. Jun 14:30 ssh-agent.profile
287 25. Jun 14:30 ssh.profile
603 25. Jun 14:30 start-tor-browser.profile
386 25. Jun 14:30 steam.profile
546 25. Jun 14:30 stellarium.profile
126 25. Jun 14:30 strings.profile
322 25. Jun 14:30 synfigstudio.profile
301 25. Jun 14:30 tar.profile
62 25. Jun 14:30 telegram.profile
208 20. Mai 23:55 Telegram.profile
62 12. Apr 20:18 telegram.profile
208 8. Mai 23:07 Telegram.profile
37 25. Jun 14:30 thunar.profile
725 20. Mai 23:55 Thunar.profile
540 8. Mai 23:07 Thunar.profile
446 25. Jun 14:30 thunderbird.profile
335 25. Jun 14:30 totem.profile
628 25. Jun 14:30 tracker.profile
618 25. Jun 14:30 transmission-cli.profile
460 25. Jun 14:30 transmission-gtk.profile
457 25. Jun 14:30 transmission-qt.profile
591 25. Jun 14:30 transmission-show.profile
441 25. Jun 14:30 uget-gtk.profile
780 25. Jun 14:30 unbound.profile
235 25. Jun 14:30 unrar.profile
223 25. Jun 14:30 unzip.profile
223 25. Jun 14:30 uudeview.profile
702 25. Jun 14:30 uzbl-browser.profile
609 20. Mai 23:55 viewnior.profile
581 20. Mai 23:55 viking.profile
292 25. Jun 14:30 vim.profile
273 25. Jun 14:30 virtualbox.profile
189 20. Mai 23:55 VirtualBox.profile
69 25. Jun 14:30 vivaldi-beta.profile
540 25. Jun 14:30 vivaldi.profile
534 25. Jun 14:30 vivaldi-stable.profile
398 25. Jun 14:30 vlc.profile
547 25. Jun 14:30 w3m.profile
521 25. Jun 14:30 warzone2100.profile
992 25. Jun 14:30 69 25. Jun 14:30 weechat-curses.profile
408 25. Jun 14:30 weechat.profile
689 25. Jun 14:30 wesnoth.profile
497 25. Jun 14:30 wget.profile
497 8. Mai 23:07 wget.profile
746 25. Jun 14:30
284 25. Jun 14:30 wine.profile
676 20. Mai 23:55 wire.profile
203 25. Jun 14:30 Wire.profile
609 25. Jun 14:30 wireshark.profile
609 8. Mai 23:07 wireshark.profile
288 25. Jun 14:30 xchat.profile
497 25. Jun 14:30 xed.profile
922 20. Mai 23:55 Xephyr.profile
531 25. Jun 14:30 xfburn.profile
555 20. Mai 23:55 xfce4-dict.profile
657 20. Mai 23:55 xfce4-notes.profile
676 25. Jun 14:30 xiphos.profile
487 25. Jun 14:30 xmms.profile
225 25. Jun 14:30 xonotic-glx.profile
602 25. Jun 14:30 xonotic.profile
602 8. Mai 23:07 xonotic.profile
225 25. Jun 14:30 xonotic-sdl.profile
352 25. Jun 14:30 xpdf.profile
450 25. Jun 14:30 xplayer.profile
512 25. Jun 14:30 xpra.profile
512 8. Mai 23:07 xpra.profile
450 25. Jun 14:30 xreader.profile
1128 20. Mai 23:55 Xvfb.profile
336 25. Jun 14:30 xviewer.profile
154 25. Jun 14:30 xzdec.profile
54 25. Jun 14:30 xz.profile
530 20. Mai 23:55 youtube-dl.profile
393 25. Jun 14:30 zathura.profile
470 25. Jun 14:30 zoom.profile

firefox.profile (extraction):
caps.drop all
protocol unix,inet,inet6,netlink
OKshell none
# experimental features
# private-bin sh,which,firefox,dbus-send,env,dbus-launch,sh
# private-etc passwd,group,hostname,hosts,localtime,nsswitch.conf,resolv.conf,xdg,gtk-2.0,X11,pango,fonts,firefox,mime.types,mailcap,asound.conf,pulse
private-etc passwd,group,hostname,hosts,resolv.conf,nsswitch.conf,fonts # this works for firefox, konqueror, gftp and so on # private-dev # - prevents video calls going out
noexec /tmp

... or, in order to start konqueror with priority 18 always by mouseclick out of the K-menu, type "sg surfgroup konqueror && renice -n 18 `pidof konqueror` && kded4" resp. with firejail-options into the command-line, after editing the K-menu with kmenuedit. Konqueror loads websites even with process-priority 18 fabolous fast (its like beaming to visit anything anywhere at once with a Spaceship like Enterprise thanks Spock, as if Google has not been there for a long time...).We also started services like the cookie-management for surfuser named kded4. On our linksites we describe by reports and links more enfastening methods for the browser Firefox.

Notice, that there is a patch for firejail (pclos2017) from year 2017/12 firejail-0.9.52-1.x86_64 making the private-option in all cases really effective. This means for our two examples for firejail for konqueror and firefox better to resign from this option for the first time, until firejail might gets reconfgured. To make firejail already work well without this option, we suggest the following configuration. Also notice, that it won´t fit for all programs (although quit all). In this case, single entries might have to be removed or added to store into new configuration files:

#### Especially for Pale Moon (browser) only very much protection can be achieved:

blacklist /mnt
blacklist /media
blacklist /etc/cups
blacklist /usr/local
blacklist /usr/sbin
blacklist /sbin
blacklist /usr/libexec
blacklist /usr/games
blacklist /lib
blacklist /home/toranonym
blacklist /home/user
blacklist /opt
blacklist /usr/lib
blacklist /usr/lib/python*
blacklist /usr/lib64/python*
blacklist /usr/lib/perl*
blacklist /usr/lib64/perl*
blacklist /etc/shadow
blacklist /etc/shadow-
blacklist DOLLARSIGN{HOME}/.wine
blacklist DOLLARSIGN{HOME}/.gnupg
caps.drop all
protocol unix,inet,inet6
OKshell none
#private-bin which,firefox
private-etc passwd,group,hostname,hosts,fonts,nsswitch.conf,xdg,resolv.conf,pango #
#### end Pale Moon (/etc/firejail/palemoon.profile)

OK/etc/firejail/default.profile (preconfigured firejail (fc27, pclos2017, rosa2016.1) from August 2017 can be downloaded from our update section):

# Generic GUI application profile
include /etc/firejail/
include /etc/firejail/
include /etc/firejail/
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.wine
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.gnupg
caps.drop all
# netfilter
protocol unix,inet,inet6
# seccomp
OKshell none # this is very important and suitable for many profiles, even konqueror, kmail and thunderbird, but not all profiles: also notice our comments about /etc/passwd

/etc/firejail/ of firejail (rosa2014.1), alternatively set ACL-rules (setfacl):

OKnoexec /usr/bin/bash # for some profiles like for Konqueror
noexec /bin/bash
# History files in HOME
blacklist-nolog DOLLAR{HOME}/.history
blacklist-nolog {HOME}/.*_history
blacklist {HOME}/.local/share/systemd
blacklist-nolog {HOME}/.adobe
blacklist-nolog {HOME}/.macromedia
read-only {HOME}/.local/share/applications

# X11 session autostart and more
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/Desktop
blacklist {HOME}/*.jar
blacklist {HOME}/logs
blacklist {HOME}/tor-browser
blacklist {HOME}/.xinitrc
blacklist {HOME}/.xprofile
blacklist {HOME}/.config/autostart
blacklist /etc/xdg/autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.kde4/Autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.kde4/share/autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.kde/Autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.kde/share/autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.config/plasma-workspace/shutdown
blacklist {HOME}/.config/plasma-workspace/env
blacklist {HOME}/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.fluxbox/startup
blacklist {HOME}/.config/openbox/autostart
blacklist {HOME}/.config/openbox/environment
blacklist {HOME}/.gnomerc
read-only /etc
read-only /bin
read-only /usr/bin
read-only /usr/etc
read-only /proc
read-only /sys
read-only /dev
blacklist /etc/X11/Xsession.d/
blacklist /media/ # USB-Sticks / USB-Speicherstifte
blacklist /media/sicher/
blacklist /mnt
blacklist /opt
blacklist /misc
blacklist /secoff
blacklist /sid-root
blacklist /lost+found
blacklist /smack
blacklist /srv
blacklist /net
blacklist /initrd
blacklist /intel-ucode
blacklist /boot-save
blacklist /boot
blacklist /cgroup
blacklist /root
read-only /lib
read-only /lib64
read-only /usr/lib
read-only /usr/lib64 # Firefox: "read-only /usr/lib64/lib*" or read-only /usr/lib64/a*, ..., read-only /usr/lib64/z* without the firefox-directory
read-only /usr/lib64/kde4
blacklist /usr/local
blacklist /usr/bin/ssh*
blacklist /usr/src
read-only /usr/bin/firejail
read-only /usr/ssl
read-only /usr/libexec
read-only /usr/uclibc
read-only /usr/X11R6
read-only /usr/x86_64-linux-uclibc
read-only /usr/etc
read-only /usr/com
read-only /usr/docs
read-only /usr/enthought
read-only /usr/GNUstep
read-only /usr/selenium
read-only /usr/man
read-only /usr/mipsel-linux
read-only /usr/i686-w64-mingw32
read-only /usr/i486-linux-libc5
blacklist /bin/kill
blacklist /bin/rm
blacklist /bin/ping
blacklist /bin/mount*
blacklist /bin/umount*
blacklist /bin/ls*
blacklist /bin/sed*
blacklist /bin/rpm
blacklist /bin/pipeline
blacklist /bin/mv
blacklist /bin/cp
blacklist /bin/csh
blacklist /bin/dd
blacklist /bin/chmod
blacklist /bin/chown
blacklist /bin/dash
blacklist /bin/df
blacklist /bin/dmesg
blacklist /bin/ed
blacklist /bin/find
blacklist /bin/grep
blacklist /bin/exec
blacklist /bin/gunzip
blacklist /bin/gzip
blacklist /bin/gzexe
blacklist /bin/ln
blacklist /bin/login
blacklist /bin/lsblk
blacklist /bin/mail
blacklist /bin/mailx
blacklist /bin/mkdir
blacklist /bin/mksh
blacklist /bin/mknod
blacklist /bin/netstat
# blacklist /bin/ps
blacklist /bin/pwd
blacklist /bin/pipeline
blacklist /bin/rmdir
blacklist /bin/tcsh
blacklist /bin/touch
blacklist /bin/vi
blacklist /bin/zsh
blacklist /bin/tar
blacklist /bin/zless
blacklist /bin/zmore
blacklist /bin/more
blacklist /bin/date
blacklist /bin/dmesg
blacklist /bin/ash
blacklist /bin/awk
blacklist /bin/cg*
blacklist /bin/cd
blacklist /bin/bashb*
blacklist /bin/cat
blacklist /bin/env
blacklist /bin/get*
blacklist /bin/for*
blacklist /bin/homeof
blacklist /bin/foreground
blacklist /usr/bin/rpm*
blacklist /usr/bin/srm
blacklist /usr/bin/shred
blacklist /usr/bin/wipe
blacklist /usr/bin/mount*
blacklist /usr/bin/umount*
blacklist /usr/bin/mouse*
blacklist /usr/bin/ls*
# blacklist /usr/bin/r*
# blacklist /usr/bin/a*
# blacklist /usr/bin/c*
# blacklist /usr/bin/e*
# blacklist /usr/bin/f*
# blacklist /usr/bin/h*
# blacklist /usr/bin/i*
# blacklist /usr/bin/j*
# blacklist /usr/bin/perl*
# blacklist /usr/bin/s*
# blacklist /usr/bin/t*
# blacklist /usr/bin/u*
# blacklist /usr/bin/v*
# blacklist /usr/bin/w*
# blacklist /usr/bin/x*
# blacklist /usr/bin/y*
# blacklist /usr/bin/z*
blacklist /usr/libexec/mysql*
blacklist /usr/bin/mysql*
blacklist /usr/share/autostart
read-only /usr/share/cups
read-only /usr/share/cups/model
blacklist /usr/share/doc
blacklist /var/www
blacklist /var/www/html

# VirtualBox blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.VirtualBox
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/VirtualBox VMs
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.config/VirtualBox

# VeraCrypt
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/veracrypt
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/
blacklist /usr/share/veracrypt
blacklist /usr/share/applications/veracrypt.*
blacklist /usr/share/pixmaps/veracrypt.*
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.VeraCrypt

# var
blacklist /var/spool/cron
blacklist /var/spool/anacron
blacklist /var/run/acpid.socket
blacklist /var/run/minissdpd.sock
blacklist /var/run/rpcbind.sock
blacklist /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
blacklist /var/run/mysql/mysqld.sock
blacklist /var/lib/mysqld/mysql.sock
blacklist /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
blacklist /var/run/docker.sock

# etc
blacklist /etc/cron.*
blacklist /etc/profile.d
blacklist /etc/rc.local
blacklist /etc/anacrontab
blacklist /etc/rpc*
blacklist /etc/rpm*
blacklist /etc/rc*
blacklist /etc/init.d
read-only /etc/printcap
blacklist /etc/pmount*
read-only /etc/PolicyKit
read-only /etc/php.ini
read-only /etc/passwd
read-only /etc/paper*
blacklist /etc/mpasswd
blacklist /etc/modprobe*
blacklist /etc/mke2fs*
blacklist /etc/libuser.conf
blacklist /etc/libvirt
blacklist /etc/*
read-only /etc/kde
blacklist /etc/init*
blacklist /etc/incron*
blacklist /etc/resolv.conf
blacklist /etc/host*
blacklist /etc/gshadow*
blacklist /etc/fstab*
blacklist /etc/freshclam*
blacklist /etc/dracut*
read-only /etc/Dir_COLORS*
blacklist /etc/dhcp*
read-only /etc/cups
blacklist /etc/crypttab*
blacklist /etc/cron*
blacklist /etc/csh*
blacklist /etc/cvs*
blacklist /etc/cpu*
blacklist /etc/conntrackd.conf
blacklist /etc/color*
blacklist /etc/cloud
blacklist /etc/clam*
blacklist /etc/chrony*
blacklist /etc/chilli*
read-only /etc/bash*
blacklist /etc/at
blacklist /etc/asound*
blacklist /etc/aide*

# General startup files
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.xinitrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.xserverrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.profile

# Shell startup files
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.antigen
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.bash_login
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.bashrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.bash_profile
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.bash_logout
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zsh.d
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zshenv
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zshrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zshrc.local
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zlogin
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zprofile
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zlogout
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.zsh_files
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.tcshrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.cshrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.csh_files
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.profile
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.gnugp*
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/gnupg

# Initialization files that allow arbitrary command execution
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.caffrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.dotfiles
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/dotfiles
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.mailcap
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.exrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/_exrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.vimrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/_vimrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.gvimrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/_gvimrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.vim
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.emacs read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.emacs.d

read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.nano
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.tmux.conf
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.iscreenrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.muttrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.mutt/muttrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.msmtprc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.reportbugrc
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.xmonad
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/.xscreensaver
read-only /etc/X11
# The user ~/bin directory can override commands such as ls
read-only DOLLAR{HOME}/bin
# top user
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.ssh
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.cert
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.gnome2/keyrings
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.kde4/share/apps/kwallet
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.kde/share/apps/kwallet
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.local/share/kwalletd
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.config/keybase
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.netrc
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.gnupg
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.caff
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.smbcredentials
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/*.kdbx
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/*.kdb
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/*.key
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.muttrc
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.mutt/muttrc
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.msmtprc
blacklist /home/surfuser/.gnupg
blacklist /etc/shadow
blacklist /etc/gshadow
# blacklist /etc/passwd
blacklist /etc/passwd-
blacklist /etc/group-
blacklist /etc/shadow-
blacklist /etc/gshadow-
blacklist /etc/passwd+
blacklist /etc/group+
blacklist /etc/shadow+
blacklist /etc/gshadow+
blacklist /etc/ssh
blacklist /var/backup

# system management
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/umount
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/mount
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/fusermount
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/su
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/sudo
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/xinput
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/evtest
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/xev
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/strace
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/nc
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/ncat

# system directories
blacklist /sbin
blacklist /usr/sbin
blacklist /usr/local/sbin

# prevent lxterminal connecting to an existing lxterminal session
blacklist /tmp/.lxterminal-socket*

# disable terminals running as server resulting in sandbox escape
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/gnome-terminal
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/gnome-terminal.wrapper
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/xfce4-terminal
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/xfce4-terminal.wrapper
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/mate-terminal
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/mate-terminal.wrapper
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/lilyterm
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/pantheon-terminal
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/roxterm
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/roxterm-config
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/terminix
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/urxvtc
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/urxvtcd
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/xterm
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/konsole
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/rxvt
blacklist DOLLAR{PATH}/lxterminal
read-only /etc/firejail
blacklist /usr/bin/ssh*
blacklist /usr/bin/rlogin*
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/.gftp/cache
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/Dokumente
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/Video
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/Bilder
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/Audio
blacklist DOLLAR{HOME}/Texte

Now start Pale Moon (similar Firefox with default.profile instead of palemoon.profile):

knemo && sg surgruppe "firejail --nice=19 --profile=/etc/firejail/palemoon.profile /usr/lib64/palemoon/palemoon --no-remote &" && sg surfgruppe "tor -f /etc/tor/torrc&quto; && export RESOLV_HOST_CONF="/etc/hosts"

It is possible to enter this command-line into a startup under "command." to start Pale Moon by one mouseclick only.

Small disadvantage: Process firejail for the browser has to be killed, before any package-installations are possible. Generally all processed started by the user surfuser can be terminated through the command "killall -u surfuser", as dnsmasq might run under surfuser at least by the command "killall firejail" from time to time, before too many firejail are running, so that all still running firejail-processes terminate. It is recommended to create a small entry with user root in the K-Menu and/or the same entry for the task line.

OKGeneral chroot and suid paranoia
chroot is one of the most powerful possibilities to restrict a daemon or a user or another service. Just imagine a jail around your target, which the target cannot escape from (normally, but there are still a lot of conditions that allow one to escape out of such a jail). You can eventually create a modified root environment for the user or service you do not trust. This can use quite a bit of disk space as you need to copy all needed executables, as well as libraries, into the jail. But then, even if the user does something malicious, the scope of the damage is limited to the jail.
Many services running as daemons could benefit from this sort of arrangement. The daemons that you install with your Debian distribution will not come, however, chrooted per default.
This includes: name servers (such as bind), web servers (such as apache), mail servers (such as sendmail) and ftp servers (such as wu-ftpd). It is probably fair to say that the complexity of BIND is the reason why it has been exposed to a lot of attacks in recent years (see Securing BIND, Section 5.7).
However, Debian does provide some software that can help set up chroot environments. See Making chrooted environments automatically (depicted in the following).
Anyway, if you run any service on your system, you should consider running them as secure as possible. This includes: revoking root privileges, running in a restricted environment (such as a chroot jail) or replacing them with a more secure equivalent.
However, be forewarned that a chroot jail can be broken if the user running in it is the superuser. So, you need to make the service run as a non-privileged user. By limiting its environment you are limiting the world readable/executable files the service can access, thus, you limit the possibilities of a privilege escalation by use of local system security vulnerabilities. Even in this situation you cannot be completely sure that there is no way for a clever attacker to somehow break out of the jail. Using only server programs which have a reputation for being secure is a good additional safety measure. Even minuscule holes like open file handles can be used by a skilled attacker for breaking into the system. After all, chroot was not designed as a security tool but as a testing tool.
Making chrooted environments automatically
There are several programs to chroot automatically servers and services. Debian currently (accepted in May 2002) provides Wietse Venema´s chrootuid in the chrootuid package, as well as compartment and makejail. These programs can be used to set up a restricted environment for executing any program (chrootuid enables you to even run it as a restricted user).
Some of these tools can be used to set up the chroot environment easily. The makejail program for example, can create and update a chroot jail with short configuration files (it provides sample configuration files for bind, apache, postgresql and mysql). It attempts to guess and install into the jail all files required by the daemon using strace, stat and Debian´s package dependencies. More information at Jailer is a similar tool which can be retrieved from and is also available as a Debian package.

But back to our text about LINFW3: Notice, that the NEW-LINE-BLOCK-only of Linfw3 prevents form all hacker except on established connections opened by the surfer, but not from any backdoors resp. trojans! Always try to use the NEW-LINE-BLOCK with the UID-( and/or GID-)owner-concept for surfuser and surfgroup together with the port-concept, while updates can be performed in the same way by root as the surfuser (and/or surfgroup)! Both, ALLOW-ROOT_LOGIN and ROOT_LOGIN shall be set to "no" and all access-rights upon directories and files set adequately. The computer-system will almost get serious hard hacked, if all this is not regarded!

mouseclick-fast work with the computer also has no chance to take into negative effect by following the methods of our excurs. For an always good and fast mount and umount of the USB-stick, actualize the filesystems to reisferfsprogs-3.6.24, e2fsprogs (1.43.2 from September 2016) resp. btrfs and manage the integration of the module usb_storage by modprobe. This module guarantees the fast secure mount and secure unmount of usb-media. To integrate it permanently for mdv2010 and other Linux, type into file /etc/modprobe.preload. If command chattr should keep its function instead, do not update the filesystem for loosing some kind of "id for owner-rights" But in this case, not much gets restricted, if chattr was not used before.

Our extra security-tip: Always click onto networkmanager-applet´s (el6), "exit" after the first dial-in into resp. after building up the first connection to the internet!

MAC Tomoyo profiles: /etc/tomoyo/*, kernel-boot-options security=tomoyo tomoyo=1.

OK # apparmor: application MAC-protection-shield and MAC-kernel-security-module to load within /boot/grub/menu.lst (grub1) by option security=apparmor apparmor=1
# dbus-apparmor& # within /etc/rc.local
# /usr/lib64/apparmorapplet& # /etc/rc.local
# example: apparmor_parser -af /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/usr.lib.firefox.firefox && /usr/bin/firefox # ( resp., still in order not to resign from firejail as introduced: ...&& sg surfgroup "firejail --profile=/etc/firejail/firefox-esr.profile /usr/bin/firefox" )
# /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/* :
885 23. Jul 15:03 bin.netstat
1247 23. Jul 15:03 etc.cron.daily.logrotate
955 23. Jul 15:03 etc.cron.daily.slocate.cron
729 23. Jul 15:03 etc.cron.daily.tmpwatch
1733 23. Jul 15:03 README
1934 23. Jul 15:03 sbin.dhclient
1297 23. Jul 15:03 sbin.dhcpcd
682 23. Jul 15:03 sbin.portmap
855 23. Jul 15:03 sbin.resmgrd
489 23. Jul 15:03 sbin.rpc.lockd
1010 23. Jul 15:03 sbin.rpc.statd
1655 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.acroread
791 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.apropos
4569 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.evolution-2.10
697 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.fam
750 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.freshclam
1918 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.gaim
595 23. Jul 15:03
618 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-bounce
1041 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-maintd
1096 23. Jul 15:03
884 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-process
587 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-recieve
766 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-send
821 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-sub
803 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.mlmmj-unsub
2017 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.opera
1003 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.passwd
1025 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.procmail
1132 23. Jul 15:03
580 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.spamc
904 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.svnserve
1185 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.wireshark
674 23. Jul 15:03 usr.bin.xfs
1022 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib64.GConf.2.gconfd-2
857 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.bonobo.bonobo-activation-server
1258 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.evolution-data-server.evolution-data-server-1.10
1604 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.firefox.firefox
386 23. Jul 15:03
654 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.firefox.mozilla-xremote-client
1018 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.GConf.2.gconfd-2
1230 23. Jul 15:03
889 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.anvil
2101 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.bounce
1269 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.cleanup
530 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.discard
626 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.error
1701 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.flush
624 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.lmtp
1839 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.local
1887 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.master
2443 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.nqmgr
607 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.oqmgr
859 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.pickup
497 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.pipe
709 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.proxymap
2464 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.qmgr
626 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.qmqpd
670 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.scache
2260 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.showq
1842 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.smtp
2120 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.smtpd
626 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.spawn
791 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.tlsmgr
904 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.trivial-rewrite
628 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.verify
788 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.postfix.virtual
1339 23. Jul 15:03 usr.lib.RealPlayer10.realplay
1074 23. Jul 15:03 usr.NX.bin.nxclient
1120 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.cupsd
864 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.dhcpd
6148 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork
818 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.imapd
652 23. Jul 15:03
1279 23. Jul 15:03
590 23. Jul 15:03
825 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.ipop2d
825 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.ipop3d
1365 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.lighttpd
756 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.mysqld
920 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.nmbd
830 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.oidentd
735 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.popper
1331 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.postalias
1017 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.postdrop
829 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.postmap
1091 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.postqueue
3435 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.sendmail
2061 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.sendmail.postfix
1564 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.sendmail.sendmail
946 25. Mai 2012 usr.sbin.slapd
1140 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.smbd
1068 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.spamd
1686 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.squid
3691 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.sshd
1310 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.useradd
1344 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.userdel
1073 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.vsftpd
2413 23. Jul 15:03 usr.sbin.xinetd


We never got any delays during the secure umount of USB-sticks anymore.

mdv2010 mouseclick-fast: Linux runs faster than Windows: mouseclick-fast mdv2010 on SSD. The code of Linux seems to be architectured and optimized well. Nevertheless even Linux can run slow too. Before we ask us, how this can happen and which software to install, we are interested in cpu and RAM killing daemons to deinstall resp. remove from harddisc. That are processes running in the background, for what we need a good process-manager indicating resource-consumption in percent. Therefore we have to start programs like ptree, "ps -All", Systemüberwachung or just by pressing the keys "ESC" and "STRG". In our case packagekit with an enormous consumption of around always 40% was found out to install him for el6, same for nspluginwrapper, leading us to set chmod 000 /usr/bin/nspluginscan. Think about kio_thumbnail, that gets started sometimes for creating symbols within the filemanager for certain files, in dolphin depending on the configuration for preview. The capacities reducing process named "prelinking" should almost be tolerated instead:

"prelink is a program that modifies ELF shared libraries and ELF dynamically linked binaries in such a way, that the time needed for the dynamic linker to perform relocations at startup significantly decreases. Due to fewer relocations, the run-time memory consumption decreases as well (especially the number of unshareable pages). The prelinking information is only used at startup time if none of the dependent libraries have changed since prelinking; otherwise programs are relocated normally."

Depending on configuration in MCC-security, msec_find checks periodically, during the boot or never. In MCC, security, periodical checks you can set many msec-checks from daily to weekly, even better to "manual", if your mainboard does not have more than one #SMP (CPU). After surfing as surfuser or other communications within the net, all processes started by surfuser should be killed again: killall -u surfuser. See our data-sheed: With our decision for mdv2010 and a SSD this aim got reached once more. Also beware the recommended frequency for the RAM-Modules mentioned in the manual the mainboard not to plug in one of a lower frequency. Then all went mouseclick fast already by the mainboard model DDR2 533 Mhz (or higher) 19W, that is recommended in the data sheed below. We already got 533Mhz-nonames assembled in Germany - for free before ... working fine (in spite of DDR2 Kingston 1GB 333 Mhz)! Do not forget: The computer-system with SSD is running once more mouseclick fast, if hdparm (omv2015, rosa2014.1, el7, el6) and sdparm (omv2015, rosa2014.1, el7, el6) is installed.

SSD resp. HDD capacity used <=80%

Boot-problems, do you have any problems during the booting? Just press the key for "i" for the interactive mode past the short message with udev. Now, by dialogs, it is possible to start each process manually or to resign from a process during the booting. On problems with the X-Server (graphic-card driver), start all processes except the display manager named "dm". On runlevel four less then five the terminal helps to enter all kind of commands to do the next things (like reinstalling the device driver or downgrading the X-Server from mdv2010.2 to mdv2010.0 by rpm again). Be careful with the installation of further kernel, as some links in /boot (boot-partition) can mismatch refering to the settings in /boot/grub/menu.lst. Then you have to relink them by ";ln -sf TARGET linkfile" by booting with a repair-CD, a repair-USB-stick or a backuped, mirrored media (we do recommend anyway), in order to mount the boot-partition.

SSD-harddiscs are even better than the manufacturer do specify
publised article from 18. Juni 2014, 08:38 from admin,
SSDs are the better replacement for magnetic harddrives, for there do not consist of any mobile parts and hence they are up to 100 × faster during reads and 20 × durings writes and they seemed to be work quit endless. Test show, that they do not only work superfast, but also endure ten times longer as their manunfacturer promise. You can read the explicit test report on Golem.

Online update sources: (FTP-downloads, here for el6, el7, mdv and mga) and http// (http-downloads for el6, el7, fc down to fc xx, mga down to mga xx), (http- and ftp-downloads, el6, el7, all popular distros and versions)

The many security-checks within MCC, especially sectools, should be set from "daily", "monthly" and so on to "manually", in order to prevent irritating backgroud-processes.

MCC gives the opportunity in Network->,Network-Center to enable and disable tcp-timestamp, tcp-windows-scaling and dynamic IPv6. IPv6 uses static IP, so latter disabling is recommended.

29. October 2014, 08:49 Uhr, heise open
"The CentOS-team has released Version 6.6 of their Linux-distribution. It sources in Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) with the same version number Red Hat published two weeks ago. Therefore the new CentOS includes all improvements, under it a plenty of new and actualized driver, a device-mapper-target for the mount of a SSD as a cache for slow storage-media and the intergration of the High Performance Networking (HPN) that was costly up to now. You can get CentOS for free. It promises compatiblity to many distributions and is going to be fostered for a long time. Therefore the already some years old CentOS 6 can be updated by security updates unteil the 30 of november 2020. Scientificlinux alias CentOS 6.7 is the second clone of RHEL 6.6, for Oracle has released the also cloned from this Oracle Linux 6.6 some days ago."

We found many packages by name already in SuSE 7.3 from year 2003 and Mandrake mdk10.0 from year 2004. The code of their includes must be read out well and better each day. Actual Gentoo-GLSA provides one of the best overview of updates for Linux:, descended ordered by time. Typical cases for updates refer to arbitrary code execution, multiple vulnerabilities (especially buffer overflow), denial of service and information disclosure.In order to make the installation of listed updates possible, glibc has to be actualized. Not all updates from the listed ones like cpio should be installed, while those for tar, bzip, freetype rpm, openssl (tarball) and many other ones do function. Try the belonging tarballs or downgrade again, if not. Notice, that updates provided for the distribution, except named exceptions below, are almost sufficient, for mdv2010.1 and mdv2010.2 you can find them on is a good installation and update source for most linux distribution except Debian (with its own deb-packages). Before a computer system gets updated, it always should be secured completely! For detailed troubleshooting, cases we did not have with mdv2010, sources out of the internet and newsgroup alt.linux.suse might be helpfuf too.

Linux permanently gets functional extended and therefore also the applications and libraries. Packet-Versions change as the distribution its version (by their own version-numbers) do. In order to make a distribution error-free like in our example mdv2010, use a linux-friendly mainboard and install only those packets (and tarballs), that are belonging to the same installed version of a most complex distribution past 2003. In our example they are always ending with "...mdv2010". Pakets of next higher versions like mdv2011 should interest only after upgrading the glibc adequately or experimental. Nevertheless, also think of all the updates referring to the same distribution and its version, marked by name ending with "...version[distributionversion).update-number". To find such packages, take the installation-DVD/CD and make queries for resp. mirror There, in the resulting listings, all packages are named explicitly in that way, that means by belonging distribution and version, but this might be the exception For mdv2010 a kernel-upgrade to mdv2012 by rpm-packages is possible. We do not recommend to change the distribution from mandriva to any other except many packages from Scientificlinux resp. ALT Linux resp. CentOS 6.7.

Does mdv2010 meet Fedora, actual fc23? Although mdv2010.1 and especially 2010.2 do not need any updates, you can upgrade mdv2010 to any actual linux, by installing the downward compatible C-standard-library glibc of rosa2014.1, mdv2012 or mga3 without rpm glibc itself out of glib2.0-common (fastest: actual pateched el6 or the sixtimes patched one from rosa2014.1 or mga3), glibc (mga7, mga5, rosa2014.1), glibc-utils (mga7, mga5, el6, rosa2014.1 or mga3), glibc-profile (mga7, mga5, rosa2014.1 or mga3), glibc-static (el6) or glibc-static-devel (rosa2014.1, mga3), glibc-devel (rosa2014.1 or mga3), glibc-i18ndata (mga7, mga5, rosa2014.1 or mga3), glibc_lsb (mga3), libc6, mm-common (mga3), lib64glimm2 (mdv2010), gettext (rosa2014.1 or mga3), lib64gettext-misc (rosa2014.1), lib64gettextpo0 (rosa2014.1), lib64intl8 (rosa2014.1), lib64png16 (rosa2014.1), glib-networking (el6), lib64nspr4, lib64nss3, locales (rosa2014.1 or mga3), locales-en, locales-de, locales-fr, and further more locales and the C++-standard-library stdcc++, all for x86_64 and i586, by ";rpm -U --force --nodeps". For glibc DO NOT INSTALL MORE mga3 OR mdv2012 than the listed ones! Now the hugh gate to any ultimative-mouseclick-fast working linux world on SSD, even actual linux like today´s Fedora core 24, has opened for largest amount of software ever (even if not all of it)! You can upgrade and downgrade like by "elevators" reaching floors of distros and versions provided by listings from Warning: This does not function with all glibc without needing many other packages! You do not need them anymore. We repeat that software should do its function, while the rest is almost made secure by our excurs. After that we might install an actual version of the filesytem like e2fsprogs (1.43.2), reiserfsprogs (omv2015, mdv2011 or el7, el6), btrfsprogs and many updates recommended by Gentoo-GLSA, url see below. At last for our Linux-tuning, following the new filesystem-rpm, copy all files of /lib to /usr/lib, /lib64/* to /usr/lib64, /bin/* to /usr/bin, /sbin/* to /usr/sbin. After all the operations upon glibc, Linux is not able to run faster in future.

glibc (mga7, mga5, rosa, mga3, mdv2012) complete for x86_64 (64 bit cpu), analogous i586 (32 bit), without making any problems: glibc (mga7, mga5), glibc-devel, libc6, glibc-i18ndata (mga7, mga5), glibc-profile (mga7, mga5), glibc-utils (mga7, mga5), glibc_lsb, gettext, locales, locales-en, locales-de, ..., gettext-base, lib64gettext-misc, lib64gettext-po0, lib64intl8, lib64png16, glib-gettextsize, glib-networking, glib2.0-common, lib64gio2, lib64glib-networking, lib64glib2.0, lib64glib2.0-devel, lib64glibmm2, lib64gmodule2, lib64gobject2, lib64ffi6, lib64gthread2, lib64stdc++, lib64QtGlib2.0, lib64packagekit-glib2 and prelink or glib2 (el7 or el6 instead of lib64gthread2 (rosa2014.1), lib64gio2 (rosa2014.1) and lib64gobject2 (rosa2014.1), we installed this one for this is el6 )

We decided us for the following GNU C Standard Library glibc:

glibc (mga7, mga5, rosa2014.1), libc6 (rosa2014.1), compat-glibc (el6), glibc-common (el6), glibc-i18ndata (mga7, mga5, rosa2014.1), glibc-headers (el6), glibc-static (el6), glibc-utils (mga7, mga5, el6), glibc-profile (mga7, mga5, rosa2014.1), glibc-glibc_lsb (rosa2014.1), locales (rosa2014.1), glib2 (el6), prelink (rosa2014.1), lib64stdc++ (fc, pclos, mga, rosa2014.1 und el6) oder auch alles mga7, mga5 oder rosa2014.1

Paket-manager drakrpm offers the option named like "store in cache" in the menu for the seldom cases, where dependencies of packages are not solved correctly. Whenever this happens, downloaded packages should be copied from /var/cache/urpmi/rpm resp. /var/cache/urpmi/partial to any secure place for reinstallaton.

Depending on the graphic-card-driver x11-driver-video-name, for our platform with name=intel choose the X11-Server for mdv2010.0 even before mdv2010.1 refering to all files beginning with x11-server by name. Library-packages have to be installed for the X-Server too that are quit unknown in this context for you. To go sure with the X11-server of mdv2010.1, install all library-packages (lib64....rpm) you need for the program-packages at first, before the installation of the X-Server of mdv2010.1 takes place. So one of the last packages to update are those for the X-Server of mdv2010.1!

Either a programm is working or it is not, that means, it does its introduced functions or it does not. In the first case updates are seldom needed!

Be careful with the installation of many el6-packages. Some can restrict the functionality of mdv2010 (el6, el7), for expample usermode can effect the call by mouseclick of MCC. So collect all previous installed rpm of mdv2010 in a directory for possible reinstallation needs.

For SMP#1 (mainboard with one CPU only), wallpaper´s fly mode of a wallpaper is not recommended.

Method for prevention: already mentioned encryption of the partitons of the harddrive, also from USB-media, at least the encryption of some certain files. You see by all the already red marked passages and text: Although we dare to talk about security for the computer and although all payed amounts and sums in conjunction with computer should be transfered back, of course it is never learnt out.

Data backup and restore

Always keep all installation-packets accessible. During installation phases, even mdv2010 can conflict in some unsolved of the quit infinite package-dependencies.Check out some programs, if the stell do start and run. If the shell or any program does not, use a terminal to start them in order to watch out error-messages as the cause (for packages) why not, in more serious cases use the prefix strace: "strace command-executable-file". If mdv is not booting correctly, the key "i" should be pressed to get into the interactive mode, where almost all should be started except the displaymanager dm.

You can save your SSD possibly forever! Not only two SSD or one more harddrive are needed, you also need a bootable USB-stick or Mindi or Mondo or a Knoppix from DVD resp. on a 250 MB sized partition to execute the command dd for the backup and restore of partitions.

Recommended (PCWelt, 08.08.2015) commands are rsync or fontend grsync, alternatively rdiff, all packages resp. commands are provided for mdv2010. For SSD, in order to save power, work reliable and abstract, we recommend one more SSD or a magnetic backup harddisk, where partitions have to be mirrored 1:1 by partiton manager, rsync its helpful frontend grsync, the command rdiff or special mirror-commands. Such commands full of options really do their best, even over SSH. But for local backups and restores, that means, if you ask us, we just prefer the simple command dd resp. safecopy, depictied below: unbeatbale! Although SSDs do not like dd very much by taking their time with it, dd always seems to reach its end at any time (dd works around 1 GiB per Minute refering to our SSD), or use dd-replacement safecopy, if not. Notice, that dd still does not provide any progress-bar. But do not believe in fairy tales as this certain country is known for, perfer dd, as for example neither the operating system nor oneself does know exactly, what all to backup, which partitions, directories and files, in order to pevent the worst one can happen: new installation, problems during restauration, file manipulation after hacker attacks with vandalism and/or data loss. So resign from so called backup-programs by backuping and restoring always 1:1-partitionwise with dd, here partition sda1 onto partition sdb1:

dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/sdb1

If you want to be even more clever for making backups than even dd allows, use dcfldd. This el6-rpm works on mdv2010 like dd, but does show a progressbar. Some more extensions enable fexible-disc-wipes, an resume on error, the estimation of md5-checksums using additional options like "hash=md5" and "md5log=md5.txt" and splitting the output-files.

Although with dd all data backups managed well, even on SSD, it is warned against the use of this command for SSD. :
dd does fills unused and empty sectors and blocks with zero, so that the essential spare-area of SSD will not be free anymore. Even the for speed (access-times) important alignment becomes absurd. The amount of write-operarations shortens its life-time.
Therefore the command cp and rsync are recommended.[...]
Clonezilla advantages in transferring only the non-empty blocks during the data-transfer.

Linux-Bot-Net, Heartbleed, Shellshock, glibc-Patch, Bad Cow, ... on the way to Zero Updates, zero Patches and zero Bugfixes

Following distribution offer updates for mdv2010: omv2015, mga, rosa2014, mdv, fc, el7 and el6.

In msec, set "allow-root-login" to "yes", during the updating processes, in order to guarantee the usage of bash-commands and the work with the package-manager rpm.

Make a 1:1-partitionswise backup on an extern media by reliable (even on encrypted partitions) working commands like dd from rescue-DVD or Linux on USB-stick, that can be used for restoring too.

One more aim of updating is to set "allow-root-login" again back to "no", to move all logfiles to shm- (RAM-) directory /tmp, to set the root-partition to "ro" (read-only) and to deactivate the journalling feature of linux-filesystems. This is performed at the very end of this section for reiserfs.

Many cases like bash with the so called Shellshock, glibc, Linux-botnets and openSSL and so on tell us about the of essentiality updates.

Security leak "Dirty Cow" within the Linux-kernel enpossibles prohibited extension of access rights:ücke-im-linux-kernel-ermöglicht-lokale-rechteausweitung.html. In this report apparmor is mentioned, that might generally help. Start apparmor in the background for example in /etc/rc.local by /usr/lib64/apparmorapplet&
This security-lack is known by kernel-developer for many years. Nevertheless, with linfw3 and msec configured as introduced, Dirty Cow becomes no risk, as an intrusion into the system is conditioned, regardless from patching the kernel or not. Kernel 4.20.13 (PCLinuxOS2019) with mkinitrd (pclos, rosa, mga2), nash (pclos, rosa, mga2), dracut (el6: Version 004 (leads into manual LUKS-password request even in the case of existing password-key-file!, mdv2011: Version 008)) and glibc (pclos, mga6) resp. kernel (mdv2011) can be patched with patches from year 2011 up to date from We made good experiences with this patched kernel.

Plenty of packages of mdv2010 resp. mdv2011 can be updated with CentOS 6, CentOS 7, Rosa2014.1 and Rosa2012, except KDE-Akonadi-Nepomuk for interal dependency (mdv2010: Version 4.4.5) and a few single packages. KDE can be updated completely.

KDE 4.4.5 includes many updates as mentioned by the report from year 2008: "For the release of 4.2 the KDE-Team fixed thousand errors and builds in many new features missed in KDE 4.2. This beta release gives the oppurtunity to check last errors and bugs. The KDE Team has published a list with significant improvements in 4.2 Beta 2. Since the first beta less than four weeks ago, 1.665 new errors were found out and 2.243 ones got corrected. Sine the release of KDE 4.1.0 more than 10.000 errors wth a strong view upon the stability of KDE 4.2 were fixed Past KDE 4.2 many monthly updates are expected and finally, in summer 2009, KDE 4.3. Signficant improvements of Plasma and KWin, the KDE Workspace... ."

Our KDE solution: KDE as a mix out of kde 4.4.5/4.4.9 (mdv2010.2, November 2011), kde-4.3.4 (el6, actual patched up to year 2020) and kde (4.4.4, OpenSuSE 11.2, end of year 2013)

By mdv2010.0, mdv2010.1, mdv2010.2 and some mdv2011.0, most versions and releases of RPM-packages got fixed and patched well for functionality for around two years- similar to el6 and el7 from year 2010 to 2020. . All update-rpm listed below will lead into an up to year 2020 actual, well functioning Linux. Only the two up to five times patched KDE 4.4.5 (mdv2010.2) is not upgraded. You can keep it or try KDE (omv2015) or KDE of mandriva-successor Rosa2014.1 from for example. In the case of dependency-conflicts, dare to install by package-manager rpm with the option --force and --nodeps (analog Debian), if you keep the preceeding packages beneath you and if you care for the installation packages that are still required, listed by rpm during the installation-process.

Except for Browser, bash and OpenSSL, mdv2010 and Linfw3 make it possible: processes for net-connections (inclusive server resp. all daemons resp. services to activate explicilty) have to be started, build-up and therefore posessed only by the password-protected user "surfuser" belonging to group "surfgroup", while LINFW3 is blocking all other processes not started by surfuser, even those owned by root. The next thing, Linfw3 does, is opening only those ports belonging to such activated services. Furthermore it should be not allowed to chroot, while surfuser is not a member of any user and not any group except surfgroup. To login as root, a root-login should generally not be allowed by configuration (MCC, security settings), and a user must be a member of the group wheel, in order to login as root, what can reduce the time for different works without riscing to much, if LINFW3 protecting with UID-owner surfuser and GID-owner gets activated. Using MCC security an accessless root access can be configured for the command su. In the device-configuration-file /etc/fstab It is also possible, to set the option "noexec" each partition, especially for the partition including the files owned by the user "surfuser". Then the configuration of file-release within LAN and access-rights for directories and files can even prevent the reading of directories and files with sensible data ("chown non-surfuser; chmod 700"): the concept of UNIX-(file)systems! Its a remaining matter of communication-protocols themselves, that can be used (build-up) by the password-protected surfuser through belonging port-releases only. To be more careful than careful, move all sensilbe data to a one more encryted partition or an encrypted extern media, that should be plugged in or read again only the time, suspect services are not activated (when belonging connections are not build-up). This fact is described more in detail below in our section for LINFW3. You can even resign from many updates. But nevertheless, to go sure (over sure) as promised, we are going to describe, how mdv2010 can be kept uptodate almost by the until 2020 actualized Scientificlinux alias CentOS 6 resp 7.

Good luck: Unix/Linux always consists in main of the same software, kernel, grub/lilo, dracut, glibc, X11-Server, window- and desktop-manager like Gnome and KDE with konqueror and kpim out of kmail, knodes, clamav, firefox, OpenOffice and koffice, gimp and so on. In comparison with non OpenSource, this opensource is checked many times for it is read out well. Notice, that many new updates, patches and bugfixes listed in for mdv and GLSA Gentoo just rely on functionality extensions. Therefore, do not use them. They might not work!

Everything of mdv2010 will run fine and stable on your SSD, except the KDE leading to sink plasmoid Daisy, belonging to the plasmoids like such for the wheather-forecast for example, exchanging data with extern sources. You can always deinstall and deactivate such insecure behaving plasmoids. Although the upgrade of glibc to rosa2014.1, mga3 or higher widens the possibilities, mdv2010 bewares its sensibilities in the case of the installation of wrong packages, that can lead to serious hard system-breakdowns and hangups. Think like the MCC-packet-manager. Beware previous installed packages, until mdv2010 runs stable (reinstallation: rpm -U --force and/or --nodeps).

Have a look into the changelog of each packet. There you get to know about all modificiations by date and the name of the day of the week in descending order, the modification time, name resp. e-mail-adresse of each author (programmer), who has programmed the modification and a short description of the modification itself. It must be at last the publishing organisation, who has checked all this information out using tools like diff. Some updated resp. patched packages can be found out immediately by their high version release number (el6 and el7) like NetworkManager-xxxx-107 (el6), where 99 stands for the 99th release or in addition by the number after the point at the end of the version number (mdk, mdv, mga) like NetworkManager-xxxx-25.2, where "2" stands for the second patch of the version´s release. If the version number differs in the first ciphers, the package almost contains serious hard changes. If the version number differs in end-ciphers only from the already installed one, it gets more likely, that you can use this package for replacement. Right before the version number resp. the end of the package name the short name for the belonging distribution, followed by the kind of processor is named resp. the "noarch" in the case of independency from the processor type. A third person not named in the changelog and list of the packager names would have as much difficulties with the manipulation of the packets as cracking and hacking the computer with the rpm-command and the files on the storage media.

Filesystem, you have several opportunities: reiserfsprogs (omv2015, omv2014) or reiserfs-utils (fc23, el7, el6), e2fsprogs (1.43.2) with lib64ext2fs (rosa2014.1) without uClibc (omv2014, omv2015), uclibc-lib64ext2fs (omv2014, omv2015)
reiserfs-3.6.24-8.5 (OpenSuSE Factory) with libreiserfs, libreiserfs-progs and libreiserfscore0.
The harddrive (SSD) causes errors for some reiserfs-versions during the system boot and checks by reiserfsck. Therefore our choice consists of reiserfsprogs (omv2015) and e2fprogs (rosa2014.1) together with lib64ext2fs (rosa2014.1)- causing no errors anymore.

hdparm (omv2015, rosa2014.1, el7, el6) and sdparm (omv2015, rosa2014.1, el7, el6): adequate SSD-parameters within /etc/rc.local (hdparm -W1a0A0 /dev/sda) support our aim: all on SSD and mouseclick-fast! MCC, gparted and disk manager Palimpsest provides overview, some administration, benchmarks and partitioning.

Notice, that all package-dependencies have to be installed with one package. Otherwise this can cause a state similar to buffe-overrflows, where CPU and RAM seem to have lost their capacities quit working endless.

Next point: specific microcode-update for the CPU. For the mainboard we introduce in data-sheed, ucode-intel (OpenSuSE) and ucode-intel-blob (OpenSuSE) should be installed to follow our aim of mouseclick-fast PC-working.

All updates (since) mdv2007.0 and mdv2010 do regulary refer to, and this is the advantage of UNIX-Systems: buggish software (not much for mentioned mdv), all net-communication-programs like proxy (squid,...), MySQL, telephony, the browser (using ssl3.0 instead of tls as reported by three members of the Google-Team, that means all firefox up to an actual resp. TLS-using version 34 ( unpacking an easy by menu updateable, actual firefox into a directory like /usr/lib64/firefox and choosing "Update Firefox" out of the menu (same for Thunderbird into /usr/lib64/thunderbird), updating firefox in detail, see our section updating firefox. Such

How to block scripts and ads with an ad- resp. script-blocker like and adblockplus is much more simple than presented by their typical large resource-killing blocking-lists full of pregiven exceptions:
At first all blocking-scripts like easylist have to be removed out of AdblockPlus resp. other adblocker. Many of them contain exceptions. The special convenience for (more) exceptions has to be deactivated too by clicking upon the hook, so that the hook does not appear anymore.
Now, like firewall linfw3, the "trusted"-strategy, "forbidden is, what is not (explicitly) allowed" should be followed.
Therefore the only existant private ad- resp. scriptfilter should just include the following entries:

OK or just the one single char for a star:
for all, that could ever be blocked from a website!
That´s all ! It is not a bad idea to allow all stylesheets (css) by adding the one more entry @@*.css* right at the top of the filter list. Brave ones risk webbugs filtered out by other extensions and add @@*.jpg* , @@*.jpeg*, @@*.gif* and @@*.png* too. Filter-lists from elsewhere like the up-to-date to keep EasyList with their many exceptions are not needed anymore! They just were nonsens, as no more entries are needed (eventually except some more top-sublevel-domains (country-codes) in addition to "*.de/*".

So a single char for the star apriori "*"does already do its very best!

Our final solution: Our complete ABP- resp. ABL-filter-list, especially at the very beginning, just has got the includes:

ABP (Firefox <= ESR 52.9.0):

ABL (Pale Moon):

without any further entries and without any imported filter-lists (full of exceptions and superfluous rules) like EasyList.

Good luck: These few snake-speeded entries do not influence the surf-speed measurable much.

In order to make visible now, what should in your eyes be visible from a loaded website, EXCEPTION by exception should be added to the list almost using wildcards resp. regular expressions after the build-up of the side, until the hidden (blocked) parts get visible. At first, if the css-entry should be missing, think of all Stylesheets (css) to consider as exceptions, while especially most or all Javscript (.js) should still be blocked. To go sure, block *.js and *.pl beneath the general "*" from above in future (as already made in our list above). Enter exceptions for not shown images (if belonging exceptions from above should still be missing) by entries like https://.../*.jpg and https://.../*.png too.
After that, the webside should be loaded one more time (refresh) and JavaScript should be disabled again for the next certain time by "javascript.enabled false" passing "about:config". If the filters of ABP resp. ABL are set as recommended above, beware for Firefox-ESR (and, if you want, also Pale Moon) "javascript.enabled true" as all javascript is already filtered out. Listed extensions will really work fine, if set to true.

Do the same with Firefox-Extension RequestPolicyBlockedContinued just to be even more careful or to do it more additionally, as unknown Tracker already got blocked with their first appearance, until they get allowed by the user.

In the first configuration window set all three hooks, therewith new rules entered can be stored durable and not only temporary.

Next configuration window deals with the ruleset. Enter a new rule by electing "block" and entering a * (star) again into all fields for the new rule. Now the self-blockade of a webside (resp. server) has to be prevented by allowing the belonging rule just for the trusted server itself. If not, images and other objects might get blocked.

There are pregiven rules within the ruleset of RequestPolicyBlockContinued located in a directory far sub /home/surfuser/.mozilla/firefox/default-or-standard-profile with the some json-typed files like allow_functionality.json, allow_sameorg.json and so on, that can also be overworked, if you want..

The private mode should be deactivated by clicking upon settings in Firefox ESR, although this won´t be the truth, that means he won´t become really deactivated through using extension Private Tabs. Or take it the other way: activate the private mode and deactivate him by clicking upon the TAB to deactivate the private mode through Private TAB.

Did we mention it, didn´t you know? PHP- and Perl-scripts are interpreted always at first and serversided each website load, before the Javascript and HTML is interpreted client-sided (on the side of the surfer resp. user).

. In the hope,.that user.js from KaiRaven and other authors is copied into the standard-profile-directory, that linfw3 and firejail got installed and configured, /etc/hosts from far below of this website is located and the DNS (in the priority local followed by remote and pdnsd) configured well, the surfing with Firefox ESR can right begin!

During the surfing, noscript and RequestBlockPolicyContinued have to be analyzed past the load of a website. It is your own, free choice to filter out or to pass listed scripts by. If a webseite requires cookies, they can be allowed by the CookieController.

All, that has to be done now after the configuration of listed extensions too, is to start the browser and to click upon the first and only appearing TAB to make it private (working in private mode).

Nevertheless what we have seen works on the base of "trusted" like linfw3 and openssl upon ssl-certificates and so on might do.
But AdblockPlus changed its layout in November 2017 making such configuration impossible. Try elder versions downloadable from named mozilla-adblockplus-2.9.1-1 (fc28, fc27, el7, el6), noscript: mozilla-noscript (fc28, fc27, el7, el6).

Noscript can enforce ssl-encryption (https) of addressed websites, by entering in a great text-input-field of register HTTPS:


Write exceptions below each other in the field below. Firefox-extension https.everywhere is not needed anymore. .

The important Firefox-security-extension RequestPolicyBlockedContinued might contain some pre-defined rules, but it also enables the adding of temporary as much as persistent new rules for user. They might be set generally under target and therefore not under start, using * for any port. You might want to set them for extern loaded fonts and google like *syndication*:*/*, *analytics*:*/*, *tagmanager*:*/*, *usercontent*.*:*, *google.*:*/* and other targets.

OKSearchplugins (for integrated in search engines) of Firefox /usr/lib64/firefox/browser/searchplugins can be removed except one. If you remove all, the context menu might not build up completely, for example copy and paste of text and links might not function anymore.
To go sure, remove the search-parameters within the remaining xml-searchplugin by a text-editor like nano.

OKIncognito-Mode: Protecting the privacy during the surfing,, 06.04.2018
Windows-10-Browser Edge as well as Google Chrome and Firefox provide a mode keeping from tracking the PC.
[...] Firefox-users have to click upon the icon with the three horizontal bars right up in the menu to choose "private windows" or by pressing the keys STRG-P.,3450334

OKCertifcates: Following permissions can be set to the values "Always-ask", "allow" and "block" for each website by clicking on the symbol for the lock and register "Permissions":

OKRemove (quit) all URL resp. URI the browser (including Pale Moon and Tor-Browser) has stored and lists through about:config
about:config -> type into the address-search-line http -> remove listed URL by clicking upon them and exchanging them through a blank (empty string).

Access Your Location
Intall Add-ons
Load Images
Maintain Offline Storage
Open Pop-up Window
Receive Notifications
Set Cookies
Share the Screen
Use the Camera
Use the Microphone

OKFinally do not forget to follow instructions of following report for the configuration of firefox by "about:config": Firefox Tuning zur Absicherung und Anonymisierung, (!!!)
There the configuration of almost overwritten values out of about:config should happen through mozilla.cfg. But this does not work. The include of this file has to be taken over (copied) from mozilla.cfg (installation directory) into defaults/local-settings.js. Now the "forgotten" values are almost set in Firefox ESR.

* /home/surfuser/.mozilla/firefox/your_default_profile_directory00-or-so/user.js *
* *

// section TOR-BROWSER (ff-ESR) only
// ===================================================
// The meek-http-helper extension uses dump to write its listening port number
/// to stdout.
/user_pref("browser.dom.window.dump.enabled", true);
/// Enable SPDY and HTTP/2 as they are in Firefox 38, for a matching ALPN
// extension.
user_pref("network.http.spdy.enabled", true);
user_pref("network.http.spdy.enabled.http2", true);
user_pref("network.http.spdy.enabled.http2draft", true);
user_pref("network.http.spdy.enabled.v3-1", true);

// Disable safe mode. In case of a crash, we Don´t want to prompt for a
// safe-mode browser that has extensions disabled.
user_pref("toolkit.startup.max_resumed_crashes", -1);

// end section TOR-BROWSER
// Set a failsafe blackhole proxy of, to prevent network interaction
// in case the user manages to open this profile with a normal browser UI (i.e.,
// not headless with the meek-http-helper extension running). Port 9 is
// "discard", so it should work as a blackhole whether the port is open or
// closed. network.proxy.type=1 means "Manual proxy configuration".
user_pref("network.proxy.type", 1);
user_pref("network.proxy.socks", "");
user_pref("network.proxy.socks_port", 9);
// Make sure DNS is also blackholed. network.proxy.socks_remote_dns is
// overridden by meek-http-helper at startup.
user_pref("canvas.capturestream.enabled", false);
user_pref("security.csp.experimentalEnabled", true);
user_pref("privacy.firstparty.isolate", true);
user_pref("privacy.popups.disable_from_plugins", 3);
user_pref("privacy.permissionPrompts.showCloseButton", true);
user_pref("privacy.popups.disable_from_plugins", 3);
user_pref("privacy.resistFingerprinting", true);
user_pref("security.data_uri.block_toplevel_data_uri_navigations", true);
user_pref("security.family_safety.mode", 0);
user_pref("social.directories", "");
user_pref("svg.disabled", true);
user_pref("extensions.enabledAddons", "");
// recommended for Firefox-ESR
// listed settings contribute to anonymizing and increasing speed of firefox up to 100%
// copy to /home/user/.mozilla/firefox/*your_profile_default_directory/
// PREF: Disable Service Workers
// NOTICE: Disabling ServiceWorkers breaks functionality on some sites (Google Street View...)
// Unknown security implications
// CVE-2016-5259, CVE-2016-2812, CVE-2016-1949, CVE-2016-5287 (fixed)
user_pref("dom.serviceWorkers.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable Web Workers
// NOTICE: Disabling Web Workers breaks "Download as ZIP" functionality on, WhatsApp Web and probably others
user_pref("dom.workers.enabled", false);

user_pref("browser.tabs.closeWindowWithLastTab", false);

// PREF: Disable web notifications
user_pref("dom.webnotifications.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable DOM timing API
user_pref("dom.enable_performance", false);

// PREF: Make sure the User Timing API does not provide a new high resolution timestamp
user_pref("dom.enable_user_timing", false);

// PREF: Disable Web Audio API
user_pref("dom.webaudio.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable Location-Aware Browsing (geolocation)
user_pref("geo.enabled", false);

// PREF: When geolocation is enabled, use Mozilla geolocation service instead of Google
user_pref("geo.wifi.uri", "");

// PREF: When geolocation is enabled, don´t log geolocation requests to the console
user_pref("geo.wifi.logging.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable raw TCP socket support (mozTCPSocket)
user_pref("dom.mozTCPSocket.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable DOM storage (disabled)
// NOTICE-DISABLED: Disabling DOM storage is known to cause`TypeError: localStorage is null` errors
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Disable leaking network/browser connection information via Javascript
// Network Information API provides general information about the system´s connection type (WiFi, cellular, etc.)
user_pref("dom.netinfo.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable network API (Firefox< 32)
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Disable WebRTC entirely to prevent leaking internal IP addresses (Firefox< 42)
// NOTICE: Disabling WebRTC breaks peer-to-peer file sharing tools ( ...)
user_pref("media.peerconnection.enabled", false);

// PREF: Don´t reveal your internal IP when WebRTC is enabled (Firefox>= 42)
user_pref("", true); // Firefox 42-51
user_pref("", true); // Firefox>= 52

// PREF: Disable WebRTC getUserMedia, screen sharing, audio capture, video capture
user_pref("media.navigator.enabled", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("media.getusermedia.screensharing.enabled", false);
user_pref("media.getusermedia.audiocapture.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable battery API (Firefox< 52)
user_pref("dom.battery.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable telephony API
user_pref("dom.telephony.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable "beacon" asynchronous HTTP transfers (used for analytics)
user_pref("beacon.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable clipboard event detection (onCut/onCopy/onPaste) via Javascript
// NOTICE: Disabling clipboard events breaks Ctrl+C/X/V copy/cut/paste functionaility in JS-based web applications (Google Docs...)
user_pref("dom.event.clipboardevents.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable "copy to clipboard" functionality via Javascript (Firefox>= 41)
// NOTICE: Disabling clipboard operations will break legitimate JS-based "copy to clipboard" functionality
user_pref("dom.allow_cut_copy", false);

// PREF: Disable speech recognition
user_pref("media.webspeech.recognition.enable", false);

// PREF: Disable speech synthesis
user_pref("media.webspeech.synth.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable sensor API
user_pref("device.sensors.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable pinging URIs specified in HTML<a> ping= attributes
user_pref("browser.send_pings", false);

// PREF: When browser pings are enabled, only allow pinging the same host as the origin page
user_pref("browser.send_pings.require_same_host", true);

// PREF: Disable IndexedDB (disabled)
// NOTICE-DISABLED: IndexedDB could be used for tracking purposes, but is required for some add-ons to work (notably uBlock), so is left enabled
user_pref("dom.indexedDB.enabled", false);

// TODO: "Access Your Location" "Maintain Offline Storage" "Show Notifications"

// PREF: Disable gamepad API to prevent USB device enumeration
user_pref("dom.gamepad.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable virtual reality devices APIs
user_pref("dom.vr.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable vibrator API
user_pref("dom.vibrator.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable resource timing API
user_pref("dom.enable_resource_timing", false);

// PREF: Disable Archive API (Firefox< 54)
user_pref("dom.archivereader.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable webGL
user_pref("webgl.disabled", true);
// PREF: When webGL is enabled, use the minimum capability mode
user_pref("webgl.min_capability_mode", true);
// PREF: When webGL is enabled, disable webGL extensions
user_pref("webgl.disable-extensions", true);
// PREF: When webGL is enabled, force enabling it even when layer acceleration is not supported
user_pref("webgl.disable-fail-if-major-performance-caveat", true);
// PREF: When webGL is enabled, do not expose information about the graphics driver
user_pref("webgl.enable-debug-renderer-info", false);
// somewhat related...
user_pref("pdfjs.enableWebGL", false);

// PREF: Spoof dual-core CPU
user_pref("dom.maxHardwareConcurrency", 2);

* SECTION: Misc *

// PREF: Disable face detection
user_pref("camera.control.face_detection.enabled", false);

// PREF: Set the default search engine to DuckDuckGo (disabled)
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("keyword.URL", "");

// PREF: Disable GeoIP lookup on your address to set default search engine region
user_pref("", "US");
user_pref("", "US");
user_pref("", "");

// PREF: Set Accept-Language HTTP header to en-US regardless of Firefox localization
user_pref("intl.accept_languages", "en-us, en");

// PREF: Don´t use OS values to determine locale, force using Firefox locale setting
user_pref("intl.locale.matchOS", false);

// PREF: Don´t use Mozilla-provided location-specific search engines
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Do not automatically send selection to clipboard on some Linux platforms
user_pref("clipboard.autocopy", false);

// PREF: Prevent leaking application locale/date format using JavaScript
user_pref("javascript.use_us_english_locale", true);

// PREF: Do not submit invalid URIs entered in the address bar to the default search engine
user_pref("keyword.enabled", false);

// PREF: Don´t trim HTTP off of URLs in the address bar.
user_pref("browser.urlbar.trimURLs", false);

// PREF: Don´t try to guess domain names when entering an invalid domain name in URL bar
user_pref("browser.fixup.alternate.enabled", false);

// PREF: When browser.fixup.alternate.enabled is enabled, strip password from ´user:password@...´ URLs
user_pref("browser.fixup.hide_user_pass", true);

// PREF: Send DNS request through SOCKS when SOCKS proxying is in use
//user_pref("NETWORK.PROXY.SOCKS_REMOTE_DNS", false);

// PREF: Don´t monitor OS online/offline connection state
user_pref("network.manage-offline-status", false);

// PREF: Enforce Mixed Active Content Blocking
user_pref("security.mixed_content.block_active_content", true);

// PREF: Enforce Mixed Passive Content blocking (a.k.a. Mixed Display Content)
// NOTICE: Enabling Mixed Display Content blocking can prevent images/styles... from loading properly when connection to the website is only partially secured
user_pref("security.mixed_content.block_display_content", false);

// PREF: Disable JAR from opening Unsafe File Types
// CIS Mozilla Firefox 24 ESR v1.0.0 - 3.7
user_pref("", false);

// CIS 2.7.4 Disable Scripting of Plugins by JavaScript
user_pref("security.xpconnect.plugin.unrestricted", false);

// PREF: Set File URI Origin Policy
// CIS Mozilla Firefox 24 ESR v1.0.0 - 3.8
user_pref("security.fileuri.strict_origin_policy", true);

// PREF: Disable Displaying Javascript in History URLs
// CIS 2.3.6
user_pref("browser.urlbar.filter.javascript", true);

// PREF: Disable asm.js
user_pref("javascript.options.asmjs", false);

// PREF: Disable SVG in OpenType fonts
user_pref("gfx.font_rendering.opentype_svg.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable in-content SVG rendering (Firefox>= 53)
// NOTICE: Disabling SVG support breaks many UI elements on many sites
user_pref("svg.disabled", false);

// PREF: Disable video stats to reduce fingerprinting threat
user_pref("media.video_stats.enabled", false);

// PREF: Don´t reveal build ID
// Value taken from Tor Browser
user_pref("general.buildID.override", "20100101");
user_pref("browser.startup.homepage_override.buildID", "20100101");

// PREF: Prevent font fingerprinting
// from
user_pref("browser.display.use_document_fonts", 0);
user_pref("gfx.downloadable_fonts.enabled", false);
user_pref("gfx.downloadable_fonts.woff2.enabled", false);
user_pref("layout.css.font-loading-api.enabled", false);
user_pref("gfx.downloadable_fonts.disable_cache", true);
user_pref("gfx.font_rendering.graphite.enabled", false);
user_pref("layout.css.prefixes.font-features", false);
user_pref("javascript.use_us_english_locale", true);
user_pref("network.http.accept-encoding", "gzip, deflate");
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.capacity", 0);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.enable", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk_cache_ssl", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.memory.enable", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.offline.capacity", 0);
user_pref("browser.cache.offline.enable", false);
user_pref("image.cache.size", 0);
user_pref("devtools.cache.disabled", true);
user_pref("dom.caches.enabled", false);
user_pref("media.cache_size", 0);
user_pref("offline-apps.allow_by_default", false);
user_pref("signon.formlessCapture.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.blockedURIs.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.enabled", false)user_pref(";
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.enabled.pname.dll/so", false);
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.timeoutSecs", -1);
user_pref("media.eme.enabled", false);
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("media.eme.apiVisible", false);
user_pref("browser.startup.homepage_override.buildID", 0);
user_pref("browser.eme.ui.enabled ", true);
user_pref("plugin.default.state", 0);
user_pref("plugin.defaultXpi.state", 0);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.opentabfor.middleclick", true);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("browser.taskbar.previews.enable", true);
user_pref("config.trim_on_minimize", true);
user_pref("middlemouse.paste", true);
user_pref("browser.fixup.alternate.suffix", ".com");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.appname", "Microsoft Internet Explorer");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.appversion", "4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.description", "Internet Explorer 6 (Windows XP)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.platform", "Win32");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.useragent", "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.appname", "Netscape");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.appversion", "4.8 [de] (Windows NT 5.1; U)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.description", "Netscape 4.8 (Windows XP)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.platform", "Win32");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.useragent", "Mozilla/4.8 [de] (Windows NT 5.1; U)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.appname", "Opera");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.appversion", "7.54 (Windows NT 5.1; U)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.description", "Opera 7.54 (Windows XP)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.platform", "Win32");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.useragent", "Opera/7.54 (Windows NT 5.1; U) [de]");
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("useragentswitcher.reset.onclose", false);
user_pref("useragentswitcher.user.agents.count", 3);
user_pref("accessibility.typeaheadfind", false);
user_pref("accessibility.typeaheadfind.flashBar", 0);
user_pref("browser.display.screen_resolution", 96);
user_pref("browser.history_expire_days", 1);
user_pref("", 2);
user_pref("browser.xul.error_pages.enabled", false);
user_pref("extensions.update.lastUpdateDate", 1099489430);
user_pref("", "/tmp2");
user_pref("browser.dom.window.dump.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.offline", false);
user_pref("browser.preferences.lastpanel", 5);
user_pref(""; "");
user_pref("browser.tabs.loadInBackground", false);
user_pref("downloadmgr.showWhenStarting", true);
user_pref("javascript.options.parallel.parsing", false);
user_pref("javascript.options.strict", true);
user_pref("javascript.options.native_regexp", true);
user_pref("javascript.options.mem.gc_per_zone", true);
user_pref("javascript.options.mem.gc_refresh_frame_slices_enabled", true);
user_pref("font.internaluseonly.changed", false);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.formdata", false);
user_pref("privacy.donottrackheader.enabled", true);
user_pref("privacy.popups.showBrowserMessage", false);
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.migrateFx3Prefs", true);
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.timeSpan", 0);
user_pref("privacy.firstparty.isolate", true); // ff>=58 once more against Canvas Fingerprinting
user_pref("services.sync.declinedEngines", "");
user_pref("storage.vacuum.last.index", 1);
user_pref("storage.vacuum.last.places.sqlite", 1509303910);
user_pref("network.http.max-connections", 32);

user_pref("browser.cache.disk.parent_directory" "/tmp"); // siehe /etc/fstab
user_pref("", true); // *
user_pref("extensions.checkCompatibility", false);
user_pref("browser.sessionstore.resume_session_once", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.matchBehavior", 2);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.matchOnlyTyped", true);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.maxRichResults", 0);
user_pref("network.http.keep-alive.timeout", 115);
user_pref("network.http.connection-timeout", 90);
user_pref("network.http:connection-retry-timeout", 250);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.menubar", true);
user_pref("keyword.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.maxRichResults", 0);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.clickSelectsAll", false);
user_pref("browser.backspace_action", 2);
user_pref("general.smoothScroll", true);
user_pref("browser.showQuitWarning", false);
user_pref("", 4000);
user_pref("accessibility.typeaheadfind", true);
user_pref("accessibility.typeaheadfind.flashBar", 0);
user_pref("app.releaseNotesURL", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("app.update.backgroundErrors", 1);
user_pref("app.update.backgroundMaxErrors", 1);
user_pref("app.vendorURL", "");
user_pref("breakpad.reportURL", "");
user_pref("browser.allTabs.previews", false);
user_pref("browser.autofocus", false);
user_pref("browser.bookmarks.restore_default_bookmarks", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.filesystem_reported", 1);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.parent_directory", "/tmp");
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.first_run", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.use_old_max", false);
user_pref("browser.contentHandlers.types.0.uri", "");
user_pref("browser.crashReports.unsubmittedCheck.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.ctrlTab.previews", false);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("browser.display.screen_resolution", 96);
user_pref("", 2);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("browser.fixup.alternate.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.formfill.saveHttpsForms", false);
user_pref("browser.fullscreen.animateUp", 0);
user_pref("browser.fullscreen.autohide", false);
user_pref("browser.geolocation.warning.infoURL", "");
user_pref("browser.getdevtools.url", "");
user_pref("browser.history_expire_days", 1);
user_pref("", 2);
user_pref("", 1);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("browser.migration.version", 19);
user_pref("browser.mixedcontent.warning.infoURL", "");
user_pref("browser.newtab.choice", 0);
user_pref("browser.newtab.url", "about:blank");
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.columns", 0);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.enabled", true);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.rows", 0);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.storageVersion", 1);
user_pref("browser.offline", false);
user_pref("browser.pagethumbnails.storage_version", 3);
user_pref("browser.places.smartBookmarksVersion", 4);
user_pref("browser.preferences.advanced.selectedTabIndex", 2);
user_pref("browser.preferences.lastpanel", 5);
user_pref("browser.preferences.privacy.selectedTabIndex", 2);
user_pref("browser.privatebrowsing.autostart", true);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.blockedURIs.enabled", true);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.enabled", false);
user_pref("", "US");
user_pref("", "Ecosia");
user_pref("", 1);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "US");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("browser.selfsupport.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.selfsupport.url", "");
user_pref("browser.send_pings.max_per_link", 0);
user_pref("browser.sessionhistory.max_entries", 5);
user_pref("browser.sessionhistory.max_total_viewers", -1);
user_pref("browser.sessionstore.privacy level", 2);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.averageTime", 0);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.maxSamples", 0);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.notificationDisabled", true);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.samples", 0);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("browser.startup.homepage", "about::blank");
user_pref("browser.ustartup.homepage_override.mstone", "ignore");
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("browser.syncPromoViewsLeftMap", "{\"addons\":0,\"bookmarks\":0}");
user_pref("browser.tabs.closeWindowWithLastTab", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.crashReporting.sendReport", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.loadInBackground", false);
user_pref("browser.taskbar.previews.enable", true);
user_pref("browser.trackingprotection.gethashURL", "");
user_pref("browser.trackingprotection.updateURL", "");
user_pref("browser.urlbar.clickSelectsAll", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.matchBehavior", 2);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.matchOnlyTyped", true);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.maxRichResults", 0);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.suggest.bookmark", false);
user_pref("browser.xul.error_pages.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.zoom.siteSpecific", false);
user_pref("camera.control.face_detection.enabled", false);
user_pref("clipboard.autocopy", false);
user_pref("config.trim_on_minimize", true);
user_pref("device.sensors.enabled", false);
user_pref("devtools.browserconcole.filter.csslog", false);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("devtools.gcli.jquerySrc", "");
user_pref("devtools.gcli.lodashSrc", "");
user_pref("devtools.gcli.underscoreSrc", "");
user_pref("", "{}");
user_pref("devtools.toolbox.selectedTool", "inspector");
user_pref("devtools.toolsidebar-height.inspector", 350);
user_pref("devtools.toolsidebar-width.inspector", 350);
user_pref("devtools.webconsole.filter.csslogbrowserconcole.filter.csslog", false);
user_pref("disabletarget.extensions", "zip rar exe tar jar xpi gzip gz ace bin");
user_pref("dom.allow_cut_copy", false);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_move_resize", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.close", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.menubar", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.minimizable", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.personalbar", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.scrollbars", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.titlebar", true);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_open_feature.toolbar", true);
user_pref("dom.enable_performance", false);
user_pref("dom.enable_resource_timing", false);
user_pref("dom.enable_user_timing", false);
user_pref("dom.event.contextmenu.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.gamepad.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.idle-observers-api.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.indexedDB.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.enabled.pname.dll/so", false);
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.timeoutSecs", -1);
user_pref("dom.keyboardevent.code.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.maxHardwareConcurrency", 2);
user_pref("dom.mozApps.signed_apps_installable_from", "");
user_pref("dom.mozInputMethod.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.mozTCPSocket.enabled", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("dom.popup_allowed_events", "change click dblclick mouseup pointerup notificationclick reset submit touchend");
user_pref("dom.popup_maximum", 1);
user_pref("dom.server-events.enabled", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("dom.vibrator.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.webaudio.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.webnotifications.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.workers.enabled", false);
user_pref("downloadmgr.showWhenStarting", true);
user_pref("experiments.enabled", false);
user_pref("experiments.manifest.uri", "");
user_pref("experiments.supported", false);
user_pref("network.allow-experiments", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.insertRelatedAfterCurrent", true);
user_pref("browser.ctrlTab.previews", false);
user_pref("network.prefetch-next", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.animate", true);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.clickSelectsAll", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.animate", true);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.enabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.healthreport.uploadEnabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.policy.dataSubmissionEnabled", false);
user_pref("falsedatareporting.policy.dataSubmissionEnabled", false);
user_pref("browser.selfsupport.url", "");
user_pref("services.sync.engine.tabs", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.addons", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.bookmarks", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.history", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.passwords", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.prefs", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.tabs", true);
user_pref("services.sync.fxa.privacyURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.fxa.termsURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.jpake.serverURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.migrated", true);
user_pref("services.sync.nextSync", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.safebrowsing.phishing.enabled", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.sessionstore.restore_on_demand", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.urlbar.autocomplete.enabled", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.urlbar.suggest.searches", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.spellchecker.dictionary", false);
user_pref("services.sync.privacyURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.serverURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.tabs.lastSync", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.tabs.lastSyncLocal", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.addons.trustedSourceHostnames", "");
user_pref("services.sync.clients.lastSync", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.clients.lastSyncLocal", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.declinedEngines", "");
user_pref("services.sync.engine.addons", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.bookmarks", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.history", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.passwords", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.prefs", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.tabs", false);
user_pref("browser.sessionhistory.max_total_viewers", 0);
user_pref("network.http.max-connections-per-server", 8);
user_pref("network.http.proxy.pipelining", false); // eventl. true
user_pref("browser.urlbar.clickSelectsAll", false);
user_pref("zoom.maxPercent", 300);
user_pref("zoom.minPercent", 30);
user_pref("security.dialog_enable_delay", 0);
user_pref("view_source.editor.external", false);
user_pref("view_source.editor.path", "");
user_pref("", 4000);
user_pref("browser.fullscreen.autohide", false);
user_pref("extensions.getAddons.maxResults", 15);
user_pref("media.getusermedia.screensharing.allowed_domains", ""); //, ...
// PREF: Enable only whitelisted URL protocol handlers

// PREF: Enable only whitelisted URL protocol handlers
// NOTICE: Disabling nonessential protocols breaks all interaction with custom protocols such as mailto:, irc:, magnet: ... and breaks opening third-party mail/messaging/torrent/... clients when clicking on links with these protocols
// TODO: Add externally-handled protocols from Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 (currently contains protocols only from Linux and Windows 7) that might pose a similar threat (see e.g.
// TODO: Add externally-handled protocols from Mac OS X that might pose a similar threat (see e.g.
// If you want to enable a protocol, set network.protocol-handler.expose.(protocol) to true and network.protocol-handler.external.(protocol) to:
// * true, if the protocol should be handled by an external application
// * false, if the protocol should be handled internally by Firefox
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.warn-external-default", true);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.http", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.https", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.javascript", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.moz-extension", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.ftp", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.file", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.about", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.external.blob", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose-all", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.http", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.https", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.javascript", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.moz-extension", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.ftp", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.file", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.about", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("network.protocol-handler.expose.blob", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("browser.sessionhistory.max_entries", 5);
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.processLaunchTimeoutSecs", 45);
user_pref("network.http.pipelining.ssl", false);
user_pref("network.negotiate-auth.using-native-gsslib", true);
user_pref("network.predictor.enable-hover-on-ssl", true);
user_pref("security.ssl.enable_alpn", true);
user_pref("security.ssl.enable_false_start", true);
user_pref("security.ssl.enable_npn", true);
user_pref("security.ssl.errorReporting.automatic", false);
user_pref("security.ssl.false_start.require-npn", false);
user_pref("security.ssl.require_safe_negotiation", false); //
user_pref("security.ssl.treat_unsafe_negotiation_as_broken", false); //
user_pref("security.ssl.enable_alpn", true);
user_pref("webchannel.allowObject.urlWhitelist" "");
user_pref("clipboard.plainTextOnly", true);
user_pref("devtools.remote.wifi.scan", false);
user_pref("toolkit.cosmeticAnimations.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.battery.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.disable_window_*", true);
user_pref("dom.event.clipboardevents.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.gamepad.*.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.mapped_arraybuffer.enabled", false);
user_pref("offline-apps.quota.warn", false);
user_pref("dom.w3c_touch_events.enabled", false);
user_pref("dom.webkitBlink.filesystem.enabled", false);

* SECTION: Extensions / plugins *

// PREF: Ensure you have a security delay when installing add-ons (milliseconds)
user_pref("security.dialog_enable_delay", 1000);

// PREF: Require signatures
//; needed for extensions like FireGloves etc.
user_pref("xpinstall.signatures.required", false);

// PREF: Opt-out of add-on metadata updates
user_pref("extensions.getAddons.cache.enabled", false);

// PREF: Opt-out of themes (Persona) updates
user_pref("lightweightThemes.update.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable Flash Player NPAPI plugin
user_pref("plugin.state.flash", 0);

// PREF: Disable Java NPAPI plugin
user_pref("", 0);

// PREF: Disable sending Flash Player crash reports
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.flash.subprocess.crashreporter.enabled", false);

// PREF: When Flash crash reports are enabled, don´t send the visited URL in the crash report
user_pref("dom.ipc.plugins.reportCrashURL", false);

// PREF: When Flash is enabled, download and use Mozilla SWF URIs blocklist
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.blockedURIs.enabled", true);

// PREF: Disable Shumway (Mozilla Flash renderer)
user_pref("shumway.disabled", true);

// PREF: Disable Gnome Shell Integration NPAPI plugin
user_pref("plugin.state.libgnome-shell-browser-plugin", 0);

// PREF: Disable the bundled OpenH264 video codec (disabled)
user_pref("media.gmp-provider.enabled", false);

// PREF: Enable plugins click-to-play
user_pref("plugins.click_to_play", false);

// PREF: Updates addons automatically
user_pref("extensions.update.enabled", false);

// PREF: Enable add-on and certificate blocklists (OneCRL) from Mozilla
// Updated at interval defined in extensions.blocklist.interval (default: 86400)
user_pref("extensions.blocklist.enabled", true);
user_pref("services.blocklist.update_enabled", true);

// PREF: Decrease system information leakage to Mozilla blocklist update servers
user_pref("extensions.blocklist.url", "");

* SECTION: Firefox (anti-)features / components * *

// PREF: Disable WebIDE
user_pref("devtools.webide.enabled", false);
user_pref("devtools.webide.autoinstallADBHelper", false);
user_pref("devtools.webide.autoinstallFxdtAdapters", false);

// PREF: Disable remote debugging
user_pref("devtools.debugger.remote-enabled", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("devtools.debugger.force-local", true);

// PREF: Disable Mozilla telemetry/experiments
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.enabled", false);
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.unified", false);
user_pref("experiments.supported", false);
user_pref("experiments.enabled", false);
user_pref("experiments.manifest.uri", "");

// PREF: Disallow Necko to do A/B testing
user_pref("network.allow-experiments", false);

// PREF: Disable sending Firefox crash reports to Mozilla servers
// A list of submitted crash reports can be found at about:crashes
user_pref("breakpad.reportURL", "");

// PREF: Disable sending reports of tab crashes to Mozilla (about:tabcrashed), don´t nag user about unsent crash reports
user_pref("browser.tabs.crashReporting.sendReport", false);
user_pref("browser.crashReports.unsubmittedCheck.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable FlyWeb (discovery of LAN/proximity IoT devices that expose a Web interface)
user_pref("dom.flyweb.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable the UITour backend
user_pref("browser.uitour.enabled", false);

// PREF: Enable Firefox Tracking Protection
user_pref("privacy.trackingprotection.enabled", true);
user_pref("privacy.trackingprotection.pbmode.enabled", true);

// PREF: Enable contextual identity Containers feature (Firefox>= 52)
// NOTICE: Containers are not available in Private Browsing mode
user_pref("privacy.userContext.enabled", true);

// PREF: Enable hardening against various fingerprinting vectors (Tor Uplift project)
user_pref("privacy.resistFingerprinting", true);

// PREF: Disable the built-in PDF viewer
user_pref("pdfjs.disabled", true);

// PREF: Disable collection/sending of the health report (healthreport.sqlite*)
user_pref("datareporting.healthreport.uploadEnabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.healthreport.service.enabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.policy.dataSubmissionEnabled", false);

// PREF: Disable Heartbeat (Mozilla user rating telemetry)
user_pref("browser.selfsupport.url", "");

// PREF: Disable Firefox Hello (disabled) (Firefox< 49)
// NOTICE-DISABLED: Firefox Hello requires setting `media.peerconnection.enabled` and `media.getusermedia.screensharing.enabled` to true, `security.OCSP.require` to false to work.
user_pref("loop.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable Firefox Hello metrics collection
user_pref("loop.logDomains", false);

// PREF: Enable Auto Update (disabled)
// NOTICE: Fully automatic updates are disabled and left to package management systems on Linux. Windows users may want to change this setting.
// CIS 2.1.1
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Enforce checking for Firefox updates
// NOTICE: Update check page might incorrectly report Firefox ESR as out-of-date
user_pref("app.update.enabled", false);

// PREF: Enable blocking reported web forgeries
// CIS 2.3.4
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.enabled", false); // Firefox< 50
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.phishing.enabled", false); // firefox>= 50

// PREF: Enable blocking reported attack sites
// CIS 2.3.5
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable querying Google Application Reputation database for downloaded binary files
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable Pocket
user_pref("browser.pocket.enabled", false);
user_pref("extensions.pocket.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable SHIELD
user_pref("extensions.shield-recipe-client.enabled", false);
user_pref("app.shield.optoutstudies.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable "Recommended by Pocket" in Firefox Quantum
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.activity-stream.feeds.section.topstories", false);

* SECTION: Automatic connections *

// PREF: Disable prefetching of<link rel="next"> URLs
user_pref("network.prefetch-next", false);

user_pref("network.dns.disableIPv6", true);
// PREF: Disable DNS prefetching
user_pref("network.dns.disablePrefetch", false);
user_pref("network.dns.disablePrefetchFromHTTPS", false);

// PREF: Disable the predictive service (Necko)
user_pref("network.predictor.enabled", false);

// PREF: Reject .onion hostnames before passing the to DNS
// RFC 7686
user_pref("network.dns.blockDotOnion", true);

// PREF: Disable search suggestions in the search bar
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Disable "Show search suggestions in location bar results"
user_pref("browser.urlbar.suggest.searches", false);
// PREF: When using the location bar, don´t suggest URLs from browsing history
user_pref("browser.urlbar.suggest.history", false);

// PREF: Disable SSDP
user_pref("browser.casting.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable automatic downloading of OpenH264 codec
user_pref("media.gmp-gmpopenh264.enabled", false);
user_pref("media.gmp-manager.url", "");

// PREF: Disable speculative pre-connections
user_pref("network.http.speculative-parallel-limit", 0);

// PREF: Disable downloading homepage snippets/messages from Mozilla
user_pref("browser.aboutHomeSnippets.updateUrl", "");

// PREF: Never check updates for search engines
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Disable automatic captive portal detection (Firefox>= 52.0)
user_pref("network.captive-portal-service.enabled", false);


// PREF: Disallow NTLMv1
user_pref("network.negotiate-auth.allow-insecure-ntlm-v1", false);
// it is still allowed through HTTPS. uncomment the following to disable it completely.
//user_pref("network.negotiate-auth.allow-insecure-ntlm-v1-https", false);

// PREF: Enable CSP 1.1 script-nonce directive support
user_pref("security.csp.experimentalEnabled", true);

// PREF: Enable Content Security Policy (CSP)
user_pref("security.csp.enable", true);

// PREF: Enable Subresource Integrity
user_pref("security.sri.enable", true);

// PREF: DNT HTTP header (disabled)
// NOTICE: Do No Track must be enabled manually
user_pref("privacy.donottrackheader.enabled", true);

// PREF: Send a referer header with the target URI as the source
// NOTICE: Spoofing referers breaks functionality on websites relying on authentic referer headers
// NOTICE: Spoofing referers breaks visualisation of 3rd-party sites on the Lightbeam addon
// NOTICE: Spoofing referers disables CSRF protection on some login pages not implementing origin-header/cookie+token based CSRF protection
// TODO:, commented-out XOriginPolicy/XOriginTrimmingPolicy = 2 prefs
user_pref("network.http.referer.spoofSource", true);

// PREF: Don´t send referer headers when following links across different domains (disabled)
user_pref("network.http.referer.XOriginPolicy", 2);

// PREF: Accept Only 1st Party Cookies
// NOTICE: Blocking 3rd-party cookies breaks a number of payment gateways
// CIS 2.5.1
// set 1: cookies from third parties only, 2: no cookies (2 recommended, if extension cookie-controller is installed)
user_pref("network.cookie.cookieBehavior", 2);
// PREF: Make sure that third-party cookies (if enabled) never persist beyond the session.
// user_pref("network.cookie.thirdparty.sessionOnly", false);

// PREF: Spoof User-agent (disabled)
user_pref("general.useragent.override", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; rv:45.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/45.0");
user_pref("general.appname.override", "Netscape");
user_pref("general.appversion.override", "5.0 (Windows)");
user_pref("general.platform.override", "Win64");
user_pref("general.oscpu.override", "Windows NT 6.1");

* SECTION: Caching *

// PREF: Permanently enable private browsing mode
// NOTICE: You can not view or inspect cookies when in private browsing:
// NOTICE: When Javascript is enabled, Websites can detect use of Private Browsing mode
// NOTICE: Private browsing breaks Kerberos authentication
// NOTICE: Disables "Containers" functionality (see below)
// NOTICE: "Always use private browsing mode" (browser.privatebrowsing.autostart) disables the possibility to use password manager:
user_pref("browser.privatebrowsing.autostart", true);

// PREF: Do not download URLs for the offline cache
user_pref("browser.cache.offline.enable", false);

// PREF: Clear history when Firefox closes
// NOTICE: Installing user.js will remove your browsing history, caches and local storage.
// NOTICE: Installing user.js **will remove your saved passwords** (
// NOTICE: Clearing open windows on Firefox exit causes 2 windows to open when Firefox starts
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.sanitizeOnShutdown", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.cache", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.cookies", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.downloads", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.formdata", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.history", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.offlineApps", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.sessions", true);
user_pref("privacy.clearOnShutdown.openWindows", false); // must be set to false, in order to prevent from two loading window instances on startup

// PREF: Set time range to "Everything" as default in "Clear Recent History"
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.timeSpan", 0);

// PREF: Clear everything but "Site Preferences" in "Clear Recent History"
user_pref("privacy.cpd.offlineApps", true);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.cache", true);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.cookies", true);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.downloads", true);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.formdata", true);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.history", true);
user_pref("privacy.cpd.sessions", true);

// PREF: Don´t remember browsing history
user_pref("places.history.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable disk cache
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.enable", false);

// PREF: Disable memory cache (disabled)
user_pref("browser.cache.memory.enable", false);

// PREF: Disable Caching of SSL Pages
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.5.8
user_pref("browser.cache.disk_cache_ssl", false);

// PREF: Disable download history
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.5.5
user_pref("", 0);

// PREF: Disable password manager
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.5.2
user_pref("signon.rememberSignons", false);

// PREF: Disable form autofill, don´t save information entered in web page forms and the Search Bar
user_pref("browser.formfill.enable", false);

// PREF: Cookies expires at the end of the session (when the browser closes)
user_pref("network.cookie.lifetimePolicy", 2);

// PREF: Require manual intervention to autofill known username/passwords sign-in forms
user_pref("signon.autofillForms", false);

// PREF: Disable formless login capture
user_pref("signon.formlessCapture.enabled", false);

// PREF: When username/password autofill is enabled, still disable it on non-HTTPS sites
user_pref("signon.autofillForms.http", false);

// PREF: Show in-content login form warning UI for insecure login fields
user_pref("security.insecure_field_warning.contextual.enabled", true);

// PREF: Disable the password manager for pages with autocomplete=off (disabled)
// Does not prevent any kind of auto-completion (see browser.formfill.enable, signon.autofillForms)
user_pref("signon.storeWhenAutocompleteOff", false);

// PREF: Delete Search and Form History
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.5.6
user_pref("browser.formfill.expire_days", 0);

// PREF: Clear SSL Form Session Data
// Store extra session data for unencrypted (non-HTTPS) sites only.
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.5.7
// NOTE: CIS says 1, we use 2
user_pref("browser.sessionstore.privacy_level", 2);

// PREF: Delete temporary files on exit
user_pref("browser.helperApps.deleteTempFileOnExit", true);

// PREF: Do not create screenshots of visited pages (relates to the "new tab page" feature)
user_pref("browser.pagethumbnails.capturing_disabled", true);

// PREF: Don´t fetch and permanently store favicons for Windows .URL shortcuts created by drag and drop
// NOTICE: .URL shortcut files will be created with a generic icon
// Favicons are stored as .ico files in DOLLARSIGNprofile_dir\shortcutCache
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Disable bookmarks backups (default: 15)
user_pref("browser.bookmarks.max_backups", 0);

* SECTION: UI related *

// PREF: Enable insecure password warnings (login forms in non-HTTPS pages)
user_pref("security.insecure_password.ui.enabled", true);

// PREF: Disable right-click menu manipulation via JavaScript (disabled)
user_pref("dom.event.contextmenu.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable "Are you sure you want to leave this page?" popups on page close
// Does not prevent JS leaks of the page close event.
user_pref("dom.disable_beforeunload", true);

// PREF: Disable Downloading on Desktop
// CIS 2.3.2
user_pref("", 2);

// PREF: Always ask the user where to download
// (obsolete)
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: Disable the "new tab page" feature and show a blank tab instead
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.newtab.url", "about:blank");

// PREF: Disable Activity Stream
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.activity-stream.enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable new tab tile ads & preload
// TODO: deprecated? not in DXR, some dead links
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.enhanced", false);
user_pref("browser.newtab.preload", false);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "data:text/plain,{}");

// PREF: Enable Auto Notification of Outdated Plugins (Firefox< 50)
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.1.2
user_pref("plugins.update.notifyUser", false);

// PREF: Force Punycode for Internationalized Domain Names
// CIS Mozilla Firefox 24 ESR v1.0.0 - 3.6
user_pref("network.IDN_show_punycode", true);

// PREF: Disable inline autocomplete in URL bar
user_pref("browser.urlbar.autoFill", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.autoFill.typed", false);

// PREF: Disable CSS :visited selectors
user_pref("layout.css.visited_links_enabled", false);

// PREF: Disable URL bar autocomplete and history/bookmarks suggestions dropdown
user_pref("browser.urlbar.autocomplete.enabled", false);

// PREF: Do not check if Firefox is the default browser
user_pref("", false);

// PREF: When password manager is enabled, lock the password storage periodically
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.5.3 Disable Prompting for Credential Storage
user_pref("security.ask_for_password", 2);

// PREF: Lock the password storage every 1 minutes (default: 30)
user_pref("security.password_lifetime", 1);

// PREF: Display a notification bar when websites offer data for offline use
user_pref("browser.offline-apps.notify", true);

* SECTION: Cryptography *

// PREF: Enable HSTS preload list (pre-set HSTS sites list provided by Mozilla)
user_pref("network.stricttransportsecurity.preloadlist", true);

// PREF: Enable Online Certificate Status Protocol
// NOTICE: OCSP leaks your IP and domains you visit to the CA when OCSP Stapling is not available on visited host
// NOTICE: OCSP is vulnerable to replay attacks when nonce is not configured on the OCSP responder
// NOTICE: OCSP adds latency (performance)
// NOTICE: Short-lived certificates are not checked for revocation (security.pki.cert_short_lifetime_in_days, default:10)
// CIS Version 1.2.0 October 21st, 2011 2.2.4
user_pref("security.OCSP.enabled", true);

// PREF: Enable OCSP Stapling support
user_pref("security.ssl.enable_ocsp_stapling", true);

// PREF: Enable OCSP Must-Staple support (Firefox>= 45)
// NOTICE: Firefox falls back on plain OCSP when must-staple is not configured on the host certificate
user_pref("security.ssl.enable_ocsp_must_staple", false);

// PREF: Require a valid OCSP response for OCSP enabled certificates
// Disabling this will make OCSP bypassable by MitM attacks suppressing OCSP responses
// NOTICE: `security.OCSP.require` will make the connection fail when the OCSP responder is unavailable
// NOTICE: `security.OCSP.require` is known to break browsing on some [captive portals](
user_pref("security.OCSP.require", false);
// PREF: Disable TLS Session Tickets
user_pref("security.ssl.disable_session_identifiers", false);

// PREF: Only allow TLS 1.[0-3]
// 1 = TLS 1.0 is the minimum required / maximum supported encryption protocol. (This is the current default for the maximum supported version.)
// 2 = TLS 1.1 is the minimum required / maximum supported encryption protocol.
user_pref("security.tls.version.min", 1);
user_pref("security.tls.version.max", 4);

// PREF: Disable insecure TLS version fallback
user_pref("security.tls.version.fallback-limit", 3);

// PREF: Enfore Public Key Pinning
// "2. Strict. Pinning is always enforced."
user_pref("security.cert_pinning.enforcement_level", 2);

// PREF: Disallow SHA-1
user_pref("security.pki.sha1_enforcement_level", 1);

// PREF: Warn the user when server doesn´t support RFC 5746 ("safe" renegotiation)
user_pref("security.ssl.treat_unsafe_negotiation_as_broken", false);

// PREF: Disallow connection to servers not supporting safe renegotiation (disabled)
// TODO: `security.ssl.require_safe_negotiation` is more secure but makes browsing next to impossible (2012-2014-... - `ssl_error_unsafe_negotiation` errors), so is left disabled
user_pref("security.ssl.require_safe_negotiation", false);

// PREF: Disable automatic reporting of TLS connection errors
// we could also disable security.ssl.errorReporting.enabled, but I think it´s
// good to leave the option to report potentially malicious sites if the user
// chooses to do so.
// you can test this at
user_pref("security.ssl.errorReporting.automatic", false);

// PREF: Pre-populate the current URL but do not pre-fetch the certificate in the "Add Security Exception" dialog
user_pref("browser.ssl_override_behavior", 1);

* SECTION: Cipher suites *

// PREF: Disable null ciphers
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_null_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_null_sha", false);

// PREF: Disable SEED cipher
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_seed_sha", false);

// PREF: Disable 40/56/128-bit ciphers
// 40-bit ciphers
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc4_40_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc2_40_md5", false);
// 56-bit ciphers
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_1024_rc4_56_sha", false);
// 128-bit ciphers
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_camellia_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_camellia_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_aes_128_sha", false);

// PREF: Disable RC4
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc4_128_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.tls.unrestricted_rc4_fallback", false);

// PREF: Disable 3DES (effective key size is < 128)
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_fips_des_ede3_sha", false);

// PREF: Disable ciphers with ECDH (non-ephemeral)
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_aes_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_aes_256_sha", false);

// PREF: Disable 256 bits ciphers without PFS
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_camellia_256_sha", false);

// PREF: Enable ciphers with ECDHE and key size> 128bits
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_aes_256_sha", true); // 0xc014
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_aes_256_sha", true); // 0xc00a

// PREF: Enable GCM ciphers (TLSv1.2 only)
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_aes_128_gcm_sha256", true); // 0xc02b
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_aes_128_gcm_sha256", true); // 0xc02f

// PREF: Enable ChaCha20 and Poly1305 (Firefox>= 47)
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_chacha20_poly1305_sha256", true);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_chacha20_poly1305_sha256", true);

// PREF: Disable ciphers susceptible to the logjam attack
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_camellia_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_aes_256_sha", false);

// PREF: Disable ciphers with DSA (max 1024 bits)
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_aes_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_camellia_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_camellia_256_sha", false);

// PREF: Fallbacks due compatibility reasons
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_aes_256_sha", true); // 0x35
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_aes_128_sha", true); // 0x2f

// end of user.js
On certificate errros do the following: enter the error causing url into the second field of noscript for https under exceptions, where each http might get blocked by a set * (star) within the first field. If this does not help, formulate error-exceptions with Firefox, by accepting corrputed certificates manually. Enter a remote-host-IP into /etc/resolv.conf: nameserver remote-dns-ip too.

// ======================================================================================
OK // Mozilla User Preferences (prefs.js)
// /home/user/.mozilla/firefox/your_default_profile_directory/prefs.js
// extensions: adblockplus, noscript, canvas blocking, request policy blocked continued, ...
user_pref("", 4000);
user_pref("accessibility.browsewithcaret_shortcut.enabled", false);
user_pref("accessibility.typeaheadfind", true);
user_pref("accessibility.typeaheadfind.flashBar", 0);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("app.shield.optoutstudies.enabled", false);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("app.update.backgroundMaxErrors", 1);
user_pref("app.update.lastUpdateTime.addon-background-update-timer", 1520706985);
user_pref("app.update.lastUpdateTime.blocklist-background-update-timer", 1520707105);
user_pref("app.update.lastUpdateTime.browser-cleanup-thumbnails", 1520712792);
user_pref("app.update.lastUpdateTime.experiments-update-timer", 1520706865);
user_pref("", 1520699876);
user_pref("app.update.lastUpdateTime.xpi-signature-verification", 1520674139);
user_pref("app.update.url", "");
user_pref("app.update.url.details", "");
user_pref("app.update.url.manual", "");
user_pref("beacon.enabled", false);
user_pref("breakpad.reportURL", "");
user_pref("browser.aboutHomeSnippets.updateUrl", "");
user_pref("browser.autofocus", false);
user_pref("browser.bookmarks.max_backups", 0);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.capacity", 0);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.enable", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.filesystem_reported", 1);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.parent_directory", "/tmp");
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.enabled ", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.first_run", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk.smart_size.use_old_max", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.disk_cache_ssl", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.frecency_experiment", -1);
user_pref("browser.cache.memory.enable", false);
user_pref("browser.cache.offline.capacity", 0);
user_pref("browser.cache.offline.enable", false);
user_pref("browser.contentHandlers.types.0.uri", "");
user_pref("browser.customizemode.tip0.learnMoreUrl", "");
user_pref("browser.customizemode.tip0.shown", true);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("browser.display.screen_resolution", 96);
user_pref("browser.display.use_document_fonts", 0);
user_pref("browser.dom.window.dump.enabled", true);
user_pref("", "/tmp2");
user_pref("", 2);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("", 2);
user_pref("browser.eme.ui.enabled ", true);
user_pref("browser.feeds.showFirstRunUI", false);
user_pref("browser.fixup.alternate.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.formfill.enable", false);
user_pref("browser.formfill.expire_days", 0);
user_pref("browser.formfill.saveHttpsForms", false);
user_pref("browser.fullscreen.autohide", false);
user_pref("browser.geolocation.warning.infoURL", "");
user_pref("browser.history_expire_days", 1);
user_pref("browser.laterrun.bookkeeping.profileCreationTime", 1503740898);
user_pref("browser.laterrun.bookkeeping.sessionCount", 51);
user_pref("", 2);
user_pref("", 1);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("browser.migrated-sync-button", true);
user_pref("browser.migration.version", 42);
user_pref("browser.newtab.preload", false);
user_pref("browser.newtab.url", "about:blank");
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.activity-stream.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.activity-stream.feeds.section.topstories", false);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.columns", 0);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "data:text/plain,{}");
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.enhanced", false);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.rows", 0);
user_pref("browser.newtabpage.storageVersion", 1);
user_pref("browser.offline", false);
user_pref("browser.pagethumbnails.capturing_disabled", true);
user_pref("browser.pagethumbnails.storage_version", 3);
user_pref("browser.places.smartBookmarksVersion", 8);
user_pref("browser.preferences.advanced.selectedTabIndex", 4);
user_pref("browser.preferences.lastpanel", 5);
user_pref("browser.privatebrowsing.autostart", true);
user_pref("browser.reader.detectedFirstArticle", true);
user_pref("browser.rights.3.shown", true);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.block_dangerous", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.block_dangerous_host", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.block_potentially_unwanted", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.block_uncommon", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.downloads.remote.url", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.phishing.enabled", false);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.google4.gethashURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.google4.reportURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.google4.updateURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.mozilla.gethashURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.mozilla.lastupdatetime", "1512394102440");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.mozilla.nextupdatetime", "1512397702440");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.provider.mozilla.updateURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.reportMalwareMistakeURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.reportPhishMistakeURL", "");
user_pref("browser.safebrowsing.reportPhishURL", "");
user_pref("", "US");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", 1);
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "Wikipedia (en)");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "US");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", "");
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("", true);
user_pref("browser.selfsupport.url", "");
user_pref("browser.send_pings.max_per_link", 0);
user_pref("browser.sessionhistory.max_entries", 5);
user_pref("browser.sessionhistory.max_total_viewers", 0);
user_pref("browser.sessionstore.privacy_level", 2);
user_pref("browser.sessionstore.upgradeBackup.latestBuildID", "20170928180218");
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.averageTime", 17377);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.maxSamples", 0);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.notificationDisabled", true);
user_pref("browser.slowStartup.samples", 0);
user_pref("browser.ssl_override_behavior", 1);
user_pref("browser.startup.homepage", "about:blank");
user_pref("browser.startup.homepage_override.buildID", 0);
user_pref("", 0);
user_pref("browser.tabs.closeWindowWithLastTab", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.crashReporting.sendReport", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.loadInBackground", false);
user_pref("browser.tabs.remote.autostart.2", false);
user_pref("browser.uiCustomization.state", "{\"placements\":{\"PanelUI-contents\":[\"edit-controls\",\"zoom-controls\",\"new-window-button\",\"privatebrowsing-button\",\"save-page-button\",\"print-button\",\"history-panelmenu\",\"fullscreen-button\",\"find-button\",\"preferences-button\",\"add-ons-button\",\"developer-button\",\"sync-button\"],\"addon-bar\":[\"addonbar-closebutton\",\"status-bar\"],\"PersonalToolbar\":[\"personal-bookmarks\"],\"nav-bar\":[\"privateTab-toolbar-openNewPrivateTab\",\"urlbar-container\",\"clickclean-button\",\"search-container\",\"downloads-button\",\"pocket-button\",\"noscript-tbb\",\"cookieControllerPermMenubutton\",\"jondofox-toolbar-button\",\"useragentoverrider-button\",\"rpcontinuedToolbarButton\",\"abp-toolbarbutton\",\"https-everywhere-button\",\"https-everywhere_eff_org-browser-action\",\"ublock0-button\",\"ublock0_raymondhill_net-browser-action\",\"_d10d0bf8-f5b5-c8b4-a8b2-2b9879e08c5d_-browser-action\",\"firegloves-toolbar-button\",\"useragentswitcher-button\",\"refcontrol-toolbarbutton\"],\"TabsToolbar\":[\"tabbrowser-tabs\",\"new-tab-button\",\"alltabs-button\"],\"toolbar-menubar\":[\"menubar-items\"]},\"seen\":[\"pocket-button\",\"developer-button\",\"rpcontinuedToolbarButton\",\"abp-toolbarbutton\",\"https-everywhere_eff_org-browser-action\",\"ublock0-button\",\"ublock0_raymondhill_net-browser-action\",\"noscript-tbb\",\"_d10d0bf8-f5b5-c8b4-a8b2-2b9879e08c5d_-browser-action\"],\"dirtyAreaCache\":[\"PersonalToolbar\",\"nav-bar\",\"TabsToolbar\",\"toolbar-menubar\",\"PanelUI-contents\",\"addon-bar\"],\"currentVersion\":6,\"newElementCount\":0}");
user_pref("browser.uitour.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.uitour.themeOrigin", "");
user_pref("browser.uitour.url", "");
user_pref("browser.urlbar.autoFill", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.autoFill.typed", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.autocomplete.enabled", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.daysBeforeHidingSuggestionsPrompt", 0);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.lastSuggestionsPromptDate", 20170908);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.searchSuggestionsChoice", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.suggest.history", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.suggest.openpage", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.trimURLs", false);
user_pref("browser.urlbar.userMadeSearchSuggestionsChoice", true);
user_pref("browser.zoom.siteSpecific", false);
user_pref("capability.policy.maonoscript.sites", " [System+Principal] about: about:addons about:blank about:blocked about:certerror about:config about:crashes about:feeds about:home about:memory about:neterror about:newtab about:plugins about:pocket-saved about:pocket-signup about:preferences about:privatebrowsing about:sessionrestore about:srcdoc about:support about:tabcrashed blob: chrome: http: https: mediasource: moz-extension: moz-safe-about: resource:");
user_pref("captivedetect.canonicalURL", "");
user_pref("datareporting.healthreport.about.reportUrl", "");
user_pref("datareporting.healthreport.service.enabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.healthreport.uploadEnabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.policy.dataSubmissionEnabled", false);
user_pref("datareporting.policy.dataSubmissionPolicyAcceptedVersion", 2);
user_pref("datareporting.policy.dataSubmissionPolicyNotifiedTime", "1503740963622");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.activeTicks", 1679);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.clean", true);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.firstPaint", 16617);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.main", 81);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.sessionRestored", 15899);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.startTime", "1512383279732");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.current.totalTime", 11281);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.currentIndex", 260);
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.239", "{\"s\":1511886109351,\"a\":33,\"t\":376,\"c\":true,\"m\":396,\"fp\":30564,\"sr\":29685}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.240", "{\"s\":1511886688450,\"a\":8,\"t\":93,\"c\":true,\"m\":268,\"fp\":35368,\"sr\":34707}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.241", "{\"s\":1511887428281,\"a\":54,\"t\":320,\"c\":true,\"m\":130,\"fp\":30774,\"sr\":27160}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.242", "{\"s\":1511892390935,\"a\":7,\"t\":82,\"c\":true,\"m\":533,\"fp\":38217,\"sr\":37424}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.243", "{\"s\":1511892475748,\"a\":5,\"t\":60,\"c\":true,\"m\":36,\"fp\":32000,\"sr\":31241}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.244", "{\"s\":1511895029963,\"a\":29,\"t\":449,\"c\":true,\"m\":393,\"fp\":34788,\"sr\":34032}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.245", "{\"s\":1511900086315,\"a\":8,\"t\":68,\"c\":true,\"m\":373,\"fp\":27540,\"sr\":26340}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.246", "{\"s\":1511902941041,\"a\":7,\"t\":68,\"c\":true,\"m\":384,\"fp\":31093,\"sr\":27279}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.247", "{\"s\":1512053190957,\"a\":5,\"t\":54,\"c\":true,\"m\":403,\"fp\":25778,\"sr\":25081}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.248", "{\"s\":1512053652060,\"a\":13,\"t\":113,\"c\":true,\"m\":464,\"fp\":35965,\"sr\":38031}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.249", "{\"s\":1512165310408,\"a\":8,\"t\":72,\"c\":true,\"m\":424,\"fp\":34528,\"sr\":23134}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.250", "{\"s\":1512205181489,\"a\":73,\"t\":850,\"c\":true,\"m\":393,\"fp\":21870,\"sr\":20997}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.251", "{\"s\":1512210813036,\"a\":60,\"t\":588,\"c\":true,\"m\":91,\"fp\":24039,\"sr\":22732}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.252", "{\"s\":1512219871745,\"a\":43,\"t\":479,\"c\":true,\"m\":473,\"fp\":50885,\"sr\":40124}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.253", "{\"s\":1512230289043,\"a\":13,\"t\":138,\"c\":true,\"m\":394,\"fp\":20765,\"sr\":19992}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.254", "{\"s\":1512230811602,\"a\":12,\"t\":128,\"c\":true,\"m\":121,\"fp\":20032,\"sr\":18890}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.255", "{\"s\":1512240248219,\"a\":304,\"t\":2549,\"c\":true,\"m\":374,\"fp\":20244,\"sr\":19488}");
user_pref("datareporting.sessions.previous.256", "{\"s\":1512243507105,\"a\":47,\"t\":377,\"c\":true,\"m\":110,\"fp\":19026,\"sr\":18425}");
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user_pref("privacy.resistFingerprinting", true);
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.migrateFx3Prefs", true);
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.sanitizeInProgress", "[\"cache\",\"cookies\",\"offlineApps\",\"history\",\"formdata\",\"downloads\",\"sessions\",\"siteSettings\",\"openWindows\"]");
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.sanitizeOnShutdown", true);
user_pref("privacy.sanitize.timeSpan", 0);
user_pref("privacy.trackingprotection.enabled", true);
user_pref("privacy.trackingprotection.introURL", "");
user_pref("privacy.userContext.enabled", true);
user_pref("reader.parse-on-load.enabled", false);
user_pref("refcontrol.actions", "@DEFAULT=");
user_pref("refcontrol.first_run", false);
user_pref("security.OCSP.enabled", 0);
user_pref("security.ask_for_password", 2);
user_pref("security.cert_pinning.enforcement_level", 2);
user_pref("security.csp.experimentalEnabled", true);
user_pref("security.dialog_enable_delay", 0);
user_pref("security.disable_button.openCertManager", false);
user_pref("security.disable_button.openDeviceManager", false);
user_pref("security.password_lifetime", 1);
user_pref("security.pki.sha1_enforcement_level", 1);
user_pref("security.remember_cert_checkbox_default_setting", false);
user_pref("security.ssl.errorReporting.enabled", false);
user_pref("security.ssl.errorReporting.url", "");
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_aes_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_camellia_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_camellia_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_dss_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_aes_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_camellia_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_camellia_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.dhe_rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_aes_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_ecdsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_aes_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdh_rsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_ecdsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_aes_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.ecdhe_rsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_1024_rc4_56_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_camellia_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_camellia_256_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_fips_des_ede3_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_null_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_null_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc2_40_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc4_128_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc4_128_sha", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_rc4_40_md5", false);
user_pref("security.ssl3.rsa_seed_sha", false);
user_pref("security.tls.version.max", 4);
user_pref("services.blocklist.addons.checked", 1520612165);
user_pref("services.blocklist.clock_skew_seconds", 3545);
user_pref("services.blocklist.gfx.checked", 1520612165);
user_pref("services.blocklist.last_etag", "\"1520527480321\"");
user_pref("services.blocklist.last_update_seconds", 1520703560);
user_pref("services.blocklist.onecrl.checked", 1520612165);
user_pref("services.blocklist.plugins.checked", 1520612165);
user_pref("services.sync.addons.trustedSourceHostnames", "");
user_pref("services.sync.clients.lastSync", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.clients.lastSyncLocal", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.declinedEngines", "");
user_pref("services.sync.engine.addons", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.bookmarks", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.history", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.passwords", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.prefs", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engine.tabs", false);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.addons", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.bookmarks", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.history", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.passwords", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.prefs", true);
user_pref("services.sync.engineStatusChanged.tabs", true);
user_pref("services.sync.fxa.privacyURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.fxa.termsURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.globalScore", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.jpake.serverURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.migrated", true);
user_pref("services.sync.nextSync", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.ctrlTab.previews", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.safebrowsing.phishing.enabled", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.sessionstore.restore_on_demand", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.urlbar.autocomplete.enabled", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.browser.urlbar.suggest.searches", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.extensions.ublock0.cloudStorage.myFiltersPane", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.extensions.ublock0.cloudStorage.myRulesPane", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.extensions.ublock0.cloudStorage.tpFiltersPane", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.extensions.ublock0.cloudStorage.whitelistPane", false);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("services.sync.prefs.sync.spellchecker.dictionary", false);
user_pref("services.sync.privacyURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.serverURL", "");
user_pref("services.sync.tabs.lastSync", 0);
user_pref("services.sync.tabs.lastSyncLocal", 0);
user_pref("shumway.disabled", true);
user_pref("signon.autofillForms", false);
user_pref("signon.formlessCapture.enabled", false);
user_pref("signon.importedFromSqlite", true);
user_pref("signon.rememberSignons", false);
user_pref("social.activeProviders", "{}");
user_pref("social.directories", "");
user_pref("social.enabled", "false");
user_pref("social.remote-install.enabled", false);
user_pref("social.share.activationPanelEnabled", false);
user_pref("social.shareDirectory", "");
user_pref("social.toast-notifications.enabled", false);
user_pref("social.whitelist", "");
user_pref("spellchecker.dictionary", "en-US");
user_pref("storage.vacuum.last.index", 1);
user_pref("storage.vacuum.last.places.sqlite", 1509303910);
user_pref("svg.display-lists.hit-testing.enabled", false);
user_pref("svg.display-lists.painting.enabled", false);
user_pref("svg.marker-improvements.enabled", false);
user_pref("svg.paint-order.enabled", false);
user_pref("svg.path-caching.enabled", false);
user_pref("toolkit.startup.last_success", 1520712754);
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.archive.enabled", false);
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.cachedClientID", "34e6cdd7-e3c0-4806-82ab-95e857f06817");
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.previousBuildID", "20120627151113");
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.reportingpolicy.firstRun", false);
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.server", "");
user_pref("toolkit.telemetry.unified", false);
user_pref("ui.key.menuAccessKeyFocuses", false);
user_pref("urlclassifier.malwareTable", "goog-malware-shavar,test-malware-simple");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.appname", "Microsoft Internet Explorer");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.appversion", "4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.description", "Internet Explorer 6 (Windows XP)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.platform", "Win32");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.1.useragent", "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.appname", "Netscape");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.appversion", "4.8 [de] (Windows NT 5.1; U)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.description", "Netscape 4.8 (Windows XP)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.platform", "Win32");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.2.useragent", "Mozilla/4.8 [de] (Windows NT 5.1; U)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.appname", "Opera");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.appversion", "7.54 (Windows NT 5.1; U)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.description", "Opera 7.54 (Windows XP)");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.platform", "Win32");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.3.useragent", "Opera/7.54 (Windows NT 5.1; U) [de]");
user_pref("useragentswitcher.import.overwrite", true);
user_pref("", false);
user_pref("useragentswitcher.reset.onclose", false);
user_pref("useragentswitcher.user.agents.count", 3);
user_pref("useragentswitcher.version", "0.73");
user_pref("webgl.disable-extensions", true);
user_pref("webgl.disable-fail-if-major-performance-caveat", true);
user_pref("webgl.disabled", true);
user_pref("webgl.min_capability_mode", true);
user_pref("xpinstall.signatures.required", false);

/usr/lib64/firefox/distribution/policies.json, examples and explanation see

OCSP should be set to 0 (zero), otherwise any connection-buildup fails.

/usr/lib64/firefox/distribution/policies.json, examples and explanation see

"policies": {
"BlockAboutProfiles": true,
"DisableAppUpdate": true,
"DisableBuiltinPDFViewer": true,
"DisableFeedbackCommands": true,
"DisableFirefoxAccounts": true,
"DisableFirefoxScreenshots": true,
"DisableFirefoxStudies": true,
"DisableFormHistory": true,
"DisableMasterPasswordCreation": true,
"DisablePocket": true,
"DisableProfileImport": true,
"DisableProfileRefresh": true,
"DisableSetDesktopBackground": true,
"DisableSystemAddonUpdate": true,
"DisableTelemetry": true,
"DisplayBookmarksToolbar": true,
"DisplayMenuBar": true,
"DontCheckDefaultBrowser": true,
"EnableTrackingProtection": {
"Locked": true,
"Value": false
"FlashPlugin": {
"Default": false,
"Locked": true
"Homepage": {
"Locked": true,
"URL": "https://host.domain.tld/"
"InstallAddonsPermission": {
"Default": true
"OfferToSaveLogins": false,
"OverrideFirstRunPage": "",
"OverridePostUpdatePage": "",
"PopupBlocking": {
"Default": true
"SearchBar": "separate"

This is not enough! For Firefox, set the system clock and time zone to another value than local and almost UTC. By default your browser trusts 100´s of Certificate Authorities (CAs) from various organizations to guarantee privacy of your encrypted communications with websites. Some CAs have been known for misusing or deliberately abusing this power in the past, and a single malicious CA can compromise all your encrypted communications! Follow this document to only trust a selected, trimmed-down list of CAs.
Further hardening
This is not enough! Here´s some other tips how you can further harden Firefox:

By default your browser trusts 100´s of Certificate Authorities (CAs) from various organizations to guarantee privacy of your encrypted communications with websites. Some CAs have been known for misusing or deliberately abusing this power in the past, and a single malicious CA can compromise all your encrypted communications! Follow this document to only trust a selected, trimmed-down list of CAs.
Keep your browser updated! If you check Firefox´s security advisories, you´ll see that pretty much every new version of Firefox contains some security updates. If you don´t keep your browser updated, you´ve already lost the game.
Disable/uninstall all unnecessary extensions and plugins!
Use long and unique passwords/passphrases for each website/service.
Prefer open-source, reviewed and audited software and operating systems whenever possible.
Do not transmit information meant to be private over unencrypted communication channels.
Use a search engine that doesn´t track its users, and set it as default search engine.
If a plugin is absolutely required, check for plugin updates
Create different profiles for different purposes
Change the Firefox´s built-in tracking protection to use the strict list
Change the timezone for Firefox by using the TZ environment variable (see here) to reduce it´s value in browser fingerprinting
If you are concerned about more advanced threats, use specialized hardened operating systems and browsers such as Tails or Tor Brower Bundle

Disable Safe Browsing service
Safe Browsing offers phishing protection and malware checks, however it may send user information (e.g. URL, file hashes, etc.) to third parties like Google.

To disable the Safe Browsing service, in about:config set:

browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled to false
browser.safebrowsing.phishing.enabled to false

In addition disable download checking, by setting

browser.safebrowsing.downloads.enabled to false.

Set a new timezone, set the timezone by starting firefox through the command:

TZ=UTC firefox

Browser Display Statistics - W3Schools
Screen Resolution Statistics. As of January 2017, about 95% of our visitors have a screen resolution of 1024x768 pixels or higher.

Back to our main text:

To the main risks during the surfing with the browser belong:

JS.Inject: malicious JavaScript-scenes integrating malicious code into HTML-code of websides.
JS.BtcMine: JavaScript-Scenes aimed to hidden cryptominning.
Trojan.SpyBot.699: spyware logging key strokes of the keyboard, executing commands of cyber criminals, stealing trustful data and money from bank accounts.

This is, what you can do against these risks:

- JavaScript is actitated. In this case special browser extensions (especially script blocker) like for Firefox are strongly recommended. Configure them well like recommended (on this webside in the following).
- The browser, at least the profiles, are stored in the home-, even better onto an extra small partition, that can be mounted read-only in fstab, additionally with the option "noexec", or by the command "mount -o remount ro partition-device-file". Test, if the browser is still starting.
- Set ACL-access-rights (setfacl) within the home-directory of surfuser: setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser, setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.mozila, setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.mozilla/firefox and so on. (notice, that this is not possible for all directories within the home-directory).
- To go sure: deactivate JavaScript (by the disadvantage, that some sides do not present everything or resctrict functions)

All itmes introduced green hook by green hook should be applied and Linfw3 should be in use. Install OpenSourced software only, Download it from trusted sources (perform packet-signature- and md5-checksum-verification).
After each installation, eventually scan for malicious software through a virus scanner.

Nevertheless - in all cases - the browser-extensions (especiall ad- resp. script-blocker) should be installed.

OpenSource-firefox-browser-extensions recommended by Jondofox for Firefox ESR and Tor-Browser (Firefox ESR) are listed, we think, they are a must for installation ( and updating ):

OKuseragent-overrider (ff, enhanceable lists), SecretAgent (from for Firefox-ESR-52.9, Tor and Pale Moon, our TOP-recommendation under the "overrider": session-, tab- or sidewise rotating user-agents, stealth mode, normal mode, Hijanking-Protection, Javascript-OSCPU-Strings, etags&cacheing, proxy headers, Referer-Spoofing, Privacy-Tuning and more) or UserAgentSwitcher (ff, Pale Moon, enhancable lists) (analogous Konqueror through menu or configuration file /home/surfuser/.kde4/share/config/kio_httprc),

noscript (Adblocker, rpm mit OpenSource src.rpm (el6, el7), recommended by NRW-TV 2013; includes Cross-Site-Scripting-Protection, ABE, Clear-Click-Protection, automatical exchange of http with https, secure Cookie-Managerment, ping-protection and so on) and

OKublock-origin (excellent, resource-bewaring ad- and scriptblocker recommended by or

AdblockPlus (ABP resp. AdblockLatitude (ABL) for Pale Moon, a rpm with belonging OpenSource, an src.rpm from fc or alt-linux) (we recommend this one) and

OKRequestPolicy(-BlockContinued) against Cross-Site-Attacks like Cross-Site-Scripting and Cross-Tracking upon the website-intern blocking of server-transfers ( actually still unavailable for Firefox Quantum, so, in order to keep Firefox-ESR-52.9, configure about:config followed by extensions.torbuttion.lastUpdateCheck false ) and

OKNo Resource URI Leak: "Deny resource:// access to web content: We fill the hole to defend againt fingerprinting. Very important to Firefox privacy. A direct workaround for
Block access to resource:// URIs from the Web, block web-exposed subset of chrome:// URIs, restrict about:pages by default (for paranoids)" and

OKDecentraleyes: local emulation of decentralized networks: "protects against tracking by delivering a centralized content. Queries can not be receipt by networks like "Google Hosted Libraries", but they got imitated, so that the websites remain intact. It also adds regular content blocks:
• Completes already installed blocker like uBlock Origin or Adblock Plus etc.
- Supported networks: Google Hosted Libraries, Microsoft Ajax CDN, CDNJS (Cloudflare), jQuery CDN (MaxCDN), jsDelivr (MaxCDN), Yandex CDN, Baidu CDN, Sina Public Resources, und UpYun Libraries.
- Bundled resources: AngularJS, Backbone.js, Dojo, Ember.js, Ext Core, jQuery, jQuery UI, Modernizr, MooTools, Prototype, Scriptaculous, SWFObject, Underscore.js and Web Font Loader" and

OKPrivacy Protector Plus ( OpenSource ) against webbugs, tracking and more, not obtainable for Pale Moon, Block Content for Pale Moon only or Privoxy ( filtering such website contents, local proxy) and

OKPrivate Tab ( if you are surfing in a private window, Firefox does not store: visited websites, cookies, search queries and temporary files )

OKToggle JavaScript for Pale Moon, a buttom for the fast activation and deactivation of JavaScript and

OKCookie Controller (for effective work, disable cookies in the browser per default, but logins like for ebay might not be possible anymore. In this case, set standard "sessions cookies enabled") and

OKCanvasBlocker (also for Pale Moon) in order to avoid Canvas Fingerprinting and

OKRefControl (Pale Moon: Change Referer Buttom) for the control of referers and

OKLink Cleaner cares for shortened URLs for copying through the removal of superflicious tracking-parameters and

OKLink Redirect Fixer (not for Pale Moon) in order to skip pages that some pages use before redirecting to a final page and

OKdisable_about_something: This makes your Firefox, Pale Moon and Thunderbird more secure from accidental operations on dangerous "about:*" pages.
To block loading of an "about:*" page, you just have to define a new boolean preference "*" with the value "false". For example if you want to block loading of "about:permissions", just set "" to "false". Otherwise - with no value or "true", the page is never blocked.
There are similar addons for specific "about:*" pages. They disables related menu items and others for the page, so they are recommended for general cases.
* "about:addons" : Disable Addons * "about:accounts" and "about:sync-*" : Disable Sync
* "about:config" : Disable about:config false false false* false false false
..., but be careful with about:config !

Mozilla protects Firefox ( gt;68 ) better against Fingerprinting and Crypto-Mining, PRO-LINUX, 10.04.2019
Mozilla integrates one more extended protection against tracking through fingerprinting and cryptomining.

Integrierter Schutz vor Cross-Site-Tracking: Firefox >= 64

OK"Palesomething" is a port of Firesomething for Pale Moon. This extension was originally written by Michael O´Rourke.
Since Firesomething´s final release for Firefox in May of 2007, Mozilla has abandoned its own technologies in favor of poor parody of Google´s protocols (WebExtensions), leaving many developers, including this one, disillusioned with the direction the Mozilla is taking. In contrast, Pale Moon has stepped into place as an XUL-centric browser, keeping backward compatibility better than Mozilla´s own flagship project. Palesomething was ported to Pale Moon to bring back some of that early optimism which Firefox has long since lost.
Palesomething is free for use or modification without limitation. It is released under the GNU General Public License with no warranty or guarantee of any kind. That being said, you can still ask any questions in the Comments section below, or contact me directly for assistance.

Change the product name in various parts of the browser. Random name generation ensures perpetual humor.
All your branding are belong to Firesomething. This extension will give Firefox an identity crisis by generating a new randomized browser name every time you open a new window. Confuse your friends and family with names like "Mozilla Firebadger" and "Mozilla Poweroyster". It´s as fun as you want it to be!
- Modifies the product name in the browser titlebar, Help menu, and About dialog titlebar.
- Generates random names using multiple name lists.
- Allows you to have a new name generated for each browser window, or use the same name for all windows.
- Optionally modifies the browser´s User-Agent string to reflect your custom browser name.
- Allows you to easily change the image in the About dialog.
- Keyboard shortcut Ctrl+` (grave accent) in the browser window generates a new product name.
- Adds about:firefox and about:firesomething, newly discovered passages from the Book of Mozilla"

OK*fonts:false* and geoip:disabled by about:config

OKand "javascript.enabled false", in order to disable JavaScript for the next time, what we suggest right up from the time past the filter-configuration of ABP (resp. ABL) in main, even much better is to set it the time before any filter-configuration - nevertheless until certain websites require it all too much.

Site isolation - How to enable First-Party Isolation in Firefox,, 22.11.2017
First-Party Isolation is a new privacy feature of the Firefox web browser that Mozilla implemented in Firefox 55 for the first time.
[..] The following items are affected by First-Party Isolation: cookies, cache, HTTP Authentication, DOM Storage, Flash cookies, SSL and TLS session resumption, Shared Workers, blob URIs, SPDY and HTTP/2, automated cross-origin redirects,, auto-form fill, HSTS and HPKP supercookies, broadcast channels, OCSP, favicons, mediasource URIs and Mediastream, speculative and prefetched connections.
Firefox-52-ESR: in "about:config" set "privacy.firstparty.isolate" to true or use ff-extension first_party_isolation.xpi by enpacking it into /home/surfuser/.mozilla/firefox/ and "setting privacy.firstparty.isolate" to true after typing in "about:config".
  • OKFirefox ESR > 52 with Container-Tab (similar to privateTAB, but of isolating nature) for banking, personal, work and shopping: Drag its icon out of the icon-field for "Additional Tools and Features" (that can be obtained by customizing) and drop it into the symbol line followed by a mouseclick upon it

    OKFacebook-Container against tracking, at this time für Firefox >= 57 only: "Mozilla knows about the increasing care of facebook-user for their privacy and reacts with an Add-on "Facebook Container" deleting all cookies at first in conjunction with Facebook and logs them out. Next visit a container is created preventing from forwarding user behavior from outside the social network to Facebook. Links to other websites can be followed without getting stored. Altough this is not a protection against data abuse, it helps to gain more control about, what Facebook gets to know.".

    OKGoogle-Container for Firefox >= 57 similar to the Facbook-Container

    ABL of Pale Moon does not make any problems here, but the filter of ABP of Firefox-ESR gets invisble and ineffective by disabling JavaScript, until JavaScript gets enabled by "javascript.enabled true" again.

    Pale Moon (ideal browser with the three engines Firefox Quantum (we would like to recommend), Firefox-gecko (old api) and intern to elect) can be downloaded from PCLinuxOS (pclos) from or and much more addresses, Pale Moon - extensions from
    ... and eventually like


    the plugins (that only should be activated, if needed) like

    flash-plugin (respective resign from it to be more careful)

    and mplayerplugin and firefox-language-files

    (everything execpt RequestPolicy is provided as sepearte RPMs (packages to download and install) )

    or use Linux-Standard-Browser Konqueror with our adblocker-list (runs fine) for the integrated adblocker or privoxy, adfilter (if not automatically by themselves), man-pages (always install actual ones like from mga6, de: man-pages-de (mga6)), wget (gnu-software for http- and ftp-downloadings), cups direct from for new printers, sane-backends for scanner, rootkit-hunter rkhunter (and only for the need going once more secure), software with security-lacks for server XAMPP announced by news and newsgroups like openssl from in April 2014, similar to (still harmless) Shellshock end of September 2014 of bash, update from Not only Tarballs but also newest packages can be obtained especially from ALT Linux resp. CentOS 6.5 and 6.7 (el5 and el6). For mdv2007 zip, tar and bzip2 should not be forgotten - independent from the operating system do not forget Java, Adobe Reader (Adobe acroread and flashplayer: we strongly recommend to prefer offered Tarballs instead of rpm. (warning: In this case a backup especially of KDE (konqueror) should be made before unpacking the Tarball and copying the files into their directories!) , the router-software and all year the virus-scanner like clamav from against the case of email-viruses or viruses in e-mail-attachements..., "and that might be already the list"- quit independent from the version of the operating system! Notice, that the size of firefox exceeded from Version 3 to Version 35 from around 4MB to more than 40 MB. Prefering browser like Konquerer might be the right consequence! Konqueror is the one, who lets TLS-(SSL-)certificates confirm each ssl-connection, what is based on gnutls.

    Firefox: Certiftcate-error with message

    A self-signed certificate could not be stored permanently. The possible exception is grayed out.
    Chronic as much as zertificate are not stored permanenlty in private mode.
    "browser.privatebrowsing.autostart" should be set to "false", in order to store the certificate permanently. Alternatively leave the private mode. Now you can use the exception, which is not grayed out anymore.

    Root Certificates from many countries for import (click onto PEM (automatically), JSON, txt): and rpm: rootcertificates and ca-certificates

    In this matter, we´d like to repeat the following case:

    [ SOLVED by Gooken ]: Certifcates have to be confirmed each website-build-up, even if already confirmed.
    Change to certs by cd /etc/pki/tls/certs and exchange the onto nothing linking or empty file ca-bundle.crt with its backup like ca-bundle.crt.rpmnew within the same directory certs: cp -fp ca-bundle.crt.rpmnew ca-bundle.crt.

    Like Firefox Pale Moon should always be started with the option "--no-remote".

    Some Articles in German language for the discussion of /etc/hosts:

    Block google-fonts and ads through /etc/hosts
    Das Nachladen externer Schriften durch eine Webseite ist meist überflüssig, kostet Performance und kann potenziell ein Tracking-Problem darstellen.

    In diesem Gastartikel, möchte ich dir eine wirklich sehr simple Möglichkeit nahebringen, Werbung im Internet effektiv zu blockieren.
    Werbung blockieren mit Bordmitteln
    Wie du sicherlich weißt, gibt es zahlreiche Plugins für die verschiedensten Browser, mit dessen Hilfe man unerwünschte Werbung aus Webseiten herausfiltern kann. Was viele Menschen nicht wissen: Es geht jedoch auch noch einfacher und zwar ganz ohne den Einsatz von Zusatzsoftware. Der Vorteil der von mir vorgestellten Methode ist, dass nicht nur die Werbung beim Surfen mit dem Browser blockiert wird, sondern die gesamte Werbeauslieferung zu deinem System. Das heißt, dass so auch die Werbung im Emailclient oder im Messagingprogramm keine Chance mehr hat.
    In jedem Windowssystem existiert im Ordner c:\windows\system32\drivertc\ eine Datei namens "hosts". Falls du mit dem freien Betriebssystem Linux arbeitest, so ist diese Datei im Verzeichnis /etc/ zu finden. Die Systax ist analog zur Windowsvariante. Mit Hilfe dieser Datei, kann man einem beliebigen Hostnamen eine "feste” IP zuweisen. Der Name wird zukünftig nicht mehr per DNS aufgelöst.
    Zur Erklärung für die Nicht-TI-ler: Wenn man einen Adresse im Browser eingibt, so wird zuerst in der hosts-Datei nachgeschaut, ob die Zieladresse bereits bekannt ist. Falls die Adresse nicht bekannt ist, wird der DNS-Server (Nameserver des Providers) gefragt. Dieser liefert dann die zur Adresse gehörige IP-Adresse zurück und dein Rechner kann Kontakt zum Zielcomputer aufnehmen.
    [...] Eine Liste mit Adressen bekannter Werbeanbieter, die gesperrt werden können, findest du hier:

    Du musst sie nur noch in deine hosts-Datei einfügen.
    [...] Die Auslieferung an den Browser ist hier nur beispielsweise genannt, analog werden natürlich auch Anfragen vom Emailclient oder Messagingprogramm behandelt und entsprechend umgeleitet. Zusätzlich zum Blockieren von Werbung kannst du dieses Vorgehen auch nutzen um diverse Programme vom "Nach-Hause-Telefonieren” abzuhalten, wie es viele Produkte von Microsoft oder google gerne machen.

    WordPress: Block spam-IP per .htaccess, (in german lang.)
    So alle 3-4 Wochen gibt es einen Scherzkeks der witzig findet eine kleine Spam-Attacke auf dieses Blog zu starten. Neulich war es jemand aus China und ...

    Linux: Block IP-addresses by hosts.allow and hosts.deny (in german lang.), 15.11.2016
    Sollen bestimmte IP-Adressen oder Netzbereiche für den Zugriff auf einen Server gesperrt werden, so gibt es mehrere Möglichkeiten:
    iptables ist eine komplexe Firewall
    über die .htaccess IPs für den Zugriff auf den Webserver sperren
    über die Dateien /etc/hosts.allow und /etc/hosts.deny IPs für einige Dienste sperren
    In diesem Beitrag spreche ich die letztgenannte Möglichkeit an
    Als erstes sollte der localhost in /etc/hosts.allow eingetragen werden, damit der sich nicht selbst aussperren kann:
    Hier gehören zusätzlich weitere IPs/Full Qualified Domain Names hinein, die immer Zugriff erhalten sollen.
    Folgende Einträge sind in der /etc/hosts.deny möglich und dienen zum Sperren von IP-Adressen oder Netzbereichen:
    # IP komplett sperren:
    # Alle Adressen im Netz 4.5.6.x sperren (Netzmaske
    # Jede der Zeilen ist eine mögliche Eingabeform und bewirken das gleiche:
    ALL: 4.5.6.
    Es besteht die Möglichkeit die Sperren einzuschränken - in diesen Beispielen sperre ich alles aus (erkennbar am ALL). Für Details siehe man-Page zu hosts.deny.
    Seien Sie aber vorsichtig: Sie können sich versehentlich selbst aussperren! Schalten Sie daher Ihre eigene IP vorher in /etc/hosts.allow frei.

    Konqueror since 3.x.x: Features
    based on Qt3, Qt4 and C++
    Powerful and flexible file manager
    Standard compliant: Qt-browser-widget and therefore browser-engine: KHTML
    SSL 2.0 / 3.0 and TLS 1.0 with SHA1 and the secure SHA2
    SSL vs. TLS vs STARTTLS | Blog | Limilabs
    tls stands for Transport Layer Security and the current version is 1.2. tls is the successor to ssl.Despite having tls in the name, STARTtls doesn´t mean tls will be used. Both ssl and tls are acceptable protocols for securing the communication.
    Embedded viewing of files thanks to KParts
    Multiple split views and tabs
    Sidebars and extensions to provide additional functionality
    Integration with other KDE applications like KGet Download Manager and Akregator Feed Reader
    Remote and pseudo-filesystem file management through KIO

    Deactivate the browser-chronik resp. -history if possible or take care of its automatic deletion each time..

    Bootloader of our FSE-system: grub (rosa2014.1, el6, mdv2010.2)

    Konqueror 4.4.5 working upon openssl seems to manage everything and very secure to become our favorite browser (although still crashing from time to time, if at least belonging rpm JavaScript js for mdv2010.2 is not installed. Konqueror by our short study about him is not crashing except on Facebook, never, if JavaScript is disabled) and file-manager past Dolphin, prejunction: the cache-size of the konqueror should be set to at least 50256 KB by configuration. In order to avoid certificate-requests, ca-certificates (rpm) helps to automize them. On our website for News&Links we describe, how konqueor gets upgraded, below, how updated. We do not recommend the upgrade very much, because kde-library baseapps has to be upgraded completely too.

    [ SOLVED by Gooken ]: Certifcates have to be confirmed each website-build-up, even if already confirmed.
    Change to certs by cd /etc/pki/tls/certs and exchange the onto nothing linking or empty file ca-bundle.crt with its backup like ca-bundle.crt.rpmnew within the same directory certs: cp -fp ca-bundle.crt.rpmnew ca-bundle.crt.

    Adjust settings for Adobe Flash Player in systemsettings or gnome-control-center to reach more security. The best you can do is to deactivate Adobe in the browser or to resign from it.

    Before the tarball for the driver is installed, a config file is checking out the system-environment to produce a MAKEFILE to compile with the command make. In order to install the three essential patches and the patch against Shellshock for the bash, for mdv2010 we installed the following packages from bash-4.1.2-33.el6.x86_64.rpm with adequate bash-completion, bash-doc, dialog, ncurses, ncurses-base and ncurses-libs of el6 that means ALT Linux resp. CentOS 6.7 resp. 7.

    el6 stands especially for CentOS, but also Repoforge (RPMforge), Scientific Linux, ALT Linux, ATrpms Testing, NauLinux School, PN Testing and other rpm-distributions.

    Update-guarantee: until year 2020

    Update-sources: (FTP-downloads, here for el6, el7, fc, mdv and mga) and http// (http-downloads for el6, el7, fc down to fc xx, mga down to mga xx), (http- and ftp-downloads, el6, el7, all popular distributions and versions

    Update-sources: (ftp-downloads, el6, el7, fc, mdv and mga) and http// (http-downloads für el6, el7, fc down to fc xx, mga down to mga xx), (http- and ftp-downloads, el6, el7, alle bekannten Distributionen and Versionen)

    Updates (el6.7, el7, rosa2014.1):

    Updates (el6.7, el7) (2), actual; newest updates are marked yellow with "new" each week or each second week:

    actual updates of the last three month, el6.7 (3):

    Packets (and almost with tarballs through links): (Gentoo), 20.09.2015,
    "Web Services Maintenance
    The following web services are currently unavailable: (GLSA) (this will cause other gentoo websites to exhibit a ´never stops loading´behavior)
    We expect the services to return shortly." (CentOS el6, CentOS el7); notice all updates of different distributions listed there almost refer to any distribution (each)! el6 and el7 from offer most of such updates.

    nss, lib64nss: The Mozilla Network Security Service (NSS) is a library implementing security features like SSL v2/v3, TLS, PKCS #5, PKCS #7, PKCS #11, PKCS #12, S/MIME and X.509 certificates.

    SSL and TLS by openssl: (which is used by browsers like Konqueror), actual version: openssl-1.0.2d. This version leaves Heartbleed and six more errors for mdv2010 behind.

    TLS and SSL by gnutls (3.4.3) and nettle (3.1.1): Their Programmers would not have such experience to improve the mess of its code, meant the opensource developer Howard Chu on Twitter, althoguh now, with version 3.4.3 this might has happened.

    Packets for OpenSSL instead of Tarball: openssl (el7), openssl-libs (el7), openssl-perl (el6), perl-Crypt-OpenSSL-random (el6), perl-Crypt-OpenSSL-RSA (el6) and pyOpenSSL (el6)

    Packets for gnutls i.e.: gnutls (el7), gnutls-c++ (el7), gnutls-dane (el7), gnutls-utils (el7), ldns (el6), libtasn1 (el7), libtasn1-tools (el7), nettle (el7), p11-kit (el7), p11-kit-trust (el7), trousers (el6), unbound-libs (el6), xmlsec1 (el6), xmlsec1-gcrypt (el6) and xmlsec1-gnutls (el6)

    mbedtls (el7, el6): Light-weight cryptographic and SSL/TLS library

    SHA2, secure: tls and sha2 and not SSLv3 and/or sha1: sha2-1.0.1-1.el6.nux.x86_64 (el6) and perl-Digest-SHA2-1.1.1-1.el6.rf.x86_64 (el6)

    ca-certificates, p11kit, p11kit-trust, celtx CentOS6.7 (el6) instead of weak equipped root-certificates from for mdv2010: let your browser (Konqueror) know at least the certification handling organisations for the authorizations of serversided exposed SSL-certificates (cost: free up to several thousand us-dollars the year the certificate), so that manual confirmations of problematic certificates by the surfer right before the built-up of ssl-connections become more automized and therefore unnecessary. Problematic certificates can result in unknown certification organization, certificates expiring dates and their incorrect exposed data like different names for the refered website. Now, you do not have to annoy by always having to click "OK", in ordert to accept such problematic certificates offered by webservers over webservers..

    Manpages and xz, the successor of lzma-compression, needed for the newest, five times more seized manpages in diffferent languages like for mga5: Get xz from (Tarball) or (rpm). Adopt the compression in /etc/man.config by writing (resp. modifying to ) the two lines " .lzma /usr/bin/xz --format=alone --decompress --stdout" and ".xz --format=xz --decompress --stdout" . xz still might not work or work incorrectly. In this case reinstall the rpm xz for the installed distribution, in our case mdv2010, type "rpm -i --force xz-version-release-update.rpm". Now actual (and therefore the many new) man-pages can always been read by the command "man any-command", even those actual ones in different languages by manpages for mageia5, mga5

    Anonymizing Proxies: tor (el6), torsocks (el6), JAP (el6)

    XAMPP/LAMP: all-in-one out of the internet instead single rpm for the distribution consisting of webserver Apache, FTP-Server proftpd and MySQL

    Chromium, for all people, who do not like Konqueror and Firefox: GLSA >= 44357.130, Tarball from

    Games, see data sheed: From more than 500 Games of mdv2010, only the starter-file-package of openarena named openarena needs to be downgraded, if the x-server of mdv2010.0 is still running on mdv2010.2. Otherwise, the game does not close the menu after playing. smc, SuperMario-chronicles does run fine, but the tray-applet xrandr_tray is needed to set the old screen resolution after playing Megamario Only Vegastrike did not run (in this casis, you almost have to change the starter file too).

    If a game does not have a screen, change from fullscreen to windows mode or choose another screen resolution (our computer with IGP from Intel: 1366×768, 1366×704, 1280×720... ). Please notice, that marsshooter (mdv2010.2) does not start each call from terminal, so try marsshooter (rosa2014.1).

    Gentoo-GLSA (actual rpm security list): Therefore, glibc from at least mdv2012 has to be installed for mdv2010 as described above. But not all updates from actual fedora do function as it did for mdv2010 right before, so do not update in some cases like grub > mdv2012, util-linux (es genügt 2.19), ghostscript, perl, e2fsprogs (1.43.2), bash (von el6), pango, lib64cairo, Paketmanager von drakrpm and so on. Alternatively use Tarballs offered by different websites or the well updated rpm especially for ALT Linux resp. CentOS el6. We repeat, that one has to be a little bit careful with the installations of actual packages from fedora sometimes.

    The GNU C library (glibc) itself should always be kept secure by updates too. PCWelt still reported about the necessarity of updating glibc in 02.18.2016, see News&Links#computer.
    An update for GNU C (rosa2014.1) is possible from .
    After those updates, some programs like miro and gftp do not function anymore. To avoid this, we finally recommend to update with glibc (rosa2014.1) and all other glibc-rpm (el6): compat-glibc (el6 without further measures past this installation), glibc-common (el6), glibc-utils (el6), glibc-static (el6), glibc-headers (el6), glib2 (el6) and glib2-static (el6).

    Actual updates for mdv like 2010 were found and some of them are listed by the Gentoo GLSA. mdv-updates themselves last for about two years since the date of appearance of the mdv-distribution, before those from el6 become mandatory. Notice, that with a firewall like Linfw3 you do not really need most resp. all of the following updates except browser and SSL/TLS, but to go sure, it is better to install them quit all.,, 09.20.2015,
    "Web Services Maintenance
    The following web services are currently unavailable: (GLSA) (this will cause other gentoo websites to exhibit a ´never stops loading´behavior)
    We expect the services to return shortly."

    Remove (rpm -e): tracker, codeina, xguest, billreminder

    For the very first time using cups eventually restart the computer-system twice. Then the printer is almost working fine.

    KDE (and therefore MySQL, akonadi, nepmomuk and ilmbase too): KDE 4.10 (el7 or el6) or KDE 4.14 (rosa2014.1). KDE 4.14 is named for this matter by packages named mandriva, but requires haldaemon hal (rosa2014.1) and lob64hal (rosa2014.1) ... or just keep 4.4.5 from mdv2010.2, what we like to recommend; changelog of kdelibs (el6):
    2015-03-25 - Lukas Tinkl <> - 6:4.3.4-23
    - Resolves: rhbz#1206181 - The kate editor does not retain
    printing preferences
    2015-03-25 - Lukas Tinkl <> - 6:4.3.4-22
    - Resolves rhbz#1206180 - Opening a terminal in Konqueror / Dolphin does
    inherit environment variables
    2014-07-02 - Daniel Vrátil <> - 6:4.3.4-21
    - Resolves bz#1025417, wallpaper not applied on second screen when on
    2013-06-10 - Than Ngo <> - 6:4.3.4-20
    - Resolves: bz#882895, crash when switching activity of 2 desktops from
    activity applet
    2012-10-18 - Than Ngo <> - 6:4.3.4-19
    - fix multilib conflict
    2012-10-17 - Than Ngo <> - 6:4.3.4-18
    - Resolves: bz#866230, CVE-2012-4512 CVE-2012-4513
    2012-09-07 - Than Ngo <> - 4.3.4-17
    - Resolves: bz#754161, bz#587016, bz#682611, bz#734734, bz#826114, respin
    2012-08-28 - Than Ngo <> - 6:4.3.4-16
    - Resolves: bz#754161, stop/warn when a subdir is not accessible when
    2012-08-22 - Than Ngo <> - 6:4.3.4-15
    - Resolves: bz#587016, print dialogue does not remember previous settings
    - Resolves: bz#682611, Konqueror splash page in zh_TW is wrong
    - Resolves: bz#734734, plasma eating up cpu-time when systemtray some icon
    - Resolves: bz#826114, konqueror crash when trying to add Terminal
    Emulator" to main menu bar
    2012-02-02 - Than Ngo <> - 6:4.3.4-14
    - Resolves: bz#698286, big endian issue on s390(x)

    Unsolved serious hard KDE errors: reinstall KDE-packages. We had this seldom case for having installed gamin (el6), although gamin (mdv2010.2) does its work only.

    Get rescued forever, update Linux most popular browser and file manager Konqueror:

    Update: Konqueror

    OK Konqueror is patched in main up to date now, although he got downgraded from 4.4.5 (mdv2010.2) to 4.4.4 (OpenSuSE) or 4.3.4 (el6). Nevertheless, new set links within /usr/lib64 can be relinked back onto their old konqueror-files. This can be recognized for example, if you click on the bookmarks of this browser´s menu bar. In order to prevent this, overwrite the old with the new files within this directiory (/usr/lib64) by just using the command "cp -f new_file old_file".

    If KDE won´t start, use another windows manager like LXDE, in order to reinstall KDE-packages.

    alternatively by "yum install konqueror", (source:

    Python and Perl (el6): see our update-list (universal-linux.php this server)

    Kernel: kernel-headers (el6) and kernel-firmware (el6 from year 2015, you can install both rpm for the previous mdv2012-kernel too), coreutils (el6), coreutils-libs (el6), binutils (el6), nss-softokn (el6) and nss-softokn-freebl (el6)

    To go sure that at least one kernel still does the booting-up of the whole system, add one more belonging new item to this kernel into the configuration file of grub (/boot/grub/menu.lst), grubby or grub2.

    Firmware: kernel-firmware (el6), kernel-firmware-extra (rosa2014.1, mdv2010.2, all kernel), alsa-firmware (el6), alsa-tools-firmware (el6), broadcom (broadcom wireless devices), madwifi (wireless LAN), iscan-firmware (el6, Espon flatbed scanner), aic94xx-firmware (el6, Adaptec Sequencer resp. Aic94xx SAS/SATA-Treiber), atmel-firmware (el6, ATMEL wireless network chip), bfa-firmware (el6, Brocade Fibre Channel HBA Firmware), iwlxxx-firmware (el6), crystalhd-firmware (el6, Broadcom Crystal HD video decoder), libcrystalhd (el6), ipw2100-firmware (el6), radeon-firmware (AMD/ATI graphic cards), ralink-firmware (rosa2014.1), ivtv-firmware (el6, Hauppauge PVR cards), iwl-firmware (el6I, ntel® PRO/Wireless 3945 A/B/G network adaptors), rt-xxx (Realtek, el6), rtlwifi-firmware (el6), kmod-iwlwifi-dup (el6), kmod...

    We try to list security updates from, the update list for CentOS el6 und el7 from and year 2010 up to year 2020, update list for Rosa2014.1 and Rosa2012.1 (, (u.a., ( and Gentoo GLSA ( and more security updates for mdv2010 (el6), omv2013 up to omv2015 (, mga1 up to mga5 (, fc18 up to fc24 ( and and so on:

    actualization list with packages from CentOS 6, CentOS 7 and Rosa 2014.1

    ... that might be all, date: 04.02.2016. Packages are keeping the system up to date. Only a few of them belong to the security updates. For more acutalizations, have a look into the package-manager of MCC and decide it by yourself. Notice, that most, but not all packages can be actualized.

    Past all those actualizations up to now installed, you just need to follow the list of most actual update-rpm from rpmfind for CentOS 6 and up from that rpm, where our listing ends. All you got is a "Universal-Linux" patched from 2010 up to 2020 by fixed versions, that are updated and patched just in their releases. This is the best criteria for security, you can imagine! Except OpenSSL, gnutls and Firefox, CentOS 6 seems to be patched ready past its six year, while new released versions of distribution do only prolong this matter again. After year 2016, at last 2020, we dare to say, that not any updates and patches become necessary anymore - only spinner do believe, that past 2020 updates will really update.,

    "Februray, 15. 2016 Offering of informationen in libgcrypt", source: You see: Regardless from openssl or gnutls and so on, a patch was provided late, much too late!

    dmesg does not show any errors now! If there are some loops during system-shutdown that almost do not really matter, complete or modify belonging packages or downgrade them again (so do not despair). Loops might indicate, that a daemon/service fails to start. Programs are named solving such loops automatically.

    rpm libbsd: "libbsd provides useful functions commonly found on BSD systems and lacking on others like GNU systems, thus making it easier to port projects with strong BSD origins, without needing to embed the same code over and over again on each project."

    "Ragel (el7, Russian Fedora) compiles finite state machines from regular languages into executable C, C++, Objective-C, or D code. Ragel state machines can not only recognize byte sequences as regular expression machines do, but can also execute code at arbitrary points in the recognition of a regular language. Code embedding is done using inline operators that do not disrupt the regular language syntax",

    Forensics, forensic-tools (el6): look for Forensics in our data-sheed.

    Stormbaancoureur: This 3D-game should be started with option -indirect on graphical errors.

    If the icon of klipper should be not shown in the system-tray, what happened to us for one time only, just reinstall qt (Qt4, el6). Klipper (rosa2014.1) still running upon the old libraries (mdv2010) can also be taken instead of klipper (mdv2010.2).

    Games: SDL-games and many other ones (rosa2014.1), for our TFT see data-sheed in screen-resolution: 4096×1096, ..., 1366×768 (auto), 1366×704, 1360×704, 1280×720, ...

    Loudseaker test: speaker-test

    Office: beneath calligra (mdv2011): koffice (mdv2010.2 to keep out of kword (text processing), kspread (spreadsheets), kcharts (integrated charts), kformula (mathematics formula), kplato (project management, that can generate Grantt-style charts), kpresenter (presentation), kugar (report generator), krita (digital painting and image processing), karbon (vector drawing), kivio (flow charts), kexi (local databasis)), but also libreoffice (el6, el7, rosa2014.1, mdv2010.2) and openoffice (rosa2014.1, mdv2010.2 running fine or actual version from, again with text processing, spreadsheets, database, presentation, drawing, formulas and many submittals... )

    Nepomuk: if KDE-4.4.5 (mdv2010.2) is kept, following packages for nepomuk can be updated: lib64nepomukcore4 (rosa2014.1), lib64nepomukutils (rosa2014.1), lib64nepomukwidgets (rosa2014.1), lib64smokebase3 (rosa2014.1, installation by rpm -i --force --nodeps), lib64smokenepomuk3 (rosa2014.1) und lib64smokenepomukquery3 (rosa2014.1), who wants, shared-desktop-ontologies too, but not lib64nepomuk4 (rosa2014.1).

    Now it´s time to make a backup of akonadi through akonaditray.

    Listing containing this by an extraction only showing even the newest updates marked by "new":

    SDL2: the successor of SDL1 can be downloaded from (two SDL2-tarballs), although SDL2 is not essential for mdv2010-games.

    .core-files: mdv2010 enhancement prosody of el6 and rosa2014.1 do not work. They declared to write the cause into a core-file within the actual directory you can delete whenever appearing.

    UEFI: UEFITool (rpm from OpenSuSE 13.1 and other distributions); "UEFITool is a cross-platform C++/Qt program for parsing, extracting and modifying UEFI firmware images. It supports parsing of full BIOS images starting with the flash descriptor or any binary files containing UEFI volumes. Original development was started at MDL forums as a cross-platform analog to PhoenixTool´s structure mode with some additional features, but the program´s engine was proven to be useful for another projects like UEFIPatch, UBU and OZMTool."

    Time synchronization via ntp (el6)
    Realtime clocks of modern PC do have less exactness than the cheapest watches for example. This article describes automatic adjustment of the system clock with a time server:

    Service activation and deactviation: systemd for the service/service-administration remains without much usage for our system, because of MCC -> Services and the terminal based, chkconfig, x11-friendly ntsysv (el7, el6) ; nevertheless, if you still want to install systemd (what is possible for mdv2010), take one for el7, mdv2011, mga1 up to mga3, omv2015 or rosa2014.1. Alternatively activate, restart or stop services manually by the command "sh /etc/init.d/servicename start (resp. restart or stop).

    [solved by Gooken: msec-gui (mdv2010 up to mdv2012, mga1 up to mga5 and rosa2014.1) of MCC (mdv2010.2) does not function ]

    After all these updates, msec-gui (file /usr/share/msec/, part of MCC, does not function anymore, but we still can use msec, even rosa2014.1. Even all the games mentioned in datasheed do sill run.

    error-message msec-gui (
    "ERROR: Attempt to add property GtkSettings::gtk-button-images after class was initialised.". This GLib-GObject-WARNING resulted from a modification in actual gtk+.

    In order to avoid this error, you have to do the following, enter: nano /usr/share/msec/, and add:
    . import warnings
    warnings.filterwarnings("ignore") anstelle warnings.filterwarnings("error")
    This report helped us to solve the problem:
    Now you can even install the well-patched msec-gui and msec of mga5 or rosa2014.1, once again this correction sould be made, if.

    [solved by Gooken: error-message of some GTK-programs like scorched3d instead of their start: ]
    /usr/games/scorched3d: Symbol `_ZTV12wxBufferedDC´ has different size in shared object, consider re-linking
    /usr/games/scorched3d: Symbol `_ZTV10wxClientDC´ has different size in shared object, consider re-linking
    /usr/games/scorched3d: Symbol `_ZTV10wxMemoryDC´ has different size in shared object, consider re-linking
    /usr/games/scorched3d: Symbol `_ZTV17wxBufferedPaintDC´ has different size in shared object, consider re-linking
    Fatal Error: Mismatch between the program and library build versions detected.
    The library used 2.8 (no debug,Unicode,compiler with C++ ABI 1002,wx containers,compatible with 2.4,compatible with 2.6),
    and your program used 2.8 (no debug,Unicode,compiler with C++ ABI 1002,wx containers,compatible with 2.6).
    GTK and gdk got updated. Just install the rpm named lib64wxGTK (mdv2010.1) and lib64wxpython (mdv2010.1). Now programs like scorched3d do start again.

    [solved by Gooken: Miroplayer and gramps do not start and show error-messages containing python-files (.py)t: ]
    Reinstall both from el6, if they should not start again, reinstall all lib64gtk- and lib64gdk-packages (mdv2010.1), eventually Python (mdv2010.1 und mdv2010.2) too.

    You see by this amount of packages, that an update and upgrade of the X-Server remains quit risky.

    ... a first X11-server-troubleshooting ( assuming you can still read this text on your computer-monitor): Installing the X11-server can be the hardest thing you can install. On errors, have a look into the logfile /var/log/xorg.0.log. Maybe the kind of error is listed there. The amount of packages for the X11-Server to install is incomparible high over 50 with about 10 library-packages. In many cases it is helpful to edit the configuraiton file: nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf. In emergency, enter the standard driver "fbdev" or "vesa", otherwise you should keep the driver of your graphic card, eventually named by the manufacturer. Also keep all packages of X11 themselve in separate directories, both, those of the successor and predecessor version of X11-server. drm: reinstall the driver-package. More troubleshooting is provided on many websites in the internet.
    Click here to get the list for the X11-Server-packages needed: It conisists of graphic card driver (Xorg), keyboard and mouse driver, touchpad driver and so on. You might just need to update with package xorg-x11-server-common (el6), xorg-x11-server-common (el6), libX11 (el6), libxcb (el6) and libxcb-python (el6) using rpm with option --force and -nodeps

    Linux-devices in /dev:
    fd0 floppy disc
    sda s-ata-HD/SSD
    sda1 first partition on sda
    sdb7 seventh partition on sdb
    sr0 first CD-ROM-device
    sr1 second CD-ROM-device
    ttyS0 first serial port (Port 0, known as COM1 under MS DOS)
    ttyS1 second serial port
    psaux PS/2-mouse
    gpmdata pseudo-device, transferring data from the GPM-(mouse-)daemon
    cdrom symbolic link to the CD-ROM-device
    mouse symbolic link to the device-file of the mouse
    null Alles, was an dieses Gerät geschickt wird, verschwindet
    zero device to read an infinite amount of zeroes from this device
    psmouse PS/2-mouse (should be detected automatically)
    usbhid USB-mouse (should be detected automatically)
    sermouse most serial mices
    logibm Bus-Maus, adapted on a logitech-adapter
    inport Bus-Maus, adapted in an ATI or Microsoft InPort-card

    Keyboard and mouse get almost configured automatically by hal, alternatively by MCC or systemsettings and gnome-control-center. Manually they can be configured in /etc/X11/xorg.conf for the common PS/2-wheel-mouse by lines like these:
    Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier "Mymouse1"
    Driver "mouse"
    Option "CorePointer"
    # Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"
    # Option "Device" "/dev/ttyS0"
    Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
    # Option "Device" "/dev/ttyS0"
    Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2"
    Option "Protocol" "Auto"
    # Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
    # Option "Protocol" "auto"
    Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
    Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true" EndSection

    OK/etc/X11/xorg.conf (complete), making it mouseclick-fast, including the graphic card driver:

    # File generated by XFdrake (rev ), explanation:,, ...
    # **********************************************************************
    # Refer to the xorg.conf man page for details about the format of
    # this file.
    # **********************************************************************

    Section "ServerFlags"
    Option "DontZap" "True" # disable Ctrl Alt BS (server abort)
    #DontZoom # disable <Ctrl><Alt><KP_+>/<KP_-> (resolution switching)
    AllowMouseOpenFail # allows the server to start up even if the mouse does not work
    Option "DontVTSwitch" "True"

    Section "Module"
    Load "dbe" # Double-Buffering Extension
    Load "v4l" # Video for Linux
    Load "type1"
    Load "freetype"
    Load "extmod"
    Load "glx" # 3D layer
    Load "dri" # direct rendering

    Section "Files"
    ModulePath "/usr/lib64/xorg/modules"
    ModulePath "/usr/lib64/xorg/modules/extensions"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/misc"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/cyrillic"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi/:unscaled"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi/:unscaled"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi"
    FontPath "/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi"
    FontPath "/var/lib/defoma/x-ttcidfont-conf.d/dirs/TrueType"
    FontPath "built-ins"

    Section "Monitor"
    Identifier "Monitor1"
    HorizSync 47.7 # exaxt value: against haziness; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance, but caution: the BIOS might get damaged!
    VertRefresh 59.8 # exakt value; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    DisplaySize 361 203 # xdpyinfo | grep -B2 resolution
    # Monitor preferred modeline (59.8 Hz vsync, 47.7 kHz hsync, ratio 16/9, 84 dpi)
    ModeLine "1366x768" 85.5 1366 1436 1579 1792 768 771 774 798 +hsync +vsync

    # modeline generated by gtf(1) [handled by XFdrake]
    ModeLine "1280x720_60" 74.48 1280 1336 1472 1664 720 721 724 746 -HSync +Vsync

    # modeline generated by gtf(1) [handled by XFdrake]
    ModeLine "1280x720_50" 60.47 1280 1328 1456 1632 720 721 724 741 -HSync +Vsync

    Section "Monitor"
    Identifier "Monitor2"
    HorizSync 47.7; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    VertRefresh 59.8; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
    ModelName "Monitor Model"

    Section "Monitor"
    Identifier "Monitor3"
    HorizSync 47.7; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    VertRefresh 59.8; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
    ModelName "Monitor Model"

    Section "Monitor"
    Identifier "Monitor4"
    HorizSync 47.7; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    VertRefresh 59.8; for SDL-fullscreen widen the tolerance!
    VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
    ModelName "Monitor Model"

    Section "Device"
    Identifier "Device1"
    VendorName "Intel Corporation"
    BoardName "Intel 810 and later"
    Driver "intel"
    BusID "PCI:0:2:0"
    Screen 0
    ### Available Driver options are:-
    ### Values: <i>: integer, <f>: float, <bool>: "True"/"False",
    ### <string>: "String", <freq>: "<f> Hz/kHz/MHz",
    ### <percent>: "<f>%"
    ### [arg]: arg optional
    Option "DPMS"
    # Option "ShadowPrimary" "on"
    Option "ZaphodHeads" "VGA1"
    Option "AccelMethod" "sna"
    # Option "AccelMethod" "exa"
    # Option "AccelMethod" "uxa"
    # Option "AccelMethod" "glamour"
    Option "MigrationHeuristic" "greedy"
    #Option "EXAPixmaps" "off"
    Option "DRI" "3"
    # Option "DRI" "2"
    Option "TearFree" "on"
    Option "ColorTiling" "on"
    Option "ColorTiling2D" "on"
    Option "EnablePageFlip" "on"
    #Option "NoAccel" # [<bool>]
    #Option "AccelMethod" # <str>
    #Option "Backlight" # <str>
    #Option "ColorKey" # <i>
    #Option "VideoKey" # <i>
    #Option "Tiling" # [<bool>]
    #Option "LinearFramebuffer" # [<bool>]
    #Option "SwapbuffersWait" # [<bool>]
    #Option "XvPreferOverlay" # [<bool>]
    #Option "HotPlug" # [<bool>]
    #Option "RelaxedFencing" # [<bool>]
    #Option "XvMC" # [<bool>]
    #Option "Throttle" # [<bool>]
    #Option "DelayedFlush" # [<bool>]
    #Option "TearFree" # [<bool>]
    #Option "PerCrtcPixmaps" # [<bool>]
    #Option "FallbackDebug" # [<bool>]
    #Option "DebugFlushBatches" # [<bool>]
    #Option "DebugFlushCaches" # [<bool>]
    #Option "DebugWait" # [<bool>]
    #Option "BufferCache" # [<bool>]
    #Option "TripleBuffer" # [<bool>]
    #Option "SWcursor" # [<bool>]
    #Option "kmsdev" # <str>
    #Option "ShadowFB" # [<bool>]
    #Option "Rotate" # <str>
    Option "fbdev" "on"
    #Option "debug" # [<bool>]
    #Option "ShadowFB" # [<bool>]
    #Option "DefaultRefresh" # [<bool>]
    #Option "ModeSetClearScreen" # [<bool>]

    Section "Device"
    #Option "SWcursor" # [<bool>]
    #Option "kmsdev" # <str>
    #Option "ShadowFB" # [<bool>]
    Identifier "Device2"
    Driver "modesetting"
    BusID "PCI:0:2:0"
    Screen 0

    Section "Device"
    #Option "ShadowFB" # [<bool>]
    #Option "Rotate" # <str>
    #Option "fbdev" # <str>
    #Option "debug" # [<bool>]
    Identifier "Device3"
    Driver "fbdev"
    BusID "PCI:0:2:0"
    Screen 0

    Section "Device"
    #Option "ShadowFB" # [<bool>]
    #Option "DefaultRefresh" # [<bool>]
    #Option "ModeSetClearScreen" # [<bool>]
    Identifier "Device4"
    Driver "vesa"
    BusID "PCI:0:2:0"
    Screen 0

    Section "Screen0"
    Identifier "Screen0"
    Device "Device1"
    Monitor "Monitor1"
    DefaultColorDepth 24

    Section "Screen2"
    Identifier "Screen2"
    Device "Device2"
    Monitor "Monitor2"
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 1
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 4
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 8
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 15
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 16
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 24

    Section "Screen"
    Identifier "Screen3"
    Device "Device3"
    Monitor "Monitor3"
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 1
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 4
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 8
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 15
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 16
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 24

    Section "Screen"
    Identifier "Screen4"
    Device "Device4"
    Monitor "Monitor4"
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 1
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 4
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 8
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 15
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 16
    SubSection "Display"
    Viewport 0 0
    Depth 24

    Subsection "Display"
    Depth 24
    Modes "1366x768" "1360x765" "1280x720" "1024x768"

    Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier "layout1"
    Screen "Screen0"
    InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice "Mymouse1" "CorePointer"

    Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier "layout2"
    Screen "Screen2"
    InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice "Mymouse1" "CorePointer"

    Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier "layout3"
    Screen "Screen3"
    InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice "Mymouse1" "CorePointer"

    Section "ServerLayout"
    Identifier "layout4"
    Screen "Screen4"
    InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
    InputDevice "Mymouse1" "CorePointer"

    Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier "Mymouse1"
    Driver "mouse"

    # Option "Device" "/dev/ttyS0"
    Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2"
    # Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"
    # Option "Device" "/dev/ttyS0"
    Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
    Option "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
    Option "CorePointer"

    # Option "Protocol" "Auto"
    # Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
    # Option "Protocol" "auto"
    Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
    # Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5 6 7"

    Section "InputDevice"
    # generated from default
    Identifier "Keyboard0"
    Driver "kbd"
    Option "CoreKeyboard"
    Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
    Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
    Option "XkbLayout" "de"

    Depending on the graphic card, special options for optimization should be set in /etc/X11/xorg.conf too, see "man xorg.conf" and other websites out of the internet.

    Power Management: /etc/udev/rules.d/30-intel-pm.rules
    KERNEL=="dri/card0", SUBSYSTEM=="drm", DRIVERS=="intel", ATTR{device/power_method}="profile", ATTR{device/power_profile}="high" intel.modeset=1 intel.dpm=1 in /boot/grub/menu.lst
    kernel (hd0,7)/vmlinuz-4.20.13-pclos1 BOOT_IMAGE=drc008win2smp root=UUID=ab849ba-13b3-42bd-21f3-3ab44cc32261 rootfstype=reiserfs elevator=deadline security=none speedboot=yes panic=0 apparmor=0 selinux=0 kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=3 KEYMAP=de LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 intel.modeset=1 intel.dpm=1 rd.luks=1 rd.multipath=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.luks.allow-discards rd.luks.uuid=f2132a42-421e-124b-a426-daa321821b2c vga=792 video=VGA-1:1366x768

    <!-- Please always enable app-specific workarounds for all drivers and screens. -->
    <device driver="i915">
    <application name="Default">
    <option name="stub_occlusion_query" value="true" />
    <option name="fragment_shader" value="true" />
    </application> ...

    <device screen="0" driver="i915">
    <application name="Default">
    <option name="force_s3tc_enable" value="true" />
    <option name="no_rast" value="false" />
    <option name="always_flush_cache" value="true" />
    <option name="shader_precompile" value="true" />
    <option name="always_flush_batch" value="true" />
    <option name="bo_reuse" value="1" />
    <option name="vblank_mode" value="3" />
    <option name="force_glsl_extensions_warn" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_throttling" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_glsl_line_continuations" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="true" />
    <option name="early_z" value="false" />
    </application> <application name="Unigine Sanctuary" executable="Sanctuary">
    <option name="force_s3tc_enable" value="true" />
    <option name="force_glsl_extensions_warn" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="false" />
    <option name="vblank_mode" value="3" />
    <option name="always_flush_cache" value="true" />
    <application name="Unigine Tropics" executable="Tropics">
    <option name="force_s3tc_enable" value="true" />
    <option name="force_glsl_extensions_warn" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="false" />
    <application name="Unigine Heaven (32-bit)" executable="heaven_x86">
    <option name="force_glsl_extensions_warn" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="true" />
    <application name="Unigine Heaven (64-bit)" executable="heaven_x64">
    <option name="force_glsl_extensions_warn" value="true" />
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="true" />
    <application name="Unigine Valley (32-bit)" executable="valley_x86">
    <application name="Unigine Valley (64-bit)" executable="valley_x64">
    <application name="Unigine OilRush (32-bit)" executable="OilRush_x86">
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="true" />
    <application name="Unigine OilRush (64-bit)" executable="OilRush_x64">
    <option name="disable_blend_func_extended" value="true" />
    <application name="Savage 2" executable="savage2.bin">
    <option name="disable_glsl_line_continuations" value="true" />
    <application name="Topogun (32-bit)" executable="topogun32">
    <application name="Topogun (64-bit)" executable="topogun64">
    <application name="Dead Island" executable="DeadIslandGame">
    <application name="Second Life" executable="do-not-directly-run-secondlife-bin">
    options i915 enable_fbc=1
    options i915 enable_guc=2
    options i915 fastboot=1


    modul (graphic card driver) are named vesa (norm for the case you don´t know), fbdev (one more standard driver for the case other ones do not work), dummy (dummy card, for the case you don´t know), intel, nv (nvidia), nvidia173, nvidia96xx, nvidia-current, ati (Radeon Rage, RagePro, ...), r128 (ATI Rage128), amdgpu, radeonhd (also many amdgpu), radeon (AMD with previous ATI), fglrx (AMD/ATI Radeon 2000 and higher, ..., includes the popular AMD-/ATI-proprietary driver named catalyst), trident, nouveau, dummy, openchrome (including unichrome drivers), sis, sisdrv (sis), sisimedia (sis), v4l, vga, xgixp, uncommon mit: tga, tseng, voodoo, siliconmotion, rendition, newport, apm, ark, chips

    Packets for many graphic card driver: X11, xorg, x11-driver-video-modulname (mdv, mga, rosa) resp.. xorg-x11-drv->modulname< (el6, el7), radeon-firmware (rosa2014.1, rosa2016.1; already included within packet kernel-firmware or kernel), libdrm (el6), mesa (el6, el7, fc, ..., OpenGL-Treiber), packets for X11 in detail (el6, rosa, mdv) see the listing in our section "Universal Linux" - Updates; akmod-catalyst, kmod-catalyst (fc21), xorg-x11-driver-catalyst (fc21), xorg-x11-driver-catalyst-libs (fc21) or x11-video-drivers-fglrx (mdv, rosa), dkms (mdv), dkms-fglrx (mdv), fglrx-control-center (mdv, mga, rosa), xf86-video-fbdev (arch-linux), xf86-video-vesa (arch-linux), nvidia-utils (arch-linux), lib64-nvidia-utils (arch-linux), nvidia-390xx (arch-linux), nvidia-390xx-utils (ach-linux), lib64-nvidia-390xx-utils (arch-linux), nvidia-340xx (arch-linux), nvidia-340xx-utils (arch-linux), lib64-nvidia-340xx-utils (arch-linux)

    The Linux kernel includes open-source video drivers and support for hardware accelerated framebuffers. However, userland support is required for OpenGL and 2D acceleration in X11.
    First, identify your card:

    lspci | grep -e VGA -e 3D

    Then install an appropriate driver. You can search the package database for a complete list of open-source video drivers:

    rpm -i --force xf86-video # Arch Linux

    Xorg searches for installed drivers automatically:

    If it cannot find the specific driver installed for the hardware (listed below), it first searches for fbdev (xf86-video-fbdev).
    If that is not found, it searches for vesa (xf86-video-vesa), the generic driver, which handles a large number of chipsets but does not include any 2D or 3D acceleration.
    If vesa is not found, Xorg will fall back to kernel mode setting, which includes GLAMOR acceleration (see modesetting(4)).

    In order for video acceleration to work and often to expose all the modes, that the GPU can set, a proper (resp. proprietary - manufacturer) video driver is required:

    generate xorg.conf from current configuration
    Oh man, would that be helpful!
    Does the logfile help you at all?


    I´m pulling my hair out trying to get an old laptop going because Xorg & HAL aren't able to auto-detect the display´s available resolutions properly (for whatever reason).
    So, I´m looking around trying to piece together which bits I need from the automatically detected configuration, and which bits I need to supply.
    I have been looking at the logfile and while it doesn´t supply a ready formatted, complete xorg.conf it will give you a lot of details to generate one from.
    But I´m still looking for a better solution...

    Advanced reply Adv Reply
    May 14th, 2010 #4
    Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx
    Re: generate xorg.conf from current configuration
    Thanks P&C, it is some progress... but still a "write_xorg" of the current configuration would be ideal

    Advanced reply Adv Reply
    May 19th, 2010 #5
    Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala
    Re: generate xorg.conf from current configuration
    I´ve spent some more time looking at this and it would appear that it is possible afterall...
    In my case, (Ubuntu 9.10) I booted into the recovery mode and ran

    Xorg -configure

    This tells you that it generates the configuration file: /root/
    It also says that running the following will test it:

    X -config /root/

    However, in my case I was pleasantly greated with black text on a black background with a black cursor - either that or it didn´t work...
    2nd time around:

    cp /root/ /etc/X11/xorg.conf
    shutdown -r now

    This appears to startup my laptop "normally", so I now have a configuration file to start playing with.
    I have yet to check the logfile, etc, but I thought it answered your original post, so I thought I´d post asap.
    Hope it helps you (or anyone else!) out... < BR>

    Portability, new platform or graphic card: One worse thing, that can happen, and this is a nightmare: a darkscreen (ASUS ITX 220): Graphic cards themselves seldom get out of order. Exchange the CMOS-battery and/or unplug the BIOS-chip out of its socket to plug it into again (even think of a spare parted BIOS-chip). Also make a copy of xorg.conf like xorg-save.conf and preconfigure files with MMC -> graphic card for different cards and standard driver vesa, fbdev and fglrx. Test and save each new created pre-configuration file xorg.conf to xorg-nv.conf, xorg-ati.conf, ..., xorg-vesa.conf, xorg-fbdev.conf and xorg-fglrx.conf. The best thing one can do is to order one more graphic card of same manufacturer to keep it spare-parted.

    The graphic card drivers itself can be found in /usr/lib64/xorg/modules/drivers (or any subdirectory).

    If the methods above do not help, that means if testing fails, just rename the graphic card drivers in right this directory or a subdirectory depending on the location (of the driver), after a new graphic card is plugged or in use, while /etc/xorg.conf with the named old driver remained still unchanged by module name. Other parts of /etc/X11/xorg.conf should be tuned well instead - following the through MMC preconfigured xorg-xxx.conf from above.

    In the normal case, the X-server creates a new /etc/X11/xorg.conf belonging to the any graphic card automatically after it got deleted (removed), but one can not guarantee, he really does ....

    Samba (for the LAN): samba-client (el6), samba-common (el6), samba-winbind (el6), samba-winbind-clients (el6), libtdb (el6) and libtevent (el6), LDAP. openldap (el6)

    ... and the computer keeps what he promises to be. Even dmesg is listing no errors and no warnings at all (polkit and mandriva-galaxy got updated)! As we told, we recommend to take all these updates, although mdv2010 did run fine before.

    The only in unicode from el6 differing python (mdv2010.2) and perl (mdv2010.2), same version like el6, should not be updated or changed, but the modules of python (el6) might be still necessary like python-gobject2 (2010.1 for the miroplayer), python-dbus (mdv2010.1) and python-pycurl (el6, both for the miroplayer for example)

    Update by installing rpm and/or tarballs (URL for downloading the tarballs are listed in You have to wait some time, until the newest update-packages for el6 appear.

    More packages from el6 and el7, but not indexed for Gentoo-GLSA: dropwatch (to watch packages dropped by iptables), acl (el6, access control lists), passwd (el6, to set the password), cronie (el6, Cron, task-daemon), cronie-anacron, cronie-noanacron and crontabs, cpufrequtils (el6), x86info (el6), wireless-tools (el6), eventually, but we do not recommend this perl ad python of quit the same version, but different rpm-libraries and unicode. Some tray-applets do not function anymore, if), alsa-firmware (el7), alsa-tools-firmware (el7), ca-certificates-2015 (el6), libnghttp (el7), libpng (el7), brasero (el6), noiz2sa (mdv2010 or mga4, game)

    Think of the removal of the online-update-tool mdkonline (if installed) by "rpm -e mdkonline" as mdv2010.2 might sometimes makes unsuccessfully password-request caused by urpmi.update and consolehelper, if not.

    Only rpm networkmanager and pam_mount from mdv2010.0 should not be updated from mdv2010.2, so take the versions for mdv2010.2 resp. mdv2011.0 from

    All those updates are included in our mdv2010.2 from SSD. We only gurantee GLSA-actuality of the offered SSD until 31.08.2015. With an actual browser and LINFW3, we do not see many problems causing in less updating in future.

    OK LUKS/dm-crypt: You can install well-patched rpm for cryptsetup like cryptsetup (rosa2014.1) or cryptsetup-luks (el6), cryptsetup-libs (el6), cryptsetu-reencrypt (el6), cryptsetup-reencrypt-libs (el6) in future, but actually there is still no update essential, so that the cryptsetup of mdv2010 and 2011 can be kept. Do not take cryptsetup of mdv2012, what can lead into serious hard errors.

    Java (Oracle) for Linux:

    Howto update firefox

    Firefox > ESR (rosa2014.1, el7, el6): adwaita-cursor-theme (el7), adwaita-icon-theme (el7), atk (el7), cairo (el7), cairo-gobject (el7), colord-libs (el7), gtk3 (el7), lib64udev1 (rosa2014.1), rest (el7), mozilla-filesystem (el7, el6)

    Firefox Release Notes (Changelog):

    Update by installing the newest release: tarball or el6, el7

    Update by yum: yum update firefox

    Update Mozilla Firefox to an actual Firefox under Linfw3 by unpacking the firefox-tarball and copying all files into /usr/lib64/firefox-oldversion, then, if links should be missed, link again the executable files firefox-bin and firefox with those out of /usr/lib64/firefox-olderversion. For Firefox 32 you still need some additional libraries, that you can get from, all on our DVD 2. It is best to update to 32 or newer automatically by setting LInfw3 to state-new-lineblocks, calling firefox by su (superuser), click onto register named help for updating firefox, chmod 755 -R /usr/lib64/firefox* and finally by activating Linfw3 once again, so that the state-NEW-line-block is deactivated automatically. Update Firefox-Addons like ublock-origin and noscript by register extras -gt; Addons and checkout plugins. Configure ublock-origin by clicking on "dashboard" in the left upper corner.
    It might be more secure to download the actual tarball for firefox from and to enpack him into the directory, the firewall was stored before. Then the owner for this directory and its files has to be set by chown root -R /home/user/firefox. We recommend owner root by the usual virus-free chmod 755 -R /usr/lib64/firefox.

    Pale Moon (28.1.0) - main features:

    Optimized for modern processors
    Based on our own optimized layout engine (Goanna)
    Safe: forked from mature Mozilla code and regularly updated
    Secure: Additional security features and security-aware development
    Supported by our user community, and fully non-profit
    Familiar, efficient, fully customizable interface
    Support for full themes: total freedom over any element´s design
    Support for easily-created lightweight themes (skins)
    Smooth and speedy page drawing and script processing
    Increased stability: experience fewer browser crashes
    Support for many Firefox extensions
    Support for a growing number of Pale Moon exclusive extensions
    Extensive and growing support for existing web standards
    Many customization and configuration options
    OK Deinstall: all insecure browser-plugins, especially those, who can not be deactivated:
    Link /home/surfuser/.mozilla/plugins with /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins:
    ln -sf /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins /home/surfuser/.mozilla/plugins
    rm -df /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/libswfdec* (Shockwave Flush)
    rm -df /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/more-plugins.

    Firefox up to an actual Firefox (actual ESR) resp updated shortly timed by root (!) and linfw3 in mode "lined-block-only" to Firefox ESR can be tuned more securely by adding addon ublock-origin (resp. more plugins like privacy for the case of flash-supercookies, evtl. use another browser) and typing in about:config into the address-line to set

    general.useragent.override (what does the same as configuration-file /home/surfuser/.kde4/share/config/kio_httprc for Konqueror), browser.safebrowsing.enabled, browser.safebrowsing.remote.lookups and browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled.

    same for all so called phishing preventing safebrowsing (almost by URI-exchanges with Google) by searching for it too as much as

    for "tracking".

    Also do this for "geo.location.enabled" setting to false.

    Disable the history/chroniology of the browser and delete all session-cookies after its usage. Surf in private mode. Drag and drop the special symbol for chronic-content-deletion into the symbol-bar of Firefox to click on it.

    Also notice the proxy-configuration in the section for the SSL-Proxy from Arif. All of mdv can be configured by MCC (drakconf.real) and the control-center in an easy, if not childish way. And who emulation of even foreign computer- resp. operating systems like Basilisk for Macintosh and Wine for MS Windows applications is not enough and can not resign from Debian - if a RPM (installation packet) should have ever been missed - just has the opportunity to install Debian´s packet-manager like apt. From thousand of progs, only f-spot from originally SuSE does not always function - always finding alternatives!
    Cookies can be blocked by an adequate browser-configuration by options like "session-cookies only" or "generally forbid all cookies". Inspite of this, addons like Betterprivacy still are needed to delete supercookies (LSO flash objects, flash-player-standard-cookies, DOM Storage Objects, eBay long-time-tracing), that are obtained and set by flash-plugins and stored onto the computer-hard-drive for an undetermined long time. But this must be seldom enough to say, such files still never have been found on my computer. Both, noscript and Betterprivacy also disable click-ping-tracing. This might work as the name tells us.. Notice, that a replacement for Third-Party-cookies is planned through AdID, details see our linkside! The best one can do is to use the rotate-13, base-64 SSL-proxy-service with the IP and DNS exchanging PHP-Proxy programmed by Abdullah Arif, see our section for downloads, that can also be enabled to block all kind of scripts.

    Graphic-card: standard-vesa-driver from installation-DVD, packets (almost x11-driver-video-...),, or manufacturer


    Printer driver: pdd-file from driver-CD/DVD,,, and,, ... GNU-software:
    gnupg (OpenPGP Internet Standard following RFC4880 (zuvor RFC2440) for digital encryption and signatur, version 2 incl. the S/MIME-standard and Secure Shell Agent), from Werner Koch:
    bash:,,, for mdv2010 choose those for el6
    Virus scanner: mdv2010 with clamav-0.98.4-65.el6, openssl-1.0.2d and clamd-0.98.4-1(!), yearly: virus-definition-file daily.cvd, main.cvd and bytecode.cld from or by command "freshclam" . UID and GID should be set to user named clam or try the NEW-LINE-Block instead..

    gramps (genealogy) is also running fine; for the first start LINFW3 might has to be set to "lineblock NEW".

    One is enabled not only to update packets mdv-2010.0 by MCC (packet manager rpmdrake) but also from mdv2010.0 to mdv2010.1 and to the computer final stated mdv2010.2. All solutions and the sending of emails are most stable and secure, as rpmdrake notices all dependencies, by suggesting belonging packets or, if you do not have installed them, forbidding the installation otherwise. Depending on the graphic-card-driver, nevertheless be a little bit careful with the new X-Server resp. graphic-card-driver of mdv2010.1 or keep the one from mdv2010.0!

    [ solved by Gooken: mdv2010.2, KDE 4.4.5: akonadiserver and nepomuk do not start ]
    Akonadi and nepomuk (mdv2010.2): The best one can do past reconfiguring akonadi by akonadi_console and akonaditray is to install the following packages from akonadi-kde-4.4.9, lib64akonadi-filestore4-4.4.92, lib64kmindexreader4-4.4.92 and eventually strigi including strigi-gui and do not forget soprano. nepomuk for mdv2011 like nepomuk-datamanager can interest for mdv2010 too. Now all works fine, including annotate of dolphin´s and konqueror܌ context-menu works and emails can not only be received but also be sent without waiting for any "mood of KDE 4.4.5". In mdv 2010.0 with KDE 4.3.4 akonadi and nepomuk are already functioning.

    Avoid problems with X11-upgrades, by listing X11-packets from by categories, in this case category X11 and not A-Z. Although packets are devloped further on, a change to mdv2010.1 and 2010.2 does not provide much advantage.

    For upgrades keep in mind the following dependencies from eachother, so that kmail (4.4.5) and Dolphin (4.4.5) do work: KDE (4.4.5) - akonadi (4.4.5) - nepomuk (4.4.5) - soprano (mdv2010.1) - virtuoso (mdv2010.1) and MySQL (rosa2012.1 or mdv2010.2).

    Now, past this installations of packages for mdv2010.2, not only mdv2010.0, but also mdv2010.2 does not have any errors, akonadi (el6 or mdv2010) and nepomuk (strigi-libs (el6) resp. strigidaemon and eventually soprano (el6) ) do also work, if the amount of directories to index with strigi, that is configurable by the applet nepomuksearchclient is not set too low:

    65 GB + x unlimited software error-free (only a few games depend on special drivers for certain graphic-cards)

    If mysql is updated by mysql from el6, akonadi has to be reconfigured, for example using akonaditray. Set the path to mysqld to /usr/libexec for previous /usr/sbin is not valid anymore. For registration on dbus use dbus of mdv2010.1 and like akonadi not the lower versioned dbus of el6. Otherwise it is more difficult to configure akonadi through akonadiconsole.
    If you can not believe in mdv2010 (resp. mdk10.1 or mdv2007) running such secure, or if you make other experiences with some software for this version, we remember, that one can select packages from for long three years mdv: mdv2010.0 up to mdv2011 resp. mdv2012.0 up to mga2 and mga4, that are around 100.000 packets. Notice, that mdv is also almost downward-compatible. The only main thing you have to do for this yearly jumpover is to upgrade glibc.

    One (quit everlasting) update-source out of the internet for mdv2010.0 is named This URL should be entered into the MCC section update-sources installing all updates before the same address, but changed to mdv2010.1 and mdv2010.2 is entered. At first, nevertheless it was the right way to update mdv2010.0 with updates to this version before mdv2010.1 and mdv2010.2.

    In order to start the kde-(kmail-)database-server akonadi successfully, akonditray should be started and configured to local mysql. If error-messages appear, delete all files in the user-directory ~/kde4/share/apps/akonadi, and start akonadi again. Akonadi can also be installed from el6, what does not influence previous installed akonadi for mdv2010. Configure nepomuk by systemsetttings or, like KDE4.4.5, still manually in ~/.kde4/config/share/apps/nepomuk... Now a nepomuk-icon appears in the system area of the control line after the booting of the system for further configurations of the semantic searches. Akonadi is handled by akonaditray and akonadiconsole.

    The start of the semantic search by terminal, alternatively desktop-icon or out of Konqueror and Dolphin if provided by clicking on belonging buttons or by typing in "nepomuksearchclient".

    The full functionality is pregiven by already made configurations on mdv2010.2 from our SSD.

    Browser: Konqueror (4.4.5) is a comfortable open-sourced, secure browser with an own adfilter, that can be trained like the firefox-addon adblockplus. To present images from websides, the UA-specification and the adfilter might have to be configured adequately.

    SSL Certificate SHA-1 to SHA-2 Transition,
    Due to the discovery of vulnerabilities in the SHA-1 algorithm and the continual increase in computing power, the feasibility of breaking the SHA-1 hash will increase over time. Internet browsers and Certificate Authorities (CAs) have already started to phase out SHA-1 in favour of the new SHA-2 algorithm. However, recent announcements from Google about depreciating support for SHA-1 based certificates with an expiry date in 2016 or later means that you will have to take action now to make sure your SSL setup is not affected by the accelerated transition. This article offers you more information on how this will effect your SSL setup and how you can move to SHA-2 certificates. As of 2014, SHA-1 is still acceptable, but with the continual increase in computing power, the security of SHA-1 will become a concern in the future.
    As your security partner, QualitySSL has already made SHA-256 the default hash algorithm for all new QualitySSL Certificates since September 2014.

    Important Dates
    As part of their SHA-2 migration plan, Google, Microsoft and Mozilla have announced that they will stop trusting SHA-1 SSL certificates. Google will begin phasing out trust in SHA-1 certificates by the end of 2014, while Microsoft and Mozilla will begin phasing out trust for SHA-1 certificates in 2016.
    November 2014 - SHA-1 SSL Certificates expiring any time in 2017 will show a warning in Chrome 39.
    December 2014 - SHA-1 SSL Certificates expiring after May 31, 2016 will show a warning in Chrome 40.
    January 2015 - SHA-1 SSL Certificates expiring any time in 2016 will show a warning in Chrome 41.
    January 1, 2016 - Microsoft ceases to trust Code Signing Certificates that use SHA-1.
    January 1, 2017 - Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft ceases to trust SSL Certificates that use SHA-1.

    SHA-2 Compatibility
    The good news is that most commonly used operating systems, browsers, mail clients and mobile devices already support SHA-2. We have put together a compatibility list for known SHA-2 support, as there are some older operating systems such as Windows XP SP2 that do not currently support SHA-2.
    The following list gives an overview of operating systems/browsers that currently support SHA-2:
    Apple iOS 3.0+
    Android 2.3+
    Blackberry 5+
    Internet Explorer 6+ (with Win XP SP3+)
    Safari with Mac OS X 10.5+
    Firefox 1.5+
    Netscape 7.1+
    Mozilla 1.4+
    Opera 9.0+
    Konqueror 3.5.6+
    Mozilla based browsers since 3.8+
    OpenSSL 0.9.8o+
    Java 1.4.2+ based products
    Chrome 26+
    Windows Phone 7+

    Online Banking with the (we believe because of integrated opensourced OpenSSL from only) maybe almost secure browser Konqueror, here version 4.4.5: adblocker depending on configuration activated or inactive, useragent: active, cookies: active, JavaScript active or depending on the bank inactive, plugins: active or inactive, Java: inactive; Konquerer seems to remain stable and secure until his fullfilled norms are too low.

    FHS 2.1 (quit all Linux): /boot (the best is a separate boot-partition with initramfs from dracut), / root-directory, /bin (executable files), /sbin (shell-scripts), /lib (coded libraries), /usr, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/games/bin/, /usr/lib64, /usr/src (sources), /usr/share/docs (manuals), /dev (device files resp. device-driver-api-files ), /opt ("third party software"), good mountpoints: /media, /mnt, /mnt/any, /proc (process information), /sys, /var (files, that do change their content very often), /var/log (Logfiles), /var/lib/drakbackup (backups, if not done extern), ..., configuration of mdv2010 (Linux): drakconf (MCC), systemsettings, gnome-control-center, directories and files within /etc and pointed files and pointed directories wihtin the user-directory ¨, also .kde/... and .kde4/share/config for the apps of KDE4 and /boot/grub/menu.lst for the configuration of the bootmanager grub and grub2

    So turn off the Journalling now, set the root-partition to ro (readonly) and forbid the shell for root in /etc/passwd

    Finally, after all the recommended updates and security updates (el6, el7, rosa2014.1) and even the downgrade to the well-patched Konqueror 4.3.4 are installed and the opearting system always is starting in the several times we hope always "OK" signing text mode instead of the graphic mode in MCC->System-Start with xscreensaver and plymouth disabled (chmod 000 /usr/bin/plymouth, chmod 000 /usr/bin/xscreensaver* or rm -df, killall plymouthd), programs, that present their own login-masks from time to time and increase the time for system-restart and system-shutdown, and after all (even the many games) is running stable and fine and a 1:1-backup has been made on an extern media, in order to resign from overhead to enlarging the life-time of the used SSD, you can think about the deactivation of the last state backupening journalling-feature of reiserfs (analogous ext3 and ext4) just by using the

    mount option nolog the lines for the reiserfs based partitons in /etc/fstab. Notice, that options are separated by colons only in this file, no blanks at all.

    notail deactivates the storage of small files in the inodes (information knodes, index entry) of the filesystem, so this option can also be set.

    ro stands for read-only, that can be set for the root-partition. Notice, that no installs, updates and configuration in /etc is allowed anymore.

    "The option "nolog" and "nojou" turn off the journalling feature of ReiserFS. This gives performance gain for some applications, but you lose fault tolerance. That is, you must properly umount your disk, or else you will have to repair the filesystem using reiserfsck(8) on the subsequent boot.(or by a rescue usb-stick/CD/DVD)", Quelle: .

    A journalling filesystem enpossibles to increase the efficiency and security of the data- and memory-management by storing the data temporarily in a journal right before they are stored and administrated in the filesystem. An extra memory place is reservated for this journal. The journal guarants data consistency too, as it is keeping a consistent, reconstructable state in the case of troubles during write operations. This has got the advantage, that in the case of system hangons and -breakdowns the data are not only reconstructable, but also, that routines for the check and repair are not needed anymore during the systemstart.
    Examples for Journaling filesystems are: ReiserFS, NTFS, ext3/ext4 (Linux), JFS1/JFS2, HFJS (Hierarchical File Journaling System), BeFS (Be File System, BeOS) FFS (Berkeley Fast File System, BSD), SFS (SmartFilesystem) and PFS (Professional File System (Amiga)). Journalling filesystems can still be repaired by fsck resp. reiserfsck from a rescue-CD/DVD and -usb-sticks.

    For SSD following options might interest: nojou,nolog,notail,noatime,nodiratime,data=writeback,discard,user=xattr,iocharset=utf-8.

    At last, eacht time after updating resp. especially after updating the X-server, we set the variable

    "allow-root-login" like "allow-remote-login" again to "no". This has to be stored by "msec -s actual-security-level".

    OK All shell-logins should be disabled in /etc/passwd and therefore set to /sbin/nologin, except for surfuser, /bin/bash is still assigned to.

    OK The root-partiton should always be set read-only as already described.

    OK We summarize: The total secure OpenSource-Computersystem
    • founds in certified, revisioned hardware with many exchangeable, compatible parts and components and socked, crashfree bios (see our data-sheed) and
    • has already been updated and patched on a daily-update-channel over decades like and been configured well,
    • runs, including USB-memory-sticks full system encrypted (FSE),
    • offers a small rescue-partition for emegancies (out of Knoppix resp. Debian Linux, mindi or mondo etc.) upon one and the same solide state disk (SSD),
    • and no magnetic one,
    • does always run stable after solving the dependencies, never breaks down,
    • cares for enough free capacities (data-compressing, data-rubbish-deletion etc., new hardware )
    • provdies logins with restrictve amounts of login-attempts (almost three attempts) of increasing intervals of time-waits between them,
    • always works mouseclick-fast,
    • can be compiled and linked in error-free from source (here by command "make"),
    • forbids arbitrary program-execution and software-installation (only allowd within the root-mode, partitionwise option noexec)
    • protocols critical and emergency-states in logfiles, if still really needed,
    • supports with manpages (Manuals), info- and doc-files
    • works upon a scentific base, common standards and norms
    • includes a zero-emission-pad against the receipt of reconstractable monitor-gamma-radiation,
    • blocks as ruled in /etc/security/msec/level.* right from the beginning the root-login and its remote, the remote-root-login,
    • contains an effective sandbox like the access for the shell denying firejail,
    • blocks all pings (ICMP), all hacker and all backdoors and all trojans beginning with portscans (Portscan-Detection, PSD), working with a stringfilter upon data-payloads (main informaiton parts of transfered packages) like firewall linfw3,
    • eventually also uses an Intrusion Detection System (IDS, for example aide),
    • performs network analyzis from time to time (ethereal, wireshark, netstat),
    • minimizes the amount of running services by the system-configuration (resp. daemons like systemd) and autostarted programs
    • uses a local instead of a dynamic DNS-server (dnsmasq)
    • and dynamic (from time to time changing) IP-addresses of the old address-room IPv4,
    • changes or hides the UA-specification of the browser, blocks scripts over self-learnt (inner-completed) browser-ad- and scriptblocker, deactivating Java, JavaScript, extensions and history,
    • limits and secures the access through access rights already set within /etc/security/msec each system boot),
    • solves file-release etc. as much as
    • all requirments of the user through surface-covering software(-packages) and compiled-in tarballs,
    • checks out partition for errors and optimization each system boot,
    • permits single read-only (no write-operation allowed) upon the separate boot- and the root-partition,
    • evenutally controls the mandatory access ( MAC, Mandatory Access Control like acl, SELinux or Tomoyo) for secured interprocess-communication,
    • eventually contains a virus-scanner to check out attachements for any mail-viruses on the home-Partion,
    • encrypts all connections (best: end-to-end) and passwords well,
    • cares for Two-Factor-Authentification for submits,
    • is free from any maintenance (Task-)planer (cron),
    • might control access upon files from the background (incron)
    • automazises everything possible, even without user ( automatic powering on and off, suspend mode, sdparm, hdparm), task planner (cron), E-Mail-absence-notificaiton (vacation,...)
    • makes self-checks (part of msec) superfluos after having perfomed them first times,
    • learns itself from errors made,
    • reacts suitable for disabled too,
    • keeps user from making the wrong decision by requests (asking back) before operating,
    • does not cost much, consumpts rare power (<= electric bulb), runs on UPS in emergencies,
    • does even not need to make use of the journalling-feature of journalling-filesystems (restoring the last state right before the error occurs) against the cost of ( reached ) security and
    • blocking the login for all system user including root except the custom user in /etc/passwd .


    32-Bit-programs run on 64-bit-systems, but 32-Bit-Systems require 32-Bit-programs only. Actually not all programs are made of 64-Bit. The 64-Bit-version of Windows contains an emulator (WOW64) to run 32-bit-software. Packages for Linux like mdv are already compiled without such emulator in the two ways either x86_64 (64 bit) or i586 (32 bit), although both are running on 64-bit-systems. So we talk about mdv2010.x86_64, mdv2010.i586 and the source-code for both.

    For more IS-demands we can find a lot of software for security on the market and its amount is increasing day by day. And if you ask us, what is needed from it, it would be so much to encounter, that it is resulting in around nothing but zero and therefore around none at all!

    MS Windows never has been a problem for hacking professionals.

    Early black-coded MS Windows like 95 and SE did neiter run more stable than SuSE 7.3 nor they were running by a satisfying security-equipment. Updates have been provided over years and decandencies for successor XP by SP1 up to SP3 in the volume larger than its installation-CD of more than 750 MB . The following editions cared for security improvement - without constating, if ever enough. Generally, in conjunction with software, only the one performing the main functionalities regardless from lacks in security is the right, along software by software - regardelss from exploits, updates, but stability! The excursion resigns from all those software from markets by preferring complex,

    the almost the POSIX-standard fulfilling Open-Source UNIX-/Linux distribution of high-schools from almost one DVD. Although SuSE 7.3 from year 2002 did not run very stable, it seemed to be already well-equipped for security-tasks as in its core by file-systems like reiserfs. And, as we know, even MAC-OS from Apple inc. is a derivation from UNIX. Linux is used by supercomputers too. It always consists for a directory-structure out of boot out of ramdisc, kernel and boot-manager, bin and sbin for the exectuable system-files similar to usr with bin and lib for the applications, opt for large software-packages, etc for configuration, proc for details about processes, var for files like log-files created by processes, tmp for temporary files and so on. Even the NSA is using Linux by "The NSA Security Enhanced Linux kernel" selinux, a linux kernel with Mandatory Access Control (MAC).

    An illustrated introduction for MAC Tomoyo-Linux for mdv like 2010 is presented here

    In our eyes, Mandriva-final with its hugh repertoire of all kind of driver and software and Gentoo belong to the most secure Linux-Distros.Gentoo describes itself as a meta-distribution. The source code is compiled to binary applications on the user´s machine allowing near-unlimited adaptability and complete retraceability of the program logic. Beneath our best experiences with Mandriva-2007 and 2010-final and together wite belonging Source-DVD (DVD 3) we do not like to resign from recommending them.

    AppArmor gives you network application security via mandatory access control for programs, protecting against the exploitation of software flaws and compromised systems.

    To the kernel-security-modules belong apparmor, selinux, tomoyo and smurf, apparmor is most recommended. Start it by entering the boot-option security=apparmor into /boot/grub/menu.lst (analogous grub2):

    kernel (hd0,1)/vmlinuz-4.9.49 BOOT_IMAGE=4.9.49 root=UUID=... rootfstype=reiserfs elevator=deadline security=apparmor speedboot=yes apparmor=1 selinux=0 nosmp rsbac_softmode rsbac_um_no_excl KEYMAP=de LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 rd.luks=1 rd.multipath=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.luks.allow-discards rd.luks.uuid=... desktop=kde tz=Europe/Berlin vga=795

    Nevertheless our computer-system might does its best (mouseclick-fast, security) using apparmor. Notice, that the additionally installed rsbac-kernel (in our case kernel-rsbac-desktop-mdv2012, 3.1.1-1) got also activated by above boot-options "rsbac_softmode" and "rsbac_um_no_excl". .

    Another report from 2001 in conjunction with encrpytion from the Cambridge University Computer Laboratory about so called Zero Emission : "Decades ago international secret services use the fact, that all electronic devices, even PCs, do emit traitorous "compromitting" radiation. Out of a distance of many meters, even through walls, the image from the computer-monitor can be reproduced. Only a few users are conscious about this danger. The most popular method to reduce the danger of this radiation is to use expensive, special computers, consisting of a surface out of aluminium. They cost a mulitple of the unproteceted equivalent and must be maintained periodically. Such computer are called TEMPEST-secure (TEMPEST: Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Emanation Standard). Interesting to know of some sellers of such hardware do forward the addresses of their customers to organizations standing nearest to secret services. Further methodes base on radiation absorbing tents and special interfering transmitter. Together with our partner (partner from Steganos inc.), the Cambridge University from Geat Britain, we offer you the possiblity to make this radiation irrelevant by software ("Soft-Tempest"). Therefore the freeware texteditor Zero Emission Pad is developed to support as a worldwide, even for Unix (Linux) emulateable Editor the display with in certain kind reduced radiation (Patent GB 9801745.2)."

    allow_root_login = no

    and especially

    allow_remote_root_login = no

    in /etc/security/msec über

    msec -f secure

    msec: level 3 for "secure" resp. "server" or "server-mode" "limited remote only"). The many security-functions set for this level are listed in MCC, section "system security and check". Level 3 is for server and systems, that shall beware security. Since this time, our computer does not have any bluescreens, blackouts or anything else, while the first installation of mdv2010 got under massive attack like aiming to destroy everything of your computer with more than received 50 spam per day until we set it... Once this command is entered or this level is chosen by MCC out of /etc/security/msec/, the suneater is forced in main to stand outside...:

    OK /etc/security/msec/ (to go sure, overwrite all /etc/security/level.* and activate msec automatically within /etc/rc.local by command "msec -f secure"):


    ALLOW_REMOTE_ROOT_LOGIN=no # The remote root login by sshd is not allowed.
    ALLOW_ROOT_LOGIN=no # no chrooting and no login as superuser root allowed at the first login. Be careful: in the case of LUKS-encryption, a rescue system needs LUKS resp. cryptsetup to set this variable to "yes" again. Soon, after configuring Linfw3 the right way and considering other points of the following, there is at our knowledge no login from outside possible, even if the passwords are known, in the worst case only a very restricted access on unimportant data!


    EXCLUDE_REGEXP="*root* *.gpg *.asc"

    /etc/rc.local sh /etc/rc.local out of any runlevel-init-script within /etc/init.d/:
    # 1 SSD-Optimization hdparm -W1a0A0 /dev/sda
    echo deadline> /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler
    echo 500> /proc/sys/vm/dirty_writeback_centisecs
    echo 20> /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio
    echo 5> /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_ratio
    touch /var/lock/subsys/local
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/a*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/b*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/c*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/d*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/e*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/f*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/g*
    rm -df /var/spool/cups/h*
    rm -df /home/surfuser/.xauth*
    rm -df /home/toruser1/.xauth*
    rm -df /home/user/kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/Spam/cur/*
    # 2 Services
    # sh /etc/init.d/incrond start # IDS Intrusion Detection Access Detection
    # sh /etc/init.d/noflushd start
    # gpg-agent --daemon --use-standard-socket
    sh /etc/init.d/syslog start
    sh /etc/init.d/xfs start
    #sh /etc/init.d/psad start
    # dhclient -4 -cf /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf eth0 &
    # artsd&
    # acpid&
    # /usr/lib64/apparmorapplet&
    # apparmor-dbus&
    # killall plymouthd
    # 3 securityfs
    mount -t securityfs -o rw,noatime /sys/kernel/security /mnt2
    # 4 apparmor - protection shield for kernel, dbus and apps
    #apparmor_parser -af /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/usr.lib.firefox.firefox &
    #apparmor_parser -af /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/sbin.dhclient &
    #apparmor_parser -af /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/ &
    #apparmor_parser -af /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/usr.bin/passwd &
    #apparmor_parser -af /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/ &
    # 5 msec (MMC) - security options
    echo "ALLOW_REBOOT=yes"
    echo "BASE_LEVEL=secure">> /etc/security/msec/security.conf
    echo "ENABLE_STARTUP_MSEC=yes"> /etc/security/msec/security.conf
    echo "ENABLE_STARTUP_PERMS=enforce"> /etc/security/msec/security.conf
    msec -f secure
    # 6 ACL for X-Windows
    xhost -
    xhost +si:localuser:user
    xhost -si:localuser:root
    xhost -si:localuser:toruser1
    xhost -si:localuser:surfuser
    xhost -inet6:user@
    xhost -nis:user@ xhost - exit

    All xhost commends can be placed in /etc/rc.local, but "man xhost" recommends to store them in a file to create named /etc/X0.hosts :

    "The initial access control list for display number n may be set by the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is the display number of the server. See Xserver(1) for details." "Take care, that system-user do not have a shell anymore( so set all system-user including mysql, uuid and the actual user, but (almost) without user root (for root el6 waits until year 2020) and without our user named surfuser in /etc/passwd from /bin/bash to /sbin/nologin, /sbin/false resp. /usr/bin/rssh, comment by Gooken. Notice: Terminals do not work anymore except konsole reserved in /etc/fstab and the six screen-terminals before each login CTRL+ALT+F1-F6+F7; konsole still enables the login as superuser root). Install the hardened-packages, secure up server-tools correctly and care for those service only accessable from outside, that ought to be. Set correct limits in limits.conf, patch the kernel with a Stack-Smashing-Guard and the system is secured up well. If you are entirely paranoid, also use an IDS filtering out the unwanted taffict (for examle the traffic including the NOPs or shell-codes not corresponding to the meant protocol and so on). Then, Tripwire or AIDE help to notice all changes within the file-sytem and to perform regular checks of files. SSH-Login should be restricted to key-authentification and with ACLs (SELinux, tomoyo or acl, cmt. by Gooken) it is possible, that user can only view the files they are using. Temporary-directories (not only) of the webservers should be mounted by option noexec (to add in /etc/fstab, cmt. by Gooken), so that no programs can be let through and installed with the help of the webserver, even if allowed by CGI-script-errrors making it possible. CGI-scripts should never have access on files outside the document-root, one should know, what is task of the scripts. Use skipfish to detect directory-traversal-access-points and similiar typical access-points, bevor such scripts are provided on the server. Now a server is secured-up well. As long as Linux-kernel consists of new lacks in security, Linux will never be secure on the computer. Therefore fast updating makes up the security for server.

    If a hacker can access a shell, the situation is lost. Then even a chroot-environment does not help. This is not worth the trouble. Use the standards for securing up server.

    Of course a direct root-login via ssh should be impossible. One can not exclude the case like user loosing ssh-keys. This should be no reason, to go on with bruteforce-methods like a passoword-login via ssh, if you are such paranoid.
    Apart from that I do not know any true and honest webshoster providing a shell for his user. Such hoster forbidding shell-accounts amost use a restricted shell only enpossibles the start of certain commands. Access-rights within the file-system are performed by ACLs. Going sure, that webscripts can not access system directories, the webserver-process should be chrooted, but not all user. This process can be run in within a VM, from where it is more difficult to break out than by chroot. Alternatively use SELinux and restrict the access-rights by roles. Doing so, you can simply care for webserver not starting any programs. This is, what it is made for.

    [...] One more addditions to the helpful hints from bitmuncher: One oppportunity for isolaiton is provided by OpenVZ. This makes it possible to set a virtual instance each user. [...]. For example for webhosting, using a reverse proxy for the server would make sense. The advanage is, that n+1 Webserver have to be started and run. If done by Apache or a more light-weighted alternative, this is the other question. At the moment, I use lighttpd + fastCGI PHP, where PHP-Instances are running with their own user. Of course, Apache manages this too. And I am more with the configuration of Apache."

    OKAll system and user accounts should have a password. Set it, if not and

    OKmany, if not most (unneeded) accounts ( within /etc/passwd ) can be locked. Do so by terminal-command or MMC->System-> User-Administration -> Edit an account -> lock the account except for user root, surfuser and toruser:

    passwd -l user


    passwd -u user

    with Option -l for lock and -u for unlock. Depending on the pam.d-configuration the user named "user" can be locked too, if he always gets automatically logged into KDE, what can be configured by the login manager. Then an unlocking of the screenlock gets impossible for user.

    cat /etc/passwd (be a little bit careful with these settings, cups for your printer might not work anymore): nano /etc/passwd respective,after the root-login got locked too by /sbin/nologin, "user account administration" out of MMC (the system-configuration) enpossibles the following configuration of the shell-logins each user (if not locked, in this case: additionally and optionally)::

    OK Now all accounts depending on pamd and an automized desktop login including (!) the normal user, in our example toruser1, except surfuser should be passwort-protected and locked and be associated with the login /sbin/nologin. Lock him by clicking upon user administration of MMC, clicking upon it to set the belonging hook. Before the Tor-browser can be used for anonymous surfing with Tor, the login for the toruser-account has to be reset to /bin/bash.
    root:x:0:0:root:/root:/sbin/nologin # "Sanked terminal-root-login": olala, the right pam.d-configuration makes it possible, ... what an important contribute to security! Notice: Now a reset to /bin/bash again can only be made by the user-administration of MMC or booted Rescue-USB-Stick and so on after a mount and reset to /bin/bash within this configuraton file.
    toruser1:x:506:504:torgroup:/home/toruser1:/sbin/nologin # to use tor-browser, reset last value from /sbin/nologin to /bin/bash. Do so for tor-browser and eventulally other processes resp. programs going online except ftp-clients (ftp, sftp, ..) and the browser, that should still start for user surfuser and group surfgroup. For the other processes, additionally use firejail with option shell none (of the configuation-file within /etc/firejail). Notice, that such settings for the shell-access for different user should be made by MMC (system-configuration) within the user-administration, as they can not be done in each by terminal in each case.
    How the onion-router and anonymizing browser Tor with belonging account has to be installed and configured under Linfw3, is described here (please click here).
    -1:x:-1::::/sbin/nologin # block all unknown user (and buggish programs. If the computer should have ever slown down, this was the cause!)
    polkituser:x:16:16:system user for policykit:/sbin/nologin
    haldaemon:x:17:17:system user for hal:/sbin/nologin
    mysql:x:71:71:system user for mysql:/var/lib/mysql:/sbin/nologin
    clamav:x:72:72:system user for clamav:/var/lib/clamav:/sbin/nologin
    user:10000:10000:user:/home/user:/sbin/nologin# does not work on mdv-USB-stick, so set /bin/bash
    rpcuser:x:29:29:RPC Service User:/var/lib/nfs:/sbin/nologin
    popa3d:x:93:93:system user for popa3d:/var/empty:/sbin/nologin
    toruser:x:415:415:system user for tor:/:/sbin/nologin
    openvpn:x:420:421:system user for openvpn:/var/lib/openvpn:/bin/true
    ossec:x:82:114:system user for ossec-hids:/var/lib/ossec:/sbin/nologin
    usbmux:x:90:90:system user for usbmuxd:/proc:/sbin/nologin

    messagebus:x:13:101:system user for dbus:/sbin/nologin
    avahi:x:14:102:system user for avahi:/var/avahi:/sbin/nologin
    avahi-autoipd:x:15:103:system user for avahi:/var/avahi:/sbin/nologin
    rpm:x:18:18:system user for rpm:/var/lib/rpm:/sbin/nologin
    tkit:x:19:107:system user for rtkit:/proc:/sbin/nologin

    vcsa:x:69:69:virtual console memory owner:/dev:/sbin/nologin
    postfix:x:73:73:system user for postfix:/var/spool/postfix:/sbin/nologin
    apache:x:74:74:system user for apache-conf:/var/www:/sbin/nologin
    gdm:x:75:75:system user for gdm:/var/lib/gdm:/sbin/nologin
    halevt:x:76:76:system user for halevt:/var/lib/halevt:/sbin/nologin
    mpd:x:77:81:system user for mpd:/var/lib/mpd:/sbin/nologin
    saned:x:78:78:system user for saned:/home/saned:/sbin/nologin
    squid:x:79:79:system user for squid:/var/spool/squid:/sbin/nologin
    prelude-manager:x:80:112:system user for prelude-manager:/var/lib/prelude-manager:/sbin/nologin
    vdr:x:81:113:system user for vdr:/var/lib/vdr:/bin/nologin
    ossec:x:82:114:system user for ossec-hids:/var/lib/ossec:/sbin/nologin
    dansguardian:x:83:115:system user for dansguardian:/var/lib/dansguardian:/sbin/nologin
    torrent:x:84:84:system user for bittorrent:/var/lib/bittorrent:/sbin/nologin
    mythtv:x:85:85:system user for mythtv:/var/lib/mythtv:/sbin/nologin
    freevo:x:86:86:system user for freevo:/usr/share/freevo:/sbin/nologin
    gnump3d:x:87:87:system user for gnump3d:/var/cache/gnump3d:/sbin/nologin

    torrent:x:84:84:system user for bittorrent:/var/lib/bittorrent:/sbin/nologin
    audit:x:404:404:RSBAC security auditor:/dev/null:/sbin/nologin
    firebird:x:418:418:system user for firebird:/var/lib/firebird/data:/sbin/nologin
    usbmux:x:90:90:system user for usbmuxd:/proc:/sbin/nologin
    asterisk:x:91:91:system user for asterisk:/var/lib/asterisk:/sbin/nologin
    ups:x:92:92:system user for nut:/var/state/ups:/sbin/nologin
    boinc:x:421:422:system user for boinc-client:/var/lib/boinc:/sbin/nologin
    postgres:x:399:399:system user fo postgresql8.4:/var/lib/pgsql:/sbin/nologin
    rrdcached:x:398:398:system user for rrdtool:/var/lib/rrdcached:/sbin/nologin
    puppet:x:397:397:system user for puppet:/var/lib/puppet:/sbin/nologin
    smolt:x:393:393:system user for smolt:/usr/share/smolt:/sbin/nologin

    clam:x:388:498:Clam Anti Virus Checker:/var/lib/clamav:/sbin/nologin
    znc:x:387:497:Account for ZNC to run as:/var/lib/znc:/sbin/nologin
    toranon:x:386:496:TOR anonymizing user:/var/lib/tor:/sbin/nologin
    icecast:x:385:385:icecast streaming server:/usr/share/icecast:/sbin/nologin
    munge:x:383:494:Runs Uid ´N´ Gid Emporium:/var/run/munge:/sbin/nologin
    nm-openconnect:x:382:493:NetworkManager user for OpenConnect:/:/sbin/nologin
    zabbix:x:381:492:Zabbix Monitoring System:/var/lib/zabbix:/sbin/nologin
    unbound:x:380:490:Unbound DNS resolver:/etc/unbound:/sbin/nologin
    pulse:x:378:488:PulseAudio System Daemon:/var/run/pulse:/sbin/nologin
    dockerroot:x:172:172:Docker User:/var/lib/docker:/sbin/nologin
    amandabackup:x:33:6:Amanda user:/var/lib/amanda:/sbin/nologin
    clam-update:x:171:483:clamav-unofficial-sigs user account:/var/lib/clamav-unofficial-sigs:/sbin/nologin
    vtl:x:170:481:VTL daemon:/opt/mhvtl:/sbin/nologin
    vnstat:x:207:207:vnStat user:/var/lib/vnstat:/sbin/nologin
    ez-ipupd:x:201:480:Dynamic DNS Client:/var/cache/ez-ipupdate:/sbin/nologin
    ricci:x:140:140:ricci daemon user:/var/lib/ricci:/sbin/nologin
    luci:x:141:141:luci high availability management application:/var/lib/luci:/sbin/nologin
    lighttpd:x:499:479:lighttpd web server:/var/www/lighttpd:/sbin/nologin
    zope:x:94:94:system user for zope:/var/lib/zope/default:/sbin/nologin
    fax:x:95:95:system user for mgetty:/var/spool/fax:/sbin/nologin
    ntp:x:96:96:system user for openntpd:/var/empty:/sbin/nologin

    secoff:x:400:400:RSBAC security officer:/secoff:/sbin/nologin
    audit:x:404:404:RSBAC security auditor:/dev/null:/sbin/nologin

    /etc/security/msec/ (to be careful, overwrite all /etc/security/msec/perm.*):

    directory_or_file access-rights force

    chkstat of permissions (OpenSuSE 13.2) and /etc/security/msec/ (overwrite all /etc/security/msec/perm.* and activate it in /etc/rc.local by the command "msecperms -q"), but be careful, your printer might not work and no sound can be heart anymoure after the following settings. So comment "msecperms -q" in by a leading "#" and start it from terminal. Alsa might has to be restarted too.

    file_or_directory access-right force acl

    OK / root.root 0111 force
    /bin/ root.root 751 force
    /bin/mount root.root 4755 force # ... this first cipher with 4: setuid-/setgid- resp.suid-bit for user, 2: 2xxx sgid for group, 1: 1xxxx t for other, 0: no suid-bit; suid effects the process into rights of the owner of the executed file instead those of its executing user. This might be dangerous as processes of non privliged user can achieve dangerous more priviligues. Therefore such suid-files are aimed for attacks. More details, see "man chmod" In the last row, acl for other user, groups and other can also be set following the command setfacl, details see man setfacl, and the explanation in msec-gui for access-rights, short example: setfacl -m u:user1:- directory_or_file1,g:group1:r-x directory_or_file2,.u:... Masks can also be set. Set acl are shown in the listing of a directory or directory-contents by a "+" behind the access-rights. For this do not forget the activation by opton acl for the root partition in /etc/fstab.
    /bin/umount root.root 4755 force
    /boot/ root.root 710 force
    /root root.root 700 force
    /dev root.root 751 force
    /etc/ root.root 751 force
    /etc/fstab root.root 644 force
    /etc/init.d root.root 700 force # chmod 700 -R /etc/init.d
    /etc/init.d/functions root.root 600 force
    /etc/init.d/* root.root 700 force
    /etc/rc*.d root.root 700 force
    /etc/passwd root.root 644 force
    /etc/shadow root.root 400 force
    /home/ root.root 711 force
    /home/user/usr root.root 700 force
    /home/user/usr/* root.root 700 force
    /home/user/.a* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.b* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.d* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.e* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.f* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.g* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.h* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.i* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.j* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.k* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.l* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.m* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.n* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.o* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.p* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.q* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.r* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.s* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.u* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.v* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.w* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.x* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.y* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.z* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/a* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/b* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/d* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/e* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/f* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/k* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/l* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/m* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/M* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/n* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/N* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/o* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share user.user 500 force
    /home/user/.kde4 user.user 500 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/inbox user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/inbox/* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/outbox/* user.user 700 force
    /home/user/Dokumente user.user 700 force
    /home/surfuser surfuser.surfuser 700 force
    /home/surfuser/.mozilla surfuser.surfuser 300 force
    /home/surfuser/.mozilla/* surfuser.surfuser 700 force
    /home/surfuser/JAP* surfuser.surfuser 400 force
    /include root.root 751 force
    /lib/ root.root 751 force
    /lib64 root.root 751 force
    /media root.root 711 force
    /mnt/ root.root 750 force
    /opt root.root 751 force
    /proc root.root 555 force
    /sbin/ root.root 751 force
    /sbin/init root.root 750 force
    /sbin/udevd root.root 750 force
    /sys root.root 751 force
    /sys/* root.root 751 force
    /tmp/ root.root 1777 force
    /usr root.root 751 force
    /usr/* root.root 755 force
    /usr/bin/ping root.root 0755 force
    /usr/bin/rlogin root.root 4755 force
    /usr/bin/cc root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/finger root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/g++* root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/gcc* root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/kdm root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/ssh root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/telnet root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/users root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/w root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/who root.root 750 force
    /usr/bin/gpasswd root.shadow 0755 force
    /usr/bin/passwd root.shadow 0755 force
    /usr/bin/rlogin root.root 0750 force
    /usr/bin/uucp uucp.uucp 6555 force
    /usr/bin/uustat uucp.uucp 6555 force
    /usr/bin/newrole root.root 0755 force
    /usr/bin/uux uucp.uucp 6555 force
    /usr/bin/rsh root.root 0700 force
    /usr/bin/chfn root.shadow 0700 force
    /usr/bin/chage root.shadow 0700 force
    /usr/bin/chsh root.shadow 0700 force
    /usr/bin/v4l-conf 0755 force
    /usr/bin/wall root.tty 0755 force
    /usr/bin/write root.tty 0755 force
    /usr/games root.root 751 force
    /usr/include root.root 751 force
    /usr/etc root.root 751 force
    /usr/java root.root 751 force
    /usr/lib64 root.root 751 force
    /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/kcheckpass root.shadow 4755 force
    /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/kdesud root.nogroup 2755 force
    /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/start_kdeinit root.root 4755 force
    /usr/lib root.root 751 force
    /usr/lib/cups root.root 775 force
    /usr/lib/cups/filter root.root 775 force
    /var/spool/cups root.sys 711 force
    /var/cache/cups root.sys 775 force
    /usr/libexec/rtkit-daemon root.root 750 force
    /usr/libexec/polkit-1/polkitd root.root 750 force
    /usr/libexec/postfix/master root.root 750 force
    /usr/man root.root 751 force
    /usr/share/docs root.root 755 force
    /usr/libexec root.root 751 force
    /usr/local root.root 751 force
    /usr/local/bin root.root 751 force
    /usr/src root.root 700 force
    /usr/src/rpm root.root 700 force
    /usr/src/rpm/SOURCES root.root 700 force
    /usr/src/* root.root 700 force
    /usr/share root.root 751 force
    /usr/share/* root.root 755 force
    /usr/sbin/ root.root 751 force
    /usr/sbin/mtr root.dialout 0750 force
    /usr/sbin/lockdev root.lock 2755 force
    /usr/sbin/pppoe-wrapper root.dialout 4750 force
    /usr/sbin/chroot root:root 4700 force
    /usr/sbin/gpm root.root 750 force
    /usr/sbin/init root.root 750 force
    /usr/sbin/sendmail.postfix root.root 711 force
    /usr/sbin/prelink root.root 750 force
    /usr/sbin/mingetty root.root 750 force
    /usr/share/doc root.root 755 force
    /usr/share/man root.root 755 force
    /usr/ssl root.root 751 force
    /usr/tmp root.root 1777 force
    /usr/uclibc root.root 751 force
    /usr/X11R6 root.root 751 force
    /var/tmp root.root 1777 force
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/ root.root 700 force
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/* root.root 700 force
    /etc/shutdown.allow root.root 640 force
    /etc/sysconfig root.root 755 force
    /etc/syslog.conf root.root 640 force
    /etc/updatedb.conf root.root 644 force
    /etc/printcap root.lp 640 force
    /bin/ping root.root 4750 force
    /bin/rpm rpm.rpm 750 force
    /dev/ root.root 751 force
    /etc/conf.modules root.root 640 force
    /etc/cron.daily/ root.root 750 force
    /etc/cron.hourly/ root.root 750 force
    /etc/cron.monthly/ root.root 750 force
    /etc/cron.weekly/ root.root 750 force
    /etc/crontab root.root 640 force
    /etc/dhcpcd/ root.root 750 force
    /etc/dhcpcd/* root.root 640 force
    /etc/ftpaccess root.root 640 force
    /etc/ftpconversions root.root 640 force
    /etc/ftpgroups root.root 640 force
    /etc/ftphosts root.root 640 force
    /etc/ftpusers root.root 640 force
    /etc/gettydefs root.root 640 force
    /etc/hosts.allow root.root 644 force
    /etc/hosts.deny root.root 644 force
    /etc/hosts.equiv root.root 640 force
    /etc/httpd/modules.d/*.conf root.root 640 force
    /etc/httpd/conf/*.conf root.root 640 force
    /etc/httpd/conf/addon-modules/* root.root 640 force
    /etc/httpd/conf/vhosts.d/* root.root 640 force
    /etc/httpd/conf/webapps.d/* root.root 640 force
    /etc/init.d root.root 700 force
    /etc/init.d/* root.root 700 force
    /etc/inetd.conf root.root 640 force
    /etc/inittab root.root 640 force
    /etc/ root.root 640 force
    /etc/mandrake-release root.root 644 force
    /etc/modules.conf root.root 640 force
    /etc/motd root.root 644 force
    /etc/rc.d/ root.root 700 force
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions root.root 600
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/mandrake_consmap root.root 644
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/xprint root.root 700
    /etc/securetty root.root 640
    /etc/security root.root 700 force
    /etc/security/msec root.root 500 force
    /etc/security/msec/* root.root 500 force
    /etc/ root.root 640 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_config root.root 644 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*key root.root 600 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_host_* root.root 644 force
    /etc/ssh/sshd_config root.root 640 force
    /etc/X11 root.root 710 force
    /etc/X11/xorg.conf root.root 400 force
    /etc/shadow root.shadow 0640 force
    /etc/hosts root.root 0644 force
    /etc/hosts.allow root.root 0644 force
    /etc/hosts.deny root.root 0644 force
    /etc/hosts.equiv root.root 0644 force
    /etc/ root.root 0644 force
    /etc/ppp/ root.dialout 0750 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key root.root 0600 force
    /etc/ssh/ root.root 0644 force
    /usr/sbin/traceroute root.root 0755 force
    /etc/crontab root.root 0600 force
    /etc/ftpusers root.root 0644 force
    /etc/syslog.conf root.root 0600 force
    /bin/ping root.root 4750 force
    /home/* current.current 751
    /usr/lib/rpm/rpm? rpm.rpm 750 force
    /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail root.root 2711
    /usr/sbin/traceroute root.root 4750 force
    /var/ root.root 751 force
    /var/lib/rpm/Packages rpm.rpm 640 force
    /var/lib/pcp/tmp root.root 0755 force
    /var/lib/pcp/tmp/pmlogger root.root 0755 force
    /var/lib/pcp/tmp/pmie/ root.root 0755 force
    /var/lock/subsys root.root 750 force
    /var/log/ root.root 751 force
    /var/log/* root.root 640 force
    /var/log/btmp root.utmp 600 force
    /var/log/wtmp root.utmp 664 force
    /var/log/Xorg.0.log root.root current
    /var/log/lp-errs lp.lp 600 root
    /var/log/*/* root.root 600 force
    /var/log/*/*/* root.root 600 force
    /var/log/*/. root.root 700 force
    /var/log/*/*/. root.root 700 force
    /var/log/intraline/. root.root 750 force
    /var/log/mailman/ root.root 2770 force
    /var/log/mailman/* root.root 660 force
    /var/log/ConsoleKit root.root 751 force
    /var/log/ConsoleKit/history root.root 644 force
    /var/log/squid squid.root 0750 force
    /var/spool root.root 0755 force
    /var/spool/mqeue root.root 0700 force
    /var/spool/news news:news 0755 force
    /var/spool/uucp uucp:uucp 0755 force
    /var/spool/mail root.root 1777 force
    /var/cache/man root.root 1777 force
    /var/log/lastlog root.root 0644 force
    /var/log/lastlog root.root 0644 force
    /var/log/faillog root.root 000 force
    /var/log/wtmp root.utmp 0664 force
    /var/log/btmp root.root 0600 force
    /var/run/utmp root.utmp 0664 force
    /var/spool root.root 0755 force
    /var/www root.root 751 force
    /bin root.root 751 force
    /sbin root.root 751 force
    /srv root.root 751 force
    /sys root.root 751 force
    /lib root.root 751 force
    /lib64 root.root 751 force
    /etc root.root 751 force
    /proc root.root 555 force
    /secoff root.root 710 force
    /var root.root 711 force
    /misc root.root 710 force
    /media root.root 755 force
    /opt root.root 711 force
    /mnt root.root 755 force
    /dev/ root.root 751 force
    /dev/zero root.root 666 force
    /dev/null root.root 666 force
    /dev/full root.root 666 force
    /dev/ip root.root 660 force
    /dev/initrd root.disk 660 force
    /dev/kmem root.kmem 640 force
    /etc/opiekeys root.root 600 force
    /etc/ppp/ root.dialout 750 force
    /etc/ppp/chap-secrets root.root 600 force
    /etc/ppp/pap-secrets root.root 600 force
    /etc/sysconfig/network/providers/ root.root 700 force
    /usr/sbin/utempter root.utmp 2755 force
    /usr/lib/utempter/utempter root.utmp 2755 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key root.root 600 force
    /etc/ssh/ root.root 644 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key root.root 600 force
    /etc/ssh/ root.root 644 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key root.root 600 force
    /etc/ssh/ root.root 644 force
    /etc/ssh/ssh_config root.root 644 force
    /etc/ssh/sshd_config root.root 640 force
    /usr/bin/suidperl root.root 755 force
    /usr/sbin/papd root.lp 0755 force
    /var/games/ root.root 0755 force
    /usr/bin/ziptool root.root 0750 force
    /lib/udev/devices/net/tun root.root 0666 force
    /lib/udev/devices/null root.root 0666 force
    /lib/udev/devices/ptmx root.tty 0666 force
    /lib/udev/devices/tty root.tty 0666 force
    /lib/udev/devices/zero root.root 0666 force
    /var/lib/named/dev/null root.root 0666 force
    /var/lib/named/dev/random root.root 0666 force
    /usr/bin/opiesu root.root 0755 force
    /usr/bin/wodim root.root 0755 force

    do nothing set within: /var/spool (the mouse-pointer can stand still; thats because of postfix noticing changing owner-rights) ...

    ACL: setfacl (for setfacl, alternatively resp. additionally set configuration files of sandbox firejail within /etc/firejail/. While ACL-rules (setfacl) refer to a user or a group, configuration files of firejail almost refer to programs and MAC like Tomoyo to domains (resp. processes). We recommend all, but especially ACL. For ACL the mount-option acl and user_xattr have to be set in /etc/fstab for the belonging partition.
    Insert an ACL by the command "setfacl -m u:anyuser:access-rights with access-rights out of rwx- and delete an ACL by the command "setfacl -x a_user path_to_directory_or_file". Here are our recommended ACLs to build up a most secure system:

    Set setfacl -m u:surfuser:- within /usr/bin onto all files except executables (setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/executable):
    and all other programs (exectuables resp. commands out of /usr/bin/) together wie alls commands they also need, that should be started by surfuser. Resign from dbus*, if Konqueror is not needed for the surfing. Do the same with some care within /bin, /sbin/, /usr/sbin and /usr/libexec and so on - but never within the libraries ( /lib, /usr/lib64/, ...)..

    For such all other programs like tor and tor-browser, xchat and so on think about one more surfuser like toruser1 belonging to the group like torgroup..Do not restrict toruser1 that serious hard like surfuser, as the Tor-Browser (Tor) needs a lot of access-rights, but you can run Tor (Tor-Browser) within an own sandbox (see section configuration of Tor)..

    In other words (but notice, that setfacl for surfuser within /usr/bin have been made already in the configuration right above):

    Now we obtain a linfw3 perfectly completing, allround-protection for the computer performing, totally securing sandbox upon quit all directories and files Linux provides without restricting program executions. Notice, that you have to set the ACL-rights again for overwritten executable files within /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/share/ and /usr/libexec following past each (rpm-/deb-/Tarball-) reinstallation and -update. ACL for samba, httpd and other server are missing, so they still have to be added:

    OK setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/gam_server # One brake less...; also exchange gamin (mdv2010) with gamin (fc29, pclos2017) and copy /usr/libexec/gam_server to /usr/lib/
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/libexec/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:root:- /usr/libexec/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/lib/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:root:- /usr/lib/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:root:- /usr/libexec/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /usr/libexec/gam_server # -1: all unknown user
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib/gam_server # for gamin-server (fc26, OpenSuSE 13.2 and so on) ...
    setfacl -m u:root:- /usr/lib/gam_server #
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /usr/lib/gam_server #
    setfacl -m u:user:- /usr/bin/nspluginscan* # ... one more brake less
    setfacl -m u:user:- /usr/bin/application-browser* # ... and once more a brake less
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/nspluginscan*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/application-browser*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /boot # if not already set to read-only (ro)
    setfacl -m u:user:- /boot # if not already set to read-only (ro)
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /mnt # Tor-Browser
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /media
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /home/user
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /home/surfuser
    OKsetfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/su
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /bin/su
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /bin/mount
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/mount
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/rsh
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/rlogin
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/ssh
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /bin/ssh # and to not forget to use firejail with option "shell none" before starting processes by toruser1
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /opt
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /sbin
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/local
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /etc/fstab*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /etc/mtab*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /etc/crypttab*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/libexec/gam_server
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/knotify*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/nspluginscan*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/libexec/mysql*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /usr/bin/mysql*
    setfacl -m u:toruser1:- /etc/shadow*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /usr/bin
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/sbin/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/sbin/dnsmasq
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/sbin/unbound
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /bin
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /sbin
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /usr/games
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /usr/lib64
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /lib64
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /usr/libexec
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /lib/modules
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /lib
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:--x /home
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc
    setfacl -x surfuser /sbin
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /lib64
    setfacl -x surfuser /home
    setfacl -x surfuser /run
    setfacl -x surfuser /tmp
    setfacl -x surfuser /proc
    setfacl -x surfuser /secoff
    setfacl -x surfuser /dev
    setfacl -x surfuser /current
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/arch #
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/basename #
    OKsetfacl -x surfuser /bin/bash
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/grep* # you might block it too
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/cp # try to disable cp too
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/cut #
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/mktemp #
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/ps #
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/sed # sed might be needed
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/sort #
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/uname # or keep uname blocked
    setfacl -x surfuser /bin/hostname #
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/su
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/su
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/mysql*
    setfacl -m u:root:r-x /etc/resolv.conf # after configuration of dnsmasq
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /mnt # standard mount-point
    OKsetfacl -m u:surfuser:- /media # block access to USB-memory-sticks and so on
    setfacl -m u:user:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail
    setfacl -m u:root:- /home/user
    setfacl -m u:root:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/uuid*
    setfacl -m u:root:- /home/user/.wine
    setfacl -m u:root:- /home/surfuser/.wine
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.gnupg
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.gnupg
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/acpi*
    setfacl -x surufser /etc/alternatives*
    setfacl -x surufser /etc/alternatives/java*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/bash*
    setfacl -x:surfuser /etc/cups
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/default*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/dbus*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/dnsmasq*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/firejail*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/firefox*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/firebird*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/font*
    setfacl -m u:user:r-x /etc/fstab
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/nsswitch*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/profile*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/pam*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/pango*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/passwd*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/services*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/tor*
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/host*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /etc/resolv.conf
    setfacl -x surfuser /etc/resolv.dnsmasq*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /sbin
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/sbin
    setfacl -m u:user:- /usr/lib64/firefox
    setfacl -m u:user:- /usr/lib64/thunderbird
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/local # oder
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/local/LINFW3
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib/modules*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /root
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /initrd
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /srv
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /smack
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /net
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /misc
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /var/lib/rpm
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /opt
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /secoff
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /sid-root
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /cgroup
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /lost+found
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /sbin
    ssetfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /lib64
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /lib
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/lib
    setfacl -x surfuser:r-x /usr/lib64
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/ssl
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/tmp
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/var
    etfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/src
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/sbin
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/sbin/traceroute*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /usr/lib
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /usr/lib64/kde4
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:rwx /usr/lib64/tor-browser # sandboxed tor-browser for chown -R surfuser:surfuser -R /usr/lib64/tor-browser
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec # miroplayer. setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /usr/libexec
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/share/* ##
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/app*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/font*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/cups*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/freetuxtv*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/gnome-translate*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/gftp*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/gvfs*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/icon*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/java*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/konqueror*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/locale*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/miro*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/merkaartor*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/mime*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/net*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/pidgin*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/pixmap*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/share/tor*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/games/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/gtkatlantic*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/maniadrive*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/eternallands*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/brutalchess*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/eboard*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/xboard*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/openmortal*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/games/secondlife # and so on for all games to play online
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin # ...
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/blogilo
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/blogtk
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/bash*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/choqok
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/mplayer # mplayer-browser-plugin
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/ciao_get*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/cp # try to disable cp too
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/dbus*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/dnsmasq*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/env*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/firefox* # sandoxed firefox, quit the same for chrome; additionally firejail can be used in both cases too.
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/freetuxtv
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/frostwire
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/firejail
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gdict*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/xfce4-dict*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gdb
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/glinuxsms
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gnome-translate*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gtk-gnutella
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gconf*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gftp*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/id
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/java*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/jovie*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kiax*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kphone*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/linphone*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/ekiga*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kaddressbookmigrator
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kbookmarkmerger
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/keditbookmarks*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/konqueror*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/konversation
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kopete*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/klaunch*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kcm*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kcheckrunning*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kcachegrind*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kcookiejar4*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kded*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kdeinit*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kdekillall*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kdepasswd*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kdestroy*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kde_generate_export*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/knemo
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/konqueror # sandoxed konqueror (kde-browser); additionally firejail can be used too.
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kopete*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/krunner*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/ktts*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kwrite*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/gedit*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kvirc*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/kate*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/marble
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/merkaartor
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/miro
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/new*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/nettle*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/pavuk
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/perl* # needed for drakfax or keep perl blocked
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/pidgin*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/ping* # especially for server
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/putty
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/sed
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/sg
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/strace
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/tor*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/tvbrowser
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/vlc # vlc-player-browser-plugin
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/wget
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/whereis
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/whois
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/xauth
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/xchat
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/bin/zenity
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/* #check, if following exceptions are complete
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/accessx*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/at-spi*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/cheese*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/certmonger*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/clang*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/clean*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/dbus-daemon-launch*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/docker*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/fprintd*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/gconf*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/gedit-2*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/ikiwiki*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/kde4*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/nm*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/openldap* # maybe openssh too
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/pulse*
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/libexec/squid*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/kde4/ksendbugm*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/ktelnet*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/test*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/libexec/kdesu*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/kdesud
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/krootimage
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/knetattach
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/lib64/kde4/libexec/lnusertemp*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /usr/lib64/netscape/plugins/*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /var/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /var/lib
    setfacl -x surfuser /var/tmp
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /var/run/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /var/run/tor
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /var/lib/*
    setfacl -x surfuser /var/lib/dbus*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /var/spool/*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /var/spool/cups # print-server
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.gnupg
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.gnupg
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.history
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.*history
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.local/share/systemd
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.local/share/applications
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.xinitrc
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.xprofile
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.config/autostart
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde4/share/autostart
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.conifg/plasma-workspace
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.conifg/plasma-workspace
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.config/plasma-workspace*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.config/lxsession*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:-/home/surfuser/ /.fluxbox/startup
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:-/home/surfuser/ /.config/openbox/autostart
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/config/openbox/.autostart
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/config/openbox/.environment*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.gnomerc
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.xserverrc
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.profile*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.antigen
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.bash*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.zsh*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.zlogin*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/..zprofile*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/..tcsh*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.csh*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.profile
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.caffrc
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.dotfiles
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.mailcap
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.exrc
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.vim*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.gvim*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.ssh*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.cert*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:r-x /home/surfuser/.gnome2-keyrings*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde4/share/apps/kwallet
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde/share/apps/kwallet
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.local/share/kwallet*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.config/keybase*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.netrc*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.gnupg
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde4
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde4/share
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde4/share/apps
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/surfuser/.kde4/share/apps/kmail
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.kde4/share/apps
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.kde4/share
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/user/.kde4
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /home/redis
    setfacl -m u:redis:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:root:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:root:- /home/user
    setfacl -m u:root:- /usr/games/*
    setfacl -m u:user:- /etc/security
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /etc/security
    setfacl -m u:adm:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:adm:- /home/user
    setfacl -m u:adm:- /mnt
    setfacl -m u:adm:- /media
    setfacl -m u:haldaemon:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:messagebus:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:postfix:- /media
    setfacl -m u:postfix:- /mnt
    setfacl -m u:postfix:- /tmp
    setfacl -m u:haldaemon:- /tmp
    setfacl -x surfuser /usr/java # tvbrowser
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /tmp # -1: all unknown user
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /home/user
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /home/surfuser
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /media
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /mnt
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /
    setfacl -m g:-1:- /
    Those ACL are enough for securing quit all up, but here are some single rules of the already included from above just to think about:
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/su*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/su*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/knotify4 # ... one more brake less...this zombie-process knotify4 out of kdebase4-runtime (mdv2010, 4.4.5) can be exchanged with kdebase4-runtime (OpenSuSE, 4.4.4-3.1.5 from year 2012/2013, more actual (el6)) using the archiv-manager file-roller or set "chmod 000 /usr/bin/knotify4". If there is no welcome-melody to hear at system-startup, enter a new desktop-file into /usr/share/autostart with "exec=mplayer .../startmelody.wav".
    setfacl -m u:-1:- / # -1: all unknown user
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /usr/bin/knotify4 #
    setfacl -m u:-1:- /usr # -1
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/msyql*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/kmail
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/akonadi*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/nepomuk*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/ls* # needed by frostwire
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/python* # but enable access for Miro (miroplayer)
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/perl*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/dolphin*
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/grep # maybe enable
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/grep # maybe enable
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/ssh # enable, if you use SSH
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/rm # incredible, but this is really possibe!
    setfacl -m u:user:- /bin/rm
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/rm
    setfacl -m u:user:- /usr/bin/rm # Beim Entpacken mit Archivierern wie file-roller angelegte temporäre Verzeichnisse werden dann allerdings nicht mehr gelöscht.
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/ls # but enable access for forstwire (rosa2014.1)
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/uname # or you might want to allow uname
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/uname #
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/cat # or allow cat
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/cat #
    setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /bin/cd # Do you really think, this is possible? setfacl -m u:surfuser:- /usr/bin/cd #

    directory- and file-attributes

    chattr [ -RVf ] [ -v version ] [ -p project ] [ mode ] files...
    chattr changes the file-attribuntes of a Linux-filesystem.
    Formats of a symbolic mode are +-=[aAcCdDeijsStTu].
    Important options:
    i: integritäty: The file can not be modified or changed..
    -R: recursive: directory including its contents
    c: compression
    u: make undeleteable
    example: chattr +iuS textfile.txt
    list file attributes: lsattr

    MAC Tomoyo Linux for access controled process-ineraction

    So far ACL. Mandatory Access Control (MAC) can also restrict the process-interaction. For this matter, msec (rosa2014.1, mdv2010.2) integrates Tomoyo, that can import various standarized profiles and exceptions. TOMOYO Linux is developed since 2003 sponsored by NTT Data with the project manager Toshiharu Harada.
    TOMOYO like SELinux uses the LSM-interace and is running as a kernel module. Access rights of processes onto each other are controled on the highest system level. Tomoyo was made to protect applications from unknown leaks in security including Zero-Day-Exploits.

    E-mail from, 05.05.2010
    "Hello, sender, how are you? What about decrypting e-mail? You can get my PGP-key from Gooken or by asking a keyserver like hkp:// for Copy and paste the key into a new textfile), then import it into your email-client and kgpg resp. kleopatra or any other pgp. Now we can exchange pgp-decrypted e-mail in the TLS- or SSL-decrypted way.
    Regards, Gooken (looking for email decrypting recipients)"

    Prevent abuse through e-mail getting into effect, by checking sender, contained links, measured spam-probability, missing signatures and certificate, aks for passwords and confidential information, existance of attachments, abstruse offers, origins, origin land and databases collecting such abusive spam and so on to adopt into the spam-filter.

    Keylogging resp. audit trace of commands on the server should be prevented from the sight of the user, so look out for commands like "script -f pathtologfile/keylog.log" within /etc/profile enabling the audit of commands entered in bash. Timestamp for commands typed into the bash-history are set by adding "export HISTTIMEFORMAT=´%F %T ´" in /etc/profile.

    The CCC told in an interview with ARD, documented by a mp4-video by Tagesschau in 2014, about NSA, that managed to decrypt even encrypted email-transfer. This caused in the mixture of spy- resp. malware to software, especially OpenSource and its decryption would protect against.

    Our online-check out of the left menu emphasizes the role of IP and the browser-specification (useragent). In Ipv6 the IP consists of a static natur. With mdv2010 you can still communicate and surf with the dynamic ipv4-address.

    DNS: Unbound is designed as a set of modular components, that incorporate modern features, such as enhanced security (DNSSEC) validation, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), and a client resolver library API as an integral part of the architecture. Originally written for Posix-compatible Unix-like operating system, it runs on FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, Linux and other systems.

    Following the right strategies and concepts answering questions for security software like "what do (not only) UNIX-user really need and need to know to achieve sufficient protection/security for their systems independent from any time?", good reports should focus upon the really needed one and that means upon thousandfold tested surface covering prototypes.

    In security matters we do not talk of what never can or even could be reached like security - but of security-levels. Aspects like additional filtering, more about prevention, data encryption and rescue, ergonomic aspects and many single points and items are treated in step 2 and the checklist. And beginning with the basic one, it is not sufficient, but fundamental (basic), to disable strangers (hacker) on the one site from passing from the outside into the inside to intrude into the system and on the other site to disable masked enemies (rootkits, trojans, spyware,... ) from passing by ("outgoing") sensible information from the inside to the outside. After a restriction of user, groups and activated services within the system-configuration, this is realized by the concepts access-control, file-release for LAN and packet-filter consisting of firewall (which is illustrated here by the project "The Wall" by Christo in the Gasometer of Oberhausen from year 1999 without proclaiming any correspondence in its meaning). In general, access-control remains ineffective, as there is always one and the same user root from the local inside as much as from the outside, that is established with all access-rights.

    So I got my intuition for a native firewall from models like from the mentioned above (where indeed nothing but connected computers from upper areas mark the point of view upon a mysterious wall, that still can be developed for better use of computer-technology) and can be defined as a packet-filter against the intrusion by hacker and the outgoing of most data and much more in general as an instrument for the regulation of traffic online, where fire originates from the block of intrusions by percentages only and dropped packets do not burst off at once. Is there really any need for such walls? At first, you certainly can imagine a need for regulation thinking of all the high-density of known data-highways crashing and therefore trying to "break" in and "steal" out. On this way, OS can be infected by both, hackers and trojans: Many log-protocols in both direction, IN(coming) AND OUT(going), have shown the amount of entries a system can get in conflict with during relative short time. What you see there are many papers full of log-entries with such inputs and outputs in special content including the IP, so that a real, principal demand for good packet-filters indeed can be recorded. Some OS-kernel generally offer

    (No) Defragmentations (at all)

    linfw3-passive the possibilities to build transparent rules, but you have to find out the correct or effective iptables-/ipchains from a set out of a lot of ineffective, bad structured or just false ones. Intelligent file systems like those for UNIX (resp. Linux) do not need any defragmentation as there are quit no fragments created, source. SuSE 7.3 reference manual. The same for SSD no defragmentation can be made for not having any read/write-heads.

    Root-partition with enough memory free

    - Requirement for mdv2010: root-partition with at least 60 Gigabyte
    To free memory from the root-Partition (and in order to care once more for the aimed "mouseclick-fast" work), do the following:
    - Remove all software and packages not needed anymore
    - Move and link directories like doc- and/or man from /usr/share to the home-partition: cp -axf /usr/share/doc /home/user/ and rm -dfr /usr/share/doc; profit: around two Gigabytes
    - Move and link the Webserver-Directory www from /var to the home-Partition
    - Link all temporary-Directories tmp to /tmp: /var/tmp, /usr/tmp, /root/tmp, home/user/tmp,
    - Link the browser-caches from /home/user/.kde4 of Konqueror with /tmp: rm -df /home/surfuser/.kde4/cache-localhost.localdomain and ln -sf /tmp /home/surfuser/.kde4/cache-localhost.localdomain
    - Perorm data-rubbish-deletion with programs like klen, bleachbit (be careful for using this: it might damage the system!), sweeper etc.


    Although in a few OS implemented file-system might prevent intrusions by setting the system-purpose to "server" resp. remote_root_login and root_login to no by msec or a front-end of it, encryption of the magnetic harddisc resp. (flashed) SSD (click here), online-connections, e-mail-transfer and e-mail themselves, file-release within a LAN (local area network) and access-control, sandboxes in small environments especially around the browsers in the case of file-systems with a less powerful one, it is even more possible not only to block, but also to protocol the intensities cracking the access-control at the very beginning and to keep from reading files. Access control prevents from installing malware by the opening of attachements in e-mail and guarantees read-/write protection within a LAN and in important cases even more local freeness of viruses by commands like

    OK chmod 755 upon owner root, optional in conjunction with chattr +i for the integrity of files. Therefore virus-scanner for UNIX(Linux)-Systems are only needed to scan Windows-email. After performing our suggestions marked in greed-LED-color, chmod 700 makes files and directories unreadable from the outside. In conjunciton with Linfw3, for security and invisibility for any views from outside, we recommend the following access rights:

    chmod 555 /; chmod 700 /boot; chmod 700 /boot/grub; chmod 400 /boot/grub/menu.lst; chmod 777 /tmp; chmod 751 /home; chown root ~/.kde4; chgrp root ~/.kde4; chmod 701 ~/.kde4; chown root -R /home/user/.thumbnails; chmod 000 -R /home/user/.thumbnails, chmod 751 /mnt; chown root:root /etc/fstab*; chmod 600 /etc/fstab*; chmod 755 /usr; chmod 755 /etc; chmod 700 -R /etc/init.d; chmod 711 /opt; chmod 700 /usr/src; chmod 600 /etc/mtab*; chmod 600 /etc/cypttab*; chmod 711 /media; chown user:user /home/user/Texte; ...; chmod 700 /home/user/Texte; chmod 700 /home/user/Bilder; ...; chmod 711 /media; chmod 700 -R /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/*; chown user:user -R /home/user/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail/*

    rest chmod 755, eventually less, directories for the e-mail accounts chmod 700. Access-rights for the userdirectories under directory home might depend on an iptables based firewall as it does by the firewall LINFW3 we introduce below, foreclosed chmod 750 or chmod 700, alternatively all by umask, each boot time guaranteed by MCC, section security, access-rights.

    Mandatory ACL (so called mandatory access control lists): SELinux and Tomoyo Linux enhance and sharpen the concept of access control by ACLs upon domains, a structure consisting of processes and their parents to get registered and tested and in the next step blocked from other processes and owners. Therefore that also works upon files like the well-known common access control depicted before. mdv2010 emphasize Tomoyo more than SELinux through belonging sections in the MCC under a small refinement in mdv2010.1, making it more transparent and handle. Read details about Tomoyo from a link to the detailed manual from our linksite. Nevertheless in our opinion such additional concepts can be a little bit confusing for users by unwanted blocking of processes (resp. executable files) of processes (files) and are almost not resp. rarely needed to achieve the promised high IT-security-level. Many server like Apache and Squid do add their own ACL to the common access control resp. iptables rules too

    The partition with mountpoint root, the root-partition can not be encrypted. Ideally, create such at least ext2-partition consisting of /boot with especially the ramdisk (initrd), bootmanager, kernel vmlinuz and configuration-file only. Now you can encrypt quit the whole hard-disk with methods like AES, Serpent, Two- or Blowfish. Partitions inclusive swap can also be password encrypted by the partition-manager out of the system-configuration resp. direct entries in /etc/fstab, special commands as much as loop-devices for virtual partitions upon regular files, while newer versions prefer LUKE, see links. Notice, that newer Linux-versions might not support the handy Loop-AES-encyption by the partition-manager anymore to encrypt the complete harddisc resp. partitions by methods like dm-crypt/LUKS, who can also encrypt root-partitions (the main-partition with the UNIX/Linux, such with mountpoint /) and therefore the entire harddrive except /boot, see prelonging link from our linkside. To encrypt the SWAP with Loop-AES, you need the packages resp. tarballs for loop-aes, losetup, aescrypt, cryptcat and/or util-linux for that. Most of them might be already installed.

    deactivation: swapoff -a
    device-configuration-file fstab out of directory /etc: swap-device-file swap swap sw,loop0,encryption=AES128 0 0, with a device-file for this SWAP-partition like /dev/sda6
    overwrite of the old swap-partition: dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda6 bs=64k conv=notrunc
    create: mkswap /dev/sda6
    activation: swapon -a

    for the encryption of the swap-partition.

    With dd it is also possible to create an image from CD/DVD:

    dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/cdimage.img

    or to secure and restore the MBR:

    dd if=/dev/sdx of=/mnt/sdx.mbr bs=512 count=1 to secure the MBR of harddrive sdx
    dd if=/mnt/sdx.mbr of=/dev/sdx bs=512 count=1 to restore the MBR of harddrive sdx

    Same with partitions:

    dd if=/dev/hdax | gzip > /mnt/image.gz to secure a complete partition by dd in the type gz
    gunzip -c /mnt/image.gz | dd of=/dev/hdax to restore the secured partition

    Releases in the LAN: howto connect Linux and Windows

    Release within the LAN: Howto connect Windows & Linux computers,, 08.11.2015
    The file-manager of Linux supports releases of directories within the context menu
    Both, Linux and Windows cooperate well in networks. With the right software and configuration data exchange in both directions will be no problem.
    SMB/CIFS is the name of the standard-protcol for windows for releases within the network. It enables Linux, Android and Mac OS X its possiblities too. SMB stands for the "Server Message Block"-protocol. It origins from IBM and the further development under the name CIFS (Common Internet File System) of Microsoft. It is used whenever Windows provides files in the network for the other users or if they want to access them.
    Instead of this, Samba delivers Linux-systems functions for such releases. Samba consits of a client and a Server. The client is installed for most Linux-distributions and allows the access of the releases of other hosts. Some distributions make the installation of Samba for server still essential. Then Linux is able to release directories and files even for Windows-user over the network, details:

    ddrescue [ -options ] infile outfile


    Command line
    Terminal-Tuning,, 03.01.2016
    There are many ways to configure the terminal to make it perfect and pretty.

    So we type into ~/.bashrc:
    alias hi=´echo Hi! How are you?´
    alias hallo=´echo Hi! How are you?´


    Now we describe a typical session with UNIX/Linux (mdv2010). The commands named


    help to find out your (and some other) username resp. the groups (GID) you (as the user with your own UID) all ought to belong to. Whoami or "who -m" make especially sense, if one changes between different users or root to an fro, while the prompt does not show the user name.

    who -a



    inform about the UID and GID one ownes and about all the groups, one as the user is membered., 18.02.2016: "Whoami should not be confounded with "who" listing all user actually logged into the system. After who is entered, all logged-in user together with the login-devices are listed by day and time. With "who -a" this listing becomes more complex, the login-time is listed too for example. One alternative for the command who is provided by the command "id" from above.
    "last" lists all user that have been logged in for the last time.

    So what"s your name then, computer?

    uname -a

    ... Braggart!

    Where am I? Tell me the pathname:


    ls or dir list directories and files (notice, that directories within a path are separated by a simple slash "/" and not an additional pressing of the ALT-key requiring "\" like in MS Windows, cd: change directiory, "cd -" means: change to the pregoing directory right before the actual directory, "cd .." move to the upper dirctory, "cd ." move to resp. remain within the actual directory rm: delete files, rm -dfr: deletes files and directories including all subdirectories and their files, cp copies them. Important options, explained by "man cp" are -ax and -f. mkdir newdirectoryname creates a new directory, that can be deleted with rmdir newdirectoryname again, if it is empty. "cat filename" lists the include of the file named filename, especially for text-files, and "cat filename1 filename2 > newfilename" concatonates file with filename 1 with the file named by filename2 into the file named by newfilename.

    Are there any processes killing the ressources, even zombies, so that we have to take care for their updates? ESC&ALT, pstree or:
    ps -All

    Packagekit with more than 43 % memory ressources has to be removed from our computer.

    Now we are building up the network connection to the internet. either by clicking upon the net_applet, we should have compared the size of the coded source with ago, or by typing:

    ifup eth0

    DNS: (dnsmasq). Scan for viruses and remove them:

    clamscan --remove=all -r /home/<userdirectory>/.kde4/share/apps/kmail/mail

    Always boot in the explicit text mode (MCC -> Systemstart -> graphical boot -> text). How did the booting ago, any failures, any packages to update? There should be not any delays, errors and warnings during the boot of mdv2010, almost signed by OK, same during the shutdown (rpm usermode and usermode-consoleonly). So have a look into the systemlog /var/log/messages, MCC -> System -> view logfile or type into terminal

    If problems occur, press the key "i" for the interactive mode after udev has started. The display manager "dm" has to be disbaled to solve problems with the X-server. One can use especially editor nano to reconfigure files. The orange and blue colored Mandriva-star-logo should always appear on top on terminal after the system logout.

    Like every good company, Linux consists of at least two "departments": one for the crew, one for the boss (root, Sysadmin). For other bosses might want to achieve more rights than the boss getting used to, bosses have to be very carefully. Make fast terminal-operations: If you press key F1 up to F6, the full-screened terminal with the Mandriva-Logo upper left corner is apperaring for "parallel" works on belonging screen tty1 up to tty6. If you press F7, the old graphical modus returns right to the state before such function-keys are pressed and so on. Another thing to remember is, that you should forbid root to login (local graphically by kdm or gdm and so on). If the root-mode is started manually for the first time, dialog might appear to make some requests for the graphic-card and driver. In this situation, you have to press the WINDOWS-Key to move on resp. to get back into the graphic-root-mode.

    Start Apache Webserver:

    Start MySQL (in the Root-Modus) as user root on localhost):
    msyqld; mysql -h localhost -u root -p

    Are there actually any other ones within the LAN? finger. I see... So list the last 50 users that already logged in, who faild login (lastb) and if there should be ever, tell me exactly when:

    last -n 50, lastb and lastlog or last -t 20110831172600

    To review recent logins, if the login is from a remote location, it will be associated with a specific IP address outside your network:


    We are creating a pdf for the manual of bash (shell-language UNIX-sh resp. bash) over postscript out of man by using a converter:

    utmpdump /var/log/wtmp | less
    man -t bash>; ps2pdf

    Searching for files resp. char-sequences within: find, kfind, gtkfind, catfish, grep, ugrep, egrep, sgrep (like grep, but it searches for structured pattern), ngrep (like grep, but for network, within data payloads of packages), ... . With ...

    tre-agrep -2 "search-termf" filename.txt

    you are starting in Debian/Ubuntu a search as by grep for the "searched char-sequence" within the file "filename.txt" for the char-sequences with up to two differences. In this example the tolerance is set by the parameter "-2". Allowed is any value between "-0" and "-9", where the "-" marks the parameter and not any kind of minus. In Open Suse, Fedora (mdv2010) and all Red-Hat-variants the program name is "agrep" without the prefix "tre"", but functions and parameters are the same ones.

    Beneath package-database-queries through "rpm -qi package-name" for package-info like summary and description, "rpm -qa" and "rpm -qf", the Khelpcenter (kdehelpcenter), kinfocenter and our UNIX-System-Command-Reference with LED-green marked out security-commands this is a quit important manual resp. directory in future!

    Autostart should be set in /usr/share/autostart or K-menu -> systemsettings -> user -> Autostart or through the gnome-control-center. There programs can be activated, deactivated, added and removed.

    Router-protection, free choice of the DNS-Server

    So sichern Sie Ihren Router ab,, 23.07.2012 | 13:22 Uhr
    Wenn Hacker Ihren Router kapern, können sie Ihre Daten ausspähen, Ihre Internetverbindung missbrauchen und Sie auf gefälschte Internetseiten umlenken. Schützen Sie sich jetzt! Ihr Router ist das Datendrehkreuz, durch das alle Daten fließen, die Sie innerhalb Ihres lokalen Netzwerks von einem PC auf einen anderen übertragen. Außerdem läuft der gesamte Internetverkehr Ihres Netzwerks durch diese Box. Umso wichtiger ist es, dass die Einstellungen Ihres Routers und der Zugang zur Ihrem WLAN geschützt sind. Ansonsten kann Ihr Internet mitbenutzt und auf alle freigegebenen Daten zugegriffen werden. Schlimmstenfalls konfiguriert Malware Ihren Router um und setzt etwa einen manipulierten DNS-Server ein, der Ihre Internetzugriffe umlenkt. Das kann Ihnen nicht passieren? Seien Sie vorsichtig!
    DNS-Hack: Anfang September hat eine türkische Hacker-Gruppe die DNS-Einträge einiger Domain-Registraren gehackt und so den Internet-Traffic zu den Seiten von UPS, Vodafone, National Geografic, Acer und weiteren teilweise umgelenkt.
    Speedport-Hack: Ende August wurde bekannt, dass mehrere von T-Online und Vodafone verkaufte WLAN-Router ab Werk einen unsicheren WPA-Schlüssel voreingestellt hatten. Zwei Studenten fanden das System heraus, mit dem der Schlüssel erzeugt wird, und konnten so den Schlüssel jedes Geräts dieser Modellreihen ermitteln.
    Gooken empfiehlt die Verwendung lokal in /etc/resolv.conf frei eintragbarer DNS-Server anstelle der beiden DNS aus der Konfigurationsdatei des Routers und desgleichen. Über Verbindungsverwaltung aus MCC entscheidet man sich für die Verwendung der lokalen DNS. Netzwerkverbindungen lassen sich übrigens mit Contrack aus LINFW3, iptraf und netstat -n angeben.
    PC-WELT zeigt hier, wie Sie Ihr WLAN und Ihren Router vor Angriffen schützen. Die Vorgehensweise wird anhand einer Fritzbox 7240 erläutert. Die Optionen und Menüs können bei Ihrem Router etwas abweichen.
    Wer surft gerade in Ihrem WLAN-Netz?
    Beim einfachsten Weg, um herauszufinden, ob Ihr Router oder Ihr WLAN-Schlüssel geknackt wurde, prüfen Sie, ob gerade ein Fremder mit Ihrem Netzwerk verbunden ist. WLAN-Verbindungen auflisten: Auf einem Computer, mit dem Sie in Ihrem WLAN verbunden sind, starten Sie dazu das Programm Wireless Network Watcher . Das Programm listet daraufhin die IP-Adressen, die Gerätenamen, die Hersteller und die MAC-Adressen zu allen Geräten auf, die gerade mit Ihrem Netzwerk verbunden sind - verkabelt oder kabellos. Sollten das mehr sein, als Sie in Ihrem Haushalt aktuell nutzen, surft ein Fremder mit. Dann sollten Sie schnell handeln.
    Wireless Network Watcher

    DNS: changing the DNS...

    Instruction for Debian- and mdv-Linux

    DNS von CCC:
    Changing the DNS to an anonymizing one: ( (CCC - Chaos Computer Club Hamburg e.V.) (names.zrz.TU-Berlin.DE) ( ( (techfac.TechFak.Uni-Bielefeld.DE) ( ( ( ( ( ( (FoeBud)
    2001:4f8:0:2::14 (, IPv6, ISC) (; Berlin/Frankfurt)

    DNS-Server-Liste: - Öffentlicher DNS Server der Telekom, Arcor, 1&1, ...

    0) mdv2010: MCC, simple by configuring established connections and by setting your own DNS instead of DNS from the router
    or other methods like:
    a) DNS by your computer (host), recommended: Set the both DNS in the system-configuration (mdv: drakconf). Change or add both DNS in LINFW3 (also after b) and c)).
    b) DNS by router (resp. gateway): Call the GUI for the router-configuration like If the option for DNS is missing: 1. export the router-configuration by securing into a file, 2. change both DNS in this filei, 3. backup: Import the file, 4. restart the connection by the GUI
    b) methode from CCC: Change the DNS in /etc/resolv.conf:
    If nscd is installed, type
    > /etc/init.d/nscd restart

    A fast, (local) cacheing DNS-server can be configured with dnsmasq too: . Notice, that in /etc/resolv.conf both, nameserver DNS-ip and "nameserver", are entered.Adavatage: the IP is only asked one time the requested domain.

    OK At first the file dnsmasq.conf within directory /etc should be configured:

    nano /etc/dnsmasq.conf or (creating a new configuration file):
    touch /etc/dnsmasq.conf
    Then this file should be opened:
    sudo nano /etc/dnsmasq.conf
    Comment out the following five rows or type them in:

    The entry "listen-address" administrates Dnsmasq to make local requests by the address localhost ( on port 53 only. Host names out of the LAN are not forwarded to other DNS-server by the option "domain-needed", and "bogus-priv" avoids the resolution of IP-addresses from private subnets (192.168.x.x, 10.x.x.x).
    Compact DNS-Server: Dnsmasq as a DNS-Cache requires these eight lines only, last three lines are optional, but cache-size has to be set for cacheing - no caching possible without.
    The link "resolv-file" is refering to another configuraiton file "/etc/resolv.dnsmasq", that still has to be created. In this file you enter the IP-address of the (real) DNS-Server like of the provider or the router. The network-interface should also be set and no-negcache cares for cacheing even on errors, what should be kep optional. With
    sudo touch /etc/resolv.dnsmasq
    this second configuration file is created. Open it with a text editor like nano and enter the addresses of the DNS-Server, dnsmasq needs to resolve the domains. For stationary PCs within local networks the DNS-Server-addresses of the provider resp. of the router ( should be set.
    To be more concrete, what DNS-addresses to take, use the following command:

    cat /etc/resolv.conf
    Behind "nameserver" the IP to take are shown. For example, if "" for the address of a Fritzbox is shown, all to enter into the file "/etc/resolv.dnsmasq" is
    For computers using changing DNS-Server within other LAN/WLANs, the address of a fast public DNS-Server has to be entered as a last ending line too.
    Howto start dnsmasq:
    dnsmasq is started depending from the usage of systemd or not in different ways by one of the the commands: sh /etc/init.d/dnsmasq start resp. MCC->system services or, if systemd is not used by
    sudo systemctl enable dnsmasq.service
    sudo systemctl restart dnsmasq.service
    Now /etc/resolv.conf has to be configured by text editors like nano, so that dnsmasq can can forward dns-name-resolution to external DNS-server. Either the network connection has to be reconfigured by system control resp. MCC or directly within /etc/resolv.conf. Go sure, that the local DNS-server (dnsmasq) is entered within the first line at first (, followed by the lines for the other DNS-server, consisting of at last one .An example for the forwarding to the DNS-cache of the Fritz-Box is:
    Be careful for WICD. resolv.conf is admininstrated automatically resp. overwritten. Therefore the static DNS must be set in this certain order only.
    If NetworkManager is used, resolv.conf does not have to be overworked manually. The network connection within the Networkmanager can be set to "automatic (DHCP), addresses only" or to "manuell".Now IP-addresses of up to three DNS-server can be set - separated by colon - into the belonging field. After this is stored, all is written into resolv.conf.
    Check out if local cacheing is possible:
    ;; Query time: 0 msec
    ;; SERVER:

    Nothing more has to be configured anymore, if dnsmasq is just working as a DNS-Server. Computers within the LAN that shall use this DNS-Server have to be configured in such way, that they really use this server.

    Router-Update: AVM keeps his promise, to extend the Fritzbox-firmware with new functions by updates form time to time ( so that itself is protected and firewalls like Linfw3 get supplemented ). What all is provided by the new version, is described here:
    Any good router has got its own router-firewall. The new version is also able to block pings. "Internet -> Filter -> Listen" enpossibles the stealth-Modus. Attacker use the ping-command, in order to scan ports and ip address ranges, if a device reacts by a confirmation (ACK-)package,, 05.11.2015,

    Significant commands for net-diagnostics:
    administration of network-interfaces:


    Listing of such net-interfaces, adminsistration of network-interfaces, list them at first:

    ip addr

    xset q

    helps to reconfigure the X-server

    inxi -i or more complex information by: inxi -v7

    shows not only the local IP-address but also the daily changing public (WAN-)IP. Therefore inxi should be installed by the self-named rpm inxi for mdv2010..

    ifconfig eth0 down

    switches the adapter, here ethernet-adapter "eth0" on (up) and off (down).

    ifconfig eth0

    postulates a new local ip-address from the router. Althoug this command can cause an inconsistent net-configuration, ccess to the front-end of the router is provided. There a wished local domain can be set by an unchangeable ip.

    List WLAN-Data (although one should better resign from WLAN...)


    Information about the WLAN-interface:


    More information about the wireless interfaces like bluetooth, WLAN and UMTS: with rfkill you can switch on (unblock) and off (block) wireless interfaces like bluetooth and WLAN, but also UMTS. The power-consumption can be declined and unnecessary lacks in security be closed by this:

    rfkill block 0

    Check a single network-connection:

    ping -I interface ip

    or check out a complete area (subnet):

    nmap -sP 192.168.0.*

    This command sends pings to all 255 addresses of the ipv4-addressroom with a list as a result.of net-devices with their host names and ip-addresses.. Complete portscans are made by nmap without parameters: for each host following information are provided: host name, ip-address, MAC-address and a list of opened ports. A single host can be queried by nmap or nmap raspberry ).

    Show the mac- and belonging ip-addresses:


    Show built-up network-connections:

    netstat -o

    netstat -arn

    IP-Adresse of the gateway (flag U: active, G: gateway):

    route -n

    Resolve the IP-address :


    Up- and downloads can be made without browser, ssh- and ftp-client:

    wget -r -l8 and wput *

    wput works recursive traverse the subdirectories too: Wildcard "*" takes care of all files of the actual directory including their subdirectories. Curl is another method for uploads and downloads, but does not work recursive.

    Does a connection not function, for example block transfer and what is the host causing this? Does a referred connection station in any foreign hosts? The way of a connection can be checked out by:

    tcptraceroute [options] host

    where host stands for any finally targeted hostname or end-address-IP.

    Serious hard network-problems:, 29.09.2015: "Networks consist of various hard- and software-components, so the causes according to this fact. Systematic error-analysis isolate the error and help to repair on the right place. It is not easy to find out, what causes the network-problems. The error can cause in the DSL-router, in the cabling, at a switch or in the WLAN-configuration of the router. There might be a network-adpapter out of order or the network is not configured well in Linux. So only systematic analysis do help against plenty of possible causes:

    Why does the net-communication not function, what is the cause? Where do other computer contact and surf to, and how intensive are the contacts? What are the communication-protocols of ISO-OSI-RM are used? And how much traffic (packets) do such clients and server proclaim for themselves, so that other ones do have to restrict their needs?

    In order to solve such network-problems, tools like wirehark (prev. ethereal) are useful too:

    su - surfuser; sg surfgroup wireshark


    We can not remember ever having such problems with mdv2010: You even seem not need to configure anything for networking with DSL-cable-routers or DSL-modems, if you use the quick auto-configuring MCC wizard for network-interfaces, configuration time: we needed just 10 up to 60 seconds (... but think of VPN). Hugh networks conflict almost in the gateway resp. router, samba.conf, httpd.conf of the Apache Webserver, host.deny, host.allow, resolv.conf and all the ethenet-cards of the LAN-clients. Simple structured firewalls like Linfw3 do their best against more confusion. Network-administrators work with documents like netplans and so on. SuSE Linux 7.3 was handled with four books: reference, configuration, programs and networking. Aternatively, the infocentrum deals with this theme too. PC-magazins often describe specific howto.

    Oh, my password seems to be old. I change it by


    or gpasswd. Before doing this, I´d like, it should be suggested, most likely an encypted one by makepasswd. But now I can not recognize my own password... Now I am going to talk to some other users listed, but I do not like to send an e-mail: mesg y and talk somewhat.

    talk charly (or charly@anyhost) laberlaber

    It is userful, it is simple: "The talk-server package provides daemon programs for the Internet talk protocol, which allows you to chat with other users on different machines. Talk is a communication program which copies lines from one terminal to the terminal of another user."

    And how long did I work with the computer by now? Just type "up" or


    Copy files by command cp and move them by command mv. Popular options for the command cp are "-f" and "-ax", see "man cp", for ls "-al". If the computer should list his executable files, change dircetories by cd and list them out by ls. ls should be piped with more, if the amount ist too high, in order to get a better view upon them within the terminal:

    ls -al /bin /sbin /usr/bin /usr/sbin /usr/games/bin | more

    If package sl (for el6 or mdv2010) is installed, a steam lock is shown on the terminal each time command "ls" is accidently permuted with "sl".

    The update-Listing from pro-linux-de recommends the update of the bash, so we look out for the installed package to find out the version and requirements:

    rpm -qi --requires packet_nam_includinge_the_version_if_more_than_this_one_package_is_installed

    Do this each time before making any installs and updates!
    We want to look out for a file named whatiwrote.txt traverse the subdirectories of dokuments up to the seach-depth 5. Programs like kfind present a graphical frontend, but we try to seach independent from blocking access-rights by using the command find":

    find -L /home/user/documents -maxdepth 5 whatiwrote.txt

    Memory used and memory free:

    df -ah

    Such Programs out of /bin, /usr/bin/, /games/bin and so on are started listing important error-messages either by typing

    "./executable_filename", "executalbe_filename" resp. "path_to_their_executalbe_filename/exec_filename" or "/./path_to_their_executable_filename"

    In serious hard cases check all package-dependencies by rpm -qi --requires packagename or use prefix strace for execution:

    "strace ./executable_filename", strace "executalbe_filename" resp. "strace path_to_their_executalbe_filename/exec_filename" or " strace /./path_to_their_executable_filename"

    or use gdb:

    gdb --arg ./executable_file arguments -> run -> show debug

    After we all have typed in
    man command
    info bash

    one is allowed to laugh about any further questions about UNIX/Linux.

    Autostart can be configured in KDE and Gnome graphically by setting checkboxes and adding and administrating items:


    There, in mdv2010, we recognize a programm namely to provide video- and audio-codecs and therefore without any plausible function for the autostart listed, that we might going to remove like package (rpm) xguest too. Rootkit-hunter rkhunter indicates one warning after the other one after mdv2010 got updated well and consumps too many cpu-ressources for our taste, after he got started self-automated by msec and other processes from time to time. So we prefer the rootkit-hunter chkrootkit only:

    rpm -e codeina; rpm -e billreminder; rpm -e tracker; rpm -e mdkonline; rpm -e rkhunter

    We deleted rpm mdkonline, billreminder and tracker this way too.

    If you want to know any addresses from a database of milliards of records and all this in detail like name, street, city, country, telephone, owner, technique, instance for abuse, email-addresses and so on, the terminal can already do its best by just typing

    whois IP_or_domain

    Do not forget to start all network-commands listed here by "su - surfuser" followed by "sg surfgroup network-command", if you use LINFW3.


    host is a command, that is already installed. If lists the IP-Adresse of a web-domain only. To get more information, install and use whois by rpm.

    newstart by terminal:

    shutdown by terminal:

    start the X-(Graphic-card-)Server:

    Editors, that do not need X started, are ed, vi, cream (simplifying frontend for) vim and especially

    Installation of a tarball (tar.gz-, bz2- and zip-archives and others depending on instructions from file INSTALL):

    ./configure --prefix=/usr && make && make install

    Continuation of this excurs: please click here!

    Once described how and howto, you know everything too!



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